Where We Stand

The Strategic Assessment of the St. Louis Region

The Where We Stand (WWS) series produced by East-West Gateway (EWG) has provided comparisons of the St. Louis region with other large metropolitan areas since 1992. WWS ranks St. Louis among the 50 most populous Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) in the United States (the peer regions) on a broad range of topics important to the region.

In November of 2018, EWG published the eighth edition of WWS coupled with an expanded webpage. Explore this webpage to find more on where St. Louis stands among its peer metropolitan regions. Email us at wws@ewgateway.org with feedback, questions, or to subscribe to our email list.

Note: Acrobat Reader is required to view many of the files on this page.

Where We Stand 8th Edition

Where We Stand – 8th Edition

The eighth edition focuses on three topic areas that are strategic priorities for EWG and regional partners. In May of 2018, the EWG Board of Directors along with representative from the business and non-profit sectors affirmed that economic development, workforce development, and public safety are three areas that require a regional collaborative effort. The 130 metrics in this edition pertain to these focus areas. An introductory chapter on demographics is also included to provide an overview of the population of St. Louis and the peer regions.

Where We Stand Updates, White Papers, and Technical Reports

EWG staff produces several types of reports that complement the main publication. Where We Stand Updates, White Papers, and Technical Reports are periodically released to update St. Louis’ standing based on new data, provide further insight on a specific topic, or provide more detail on methodologies used in the calculations for Where We Stand reports.

8th Edition Updates
8th Edition White Papers
8th Edition Technical Reports
7th Edition Updates

Where We Stand Data

WWS tables that appear in the eighth edition of WWS as well as tables included in previous editions are grouped here by topic areas. EWG will update these tables on a periodic basis. If you are interested in updated data for a Where We Stand table that you viewed previously, please contact us at wws@ewgateway.org.

Demographics

Shifts in demographics pose challenges to the St. Louis region as well as opportunities. This section provides data on the region’s population change, an aging population, the growing immigrant population, the proportion of the population with disabilities, and the composition of households. See page 1 of Where We Stand 8th Edition for further discussion. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

St. Louis has been experiencing slow population growth, but the most recent estimates show a small decline in the MSA population. Both domestic migration and natural change contribute to the decrease. International migration has continued to increase in recent years. St. Louis has a relatively high proportion of adults who have served in the military. See Where We Stand 8th Edition Update 9 for the most recent detailed discussion on the region’s population.

Population
2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates *Hartford MSA is currently not included.
United States 333,287,557
1 New York 19,617,869
2 Los Angeles 12,872,322
3 Chicago 9,441,957
4 Dallas 7,943,685
5 Houston 7,340,118
6 Washington, D.C. 6,373,756
7 Philadelphia 6,241,164
8 Atlanta 6,222,106
9 Miami 6,139,340
10 Phoenix 5,015,678
11 Boston 4,900,550
12 Riverside 4,667,558
13 San Francisco 4,579,599
14 Detroit 4,345,761
15 Seattle 4,034,248
16 Minneapolis 3,693,729
17 Tampa 3,290,730
18 San Diego 3,276,208
19 Denver 2,985,871
20 Baltimore 2,835,672
21 St. Louis 2,801,319
22 Orlando 2,764,182
23 Charlotte 2,756,069
24 San Antonio 2,655,342
25 Portland 2,509,489
26 Austin 2,421,115
27 Sacramento 2,416,702
28 Pittsburgh 2,349,172
29 Las Vegas 2,322,985
30 Cincinnati 2,265,051
31 Kansas City 2,209,494
32 Columbus 2,161,511
33 Indianapolis 2,141,779
34 Cleveland 2,063,132
35 Nashville 2,046,828
36 San Jose 1,938,524
37 Virginia Beach 1,806,840
38 Jacksonville 1,675,668
39 Providence 1,673,802
40 Milwaukee 1,559,792
41 Raleigh 1,484,338
42 Oklahoma City 1,459,380
43 Richmond 1,339,182
44 Memphis 1,332,305
45 Louisville 1,284,553
46 Salt Lake City 1,266,191
47 New Orleans 1,246,176
48 Buffalo 1,161,192
49 Birmingham 1,116,857
Population Change
Percent change, 2010-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates *Hartford MSA is currently not included.
1 Austin 40.2
2 Raleigh 30.5
3 Orlando 29.2
4 Dallas 24.3
5 Jacksonville 24.2
6 Nashville 24.0
7 Houston 23.4
8 San Antonio 23.3
9 Charlotte 22.5
10 Phoenix 19.3
11 Las Vegas 19.0
12 Tampa 18.0
13 Atlanta 17.3
14 Seattle 17.0
15 Denver 16.9
16 Oklahoma City 16.0
17 Salt Lake City 16.0
18 Columbus 13.4
19 Indianapolis 13.2
20 Richmond 12.7
21 Portland 12.4
22 Washington, D.C. 12.2
23 Sacramento 12.2
24 Minneapolis 10.6
25 Riverside 10.0
26 Miami 10.0
27 Kansas City 9.7
United States 7.7
28 Boston 7.3
29 Louisville 6.6
30 Cincinnati 5.8
31 San Diego 5.6
32 San Francisco 5.4
33 San Jose 5.3
34 Virginia Beach 5.2
35 Birmingham 5.2
36 Philadelphia 4.5
37 Baltimore 4.4
38 Providence 4.4
39 New Orleans 4.3
40 New York 3.7
41 Buffalo 2.3
42 Detroit 1.3
43 Memphis 1.1
44 St. Louis 0.4
45 Los Angeles 0.3
46 Milwaukee 0.2
47 Chicago -0.3
48 Pittsburgh -0.3
49 Cleveland -0.6
Population Change
Percent change, 2021-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates *Hartford MSA is currently not included.
1 Austin 2.7
2 Orlando 2.4
3 Raleigh 2.3
4 Dallas 2.2
5 Jacksonville 2.1
6 San Antonio 1.9
7 Tampa 1.9
8 Charlotte 1.8
9 Nashville 1.8
10 Houston 1.7
11 Phoenix 1.5
12 Atlanta 1.3
13 Las Vegas 1.2
14 Oklahoma City 1.1
15 Richmond 0.9
16 Columbus 0.7
17 Indianapolis 0.6
18 Miami 0.5
19 Riverside 0.5
20 Seattle 0.4
21 Sacramento 0.4
United States 0.4
22 Kansas City 0.3
23 Denver 0.3
24 Salt Lake City 0.2
25 Cincinnati 0.2
26 Washington, D.C. 0.1
27 Minneapolis 0.1
28 Virginia Beach 0.1
29 San Diego 0.0
30 Louisville 0.0
31 Birmingham -0.0
32 Boston -0.1
33 Providence -0.2
34 Philadelphia -0.2
35 Milwaukee -0.2
36 Memphis -0.2
37 Baltimore -0.3
38 Portland -0.4
39 St. Louis -0.4
40 Buffalo -0.4
41 Detroit -0.5
42 Cleveland -0.5
43 Pittsburgh -0.7
44 San Jose -0.8
45 Los Angeles -0.8
46 New York -0.8
47 San Francisco -0.8
48 Chicago -0.8
49 New Orleans -1.3
Natural Change
Births minus deaths as a percent of 2021 population, 2021-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates *Hartford MSA is currently not included.
1 Salt Lake City 0.6
2 Austin 0.6
3 Houston 0.6
4 Dallas 0.5
5 Raleigh 0.5
6 Washington, D.C. 0.5
7 San Jose 0.4
8 San Diego 0.4
9 Denver 0.3
10 Minneapolis 0.3
11 Seattle 0.3
12 Atlanta 0.3
13 San Antonio 0.3
14 San Francisco 0.3
15 New York 0.3
16 Riverside 0.3
17 Charlotte 0.3
18 Nashville 0.3
19 Columbus 0.2
20 Sacramento 0.2
21 Indianapolis 0.2
22 Los Angeles 0.2
23 Virginia Beach 0.2
24 Orlando 0.2
25 Kansas City 0.2
26 Boston 0.2
27 Phoenix 0.2
28 Chicago 0.1
29 Oklahoma City 0.1
30 Baltimore 0.1
31 Memphis 0.1
32 Las Vegas 0.1
33 Portland 0.1
34 Richmond 0.1
35 Milwaukee 0.1
United States 0.1
36 New Orleans 0.1
37 Cincinnati 0.1
38 Philadelphia 0.0
39 Jacksonville 0.0
40 Miami 0.0
41 Providence -0.1
42 Louisville -0.1
43 Birmingham -0.1
44 Detroit -0.1
45 St. Louis -0.1
46 Buffalo -0.1
47 Tampa -0.2
48 Cleveland -0.3
49 Pittsburgh -0.4
Net Migration
Percent of 2021 population, 2021-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates *Hartford MSA is currently not included.
1 Orlando 2.2
2 Tampa 2.1
3 Jacksonville 2.0
4 Austin 2.0
5 Raleigh 1.8
6 Dallas 1.6
7 San Antonio 1.6
8 Charlotte 1.5
9 Nashville 1.5
10 Phoenix 1.3
11 Houston 1.2
12 Las Vegas 1.1
13 Oklahoma City 1.0
14 Atlanta 1.0
15 Richmond 0.9
16 Miami 0.5
17 Columbus 0.5
18 Indianapolis 0.4
United States 0.3
19 Cincinnati 0.2
20 Riverside 0.2
21 Seattle 0.2
22 Sacramento 0.2
23 Kansas City 0.1
24 Louisville 0.1
25 Birmingham 0.1
26 Denver -0.0
27 Providence -0.1
28 Virginia Beach -0.1
29 Cleveland -0.2
30 Philadelphia -0.2
31 Boston -0.2
32 Milwaukee -0.3
33 Pittsburgh -0.3
34 Minneapolis -0.3
35 Buffalo -0.3
36 St. Louis -0.3
37 San Diego -0.3
38 Salt Lake City -0.3
39 Memphis -0.3
40 Washington, D.C. -0.3
41 Detroit -0.4
42 Baltimore -0.4
43 Portland -0.4
44 Chicago -1.0
45 Los Angeles -1.0
46 San Francisco -1.1
47 New York -1.1
48 San Jose -1.2
49 New Orleans -1.4
Net International Migration
Percent of 2021 population, 2021-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates *Hartford MSA is currently not included.
1 Miami 1.1
2 San Jose 0.9
3 Orlando 0.8
4 Seattle 0.7
5 Boston 0.7
6 Washington, D.C. 0.7
7 Houston 0.7
8 San Francisco 0.6
9 New York 0.5
10 Dallas 0.5
11 Austin 0.4
12 Columbus 0.4
13 Tampa 0.4
14 Charlotte 0.4
15 Raleigh 0.4
16 Las Vegas 0.4
17 Sacramento 0.4
18 Atlanta 0.4
19 Los Angeles 0.3
20 Richmond 0.3
21 Phoenix 0.3
22 Indianapolis 0.3
United States 0.3
23 New Orleans 0.3
24 Chicago 0.3
25 Providence 0.3
26 Minneapolis 0.3
27 San Diego 0.3
28 Philadelphia 0.3
29 Jacksonville 0.3
30 Detroit 0.3
31 Salt Lake City 0.3
32 Portland 0.2
33 Baltimore 0.2
34 Cincinnati 0.2
35 Denver 0.2
36 Virginia Beach 0.2
37 Milwaukee 0.2
38 Buffalo 0.2
39 San Antonio 0.2
40 Cleveland 0.2
41 Nashville 0.2
42 Kansas City 0.2
43 Louisville 0.2
44 St. Louis 0.2
45 Oklahoma City 0.2
46 Pittsburgh 0.1
47 Memphis 0.1
48 Riverside 0.1
49 Birmingham 0.1
Net Domestic Migration
Percent of 2021 population, 2021-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates *Hartford MSA is currently not included.
1 Jacksonville 1.8
2 Tampa 1.7
3 Austin 1.6
4 San Antonio 1.4
5 Orlando 1.4
6 Raleigh 1.4
7 Nashville 1.3
8 Dallas 1.2
9 Charlotte 1.1
10 Phoenix 1.0
11 Oklahoma City 0.8
12 Las Vegas 0.7
13 Atlanta 0.6
14 Richmond 0.5
15 Houston 0.5
16 Indianapolis 0.1
17 Riverside 0.1
18 Columbus 0.1
19 Birmingham -0.0
20 Cincinnati -0.0
21 Kansas City -0.1
22 Louisville -0.1
23 Sacramento -0.2
24 Denver -0.3
Peer Average -0.3
25 Virginia Beach -0.3
26 Providence -0.4
27 Pittsburgh -0.4
28 Cleveland -0.4
29 Memphis -0.4
30 St. Louis -0.5
31 Milwaukee -0.5
32 Buffalo -0.5
33 Philadelphia -0.5
34 Minneapolis -0.5
35 Seattle -0.6
36 San Diego -0.6
37 Salt Lake City -0.6
38 Miami -0.6
39 Baltimore -0.6
40 Detroit -0.6
41 Portland -0.7
42 Boston -1.0
43 Washington, D.C. -1.0
44 Chicago -1.2
45 Los Angeles -1.3
46 New York -1.6
47 San Francisco -1.7
48 New Orleans -1.7
49 San Jose -2.2
Veterans
Percent of adults aged 18 and older who served in the military, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B21001)
1 Virginia Beach 14.3
2 Jacksonville 10.6
3 San Antonio 10.1
4 Las Vegas 8.2
5 Oklahoma City 8.1
6 Tampa 8.0
7 Richmond 7.4
8 Washington, D.C. 7.3
9 San Diego 7.3
10 Phoenix 7.0
11 Kansas City 6.9
12 St. Louis 6.9
13 Baltimore 6.7
14 Pittsburgh 6.6
15 Louisville 6.5
16 Seattle 6.5
17 Portland 6.4
18 Atlanta 6.3
19 Denver 6.2
United States 6.2
20 Memphis 6.2
21 Cleveland 6.2
22 Orlando 6.1
23 Charlotte 6.1
24 Columbus 6.0
25 Birmingham 6.0
26 Nashville 6.0
27 Sacramento 6.0
28 Indianapolis 5.9
29 New Orleans 5.9
30 Buffalo 5.9
31 Cincinnati 5.8
32 Austin 5.8
33 Raleigh 5.8
34 Dallas 5.3
35 Minneapolis 5.2
36 Riverside 5.2
37 Providence 5.1
38 Detroit 5.1
39 Philadelphia 5.1
40 Houston 4.9
41 Hartford 4.7
42 Milwaukee 4.6
43 Salt Lake City 4.2
44 Boston 4.0
45 Chicago 3.9
46 Miami 3.6
47 San Francisco 3.3
48 Los Angeles 2.7
49 New York 2.7
50 San Jose 2.6

The racial and ethnic categories presented in the following tables are mutually exclusive. These categories are White (not Hispanic or Latino), Black (not Hispanic or Latino), Asian (not Hispanic or Latino), multiracial (not Hispanic or Latino), other races (not Hispanic or Latino), and Hispanic and Latino. The White, Black, and Asian categories represent people who identify with only one race (i.e., White Alone, Black Alone, or Asian Alone). The "other races" population includes three Census categories, all not Hispanic or Latino: Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, American Indian and Alaska Native, and the "some other race" group. The multiracial category includes people who identify as one or more race, but includes only people who do not identify as Hispanic or Latino. The Hispanic and Latino category includes all people who identity with this ethnicity category. They can also identify as one or more of the race categories. EWG recognizes that these six tables do not fully capture the diversity of the U.S. population. These broad tables provide an indication of the racial and ethnic makeup of the most populous U.S. metropolitan regions.

White Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of total population, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Pittsburgh 82.7
2 Cincinnati 76.6
3 Buffalo 74.2
4 Louisville 72.5
5 Minneapolis 71.7
6 St. Louis 71.0
7 Providence 70.9
8 Kansas City 69.9
9 Nashville 69.8
10 Portland 68.9
11 Columbus 68.6
12 Indianapolis 68.5
13 Salt Lake City 68.4
14 Cleveland 67.5
15 Boston 65.7
16 Milwaukee 64.2
17 Detroit 63.8
18 Hartford 62.4
19 Oklahoma City 61.2
20 Denver 61.1
21 Birmingham 60.5
22 Jacksonville 59.5
23 Philadelphia 58.6
24 Tampa 58.5
25 Raleigh 58.2
United States 57.7
26 Charlotte 57.5
27 Seattle 57.2
28 Richmond 55.5
29 Baltimore 52.8
30 Virginia Beach 52.8
31 Phoenix 52.1
32 Chicago 50.1
33 New Orleans 49.6
34 Austin 48.4
35 Sacramento 47.5
36 Atlanta 43.2
37 New York 43.1
38 San Diego 42.2
39 Orlando 42.1
40 Dallas 42.1
41 Washington, D.C. 42.0
42 Memphis 41.0
43 Las Vegas 37.6
44 San Francisco 35.4
45 Houston 32.7
46 San Antonio 31.3
47 Miami 27.7
48 Los Angeles 27.6
49 San Jose 27.3
50 Riverside 27.3
Black Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of total population, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Memphis 47.1
2 Atlanta 33.8
3 New Orleans 32.7
4 Birmingham 29.8
5 Virginia Beach 28.9
6 Baltimore 28.8
7 Richmond 28.0
8 Washington, D.C. 24.2
9 Charlotte 21.9
10 Detroit 21.2
11 Jacksonville 19.9
12 Philadelphia 19.5
13 Miami 19.3
14 Cleveland 18.9
15 Raleigh 18.9
16 Houston 16.7
17 St. Louis 16.6
18 Dallas 16.0
19 Chicago 15.5
20 Milwaukee 15.4
21 Columbus 15.1
22 Indianapolis 15.1
23 Orlando 14.8
24 New York 14.8
25 Louisville 14.6
26 Nashville 14.2
United States 11.9
27 Cincinnati 11.8
28 Las Vegas 11.6
29 Kansas City 11.5
30 Tampa 11.5
31 Buffalo 11.4
32 Hartford 10.4
33 Minneapolis 9.0
34 Oklahoma City 8.9
35 Pittsburgh 7.3
36 Boston 7.0
37 Austin 6.8
38 San Francisco 6.8
39 Riverside 6.7
40 Sacramento 6.5
41 San Antonio 6.3
42 Seattle 5.9
43 Los Angeles 5.9
44 Phoenix 5.4
45 Denver 5.4
46 Providence 4.8
47 San Diego 4.2
48 Portland 2.9
49 San Jose 2.2
50 Salt Lake City 1.6
Asian Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of total population, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 San Jose 39.0
2 San Francisco 28.3
3 Los Angeles 16.6
4 Seattle 15.9
5 Sacramento 14.7
6 San Diego 12.1
7 New York 11.9
8 Washington, D.C. 10.7
9 Las Vegas 10.7
10 Boston 8.7
11 Houston 8.1
12 Dallas 8.0
13 Riverside 7.6
14 Chicago 7.2
15 Austin 7.0
16 Portland 7.0
17 Minneapolis 6.9
18 Raleigh 6.9
19 Atlanta 6.5
20 Philadelphia 6.4
21 Baltimore 6.0
United States 5.8
22 Hartford 5.5
23 Columbus 5.0
24 Detroit 4.9
25 Orlando 4.5
26 Charlotte 4.4
27 Denver 4.3
28 Richmond 4.3
29 Milwaukee 4.3
30 Phoenix 4.2
31 Buffalo 4.2
32 Indianapolis 4.1
33 Salt Lake City 4.1
34 Jacksonville 4.0
35 Virginia Beach 3.9
36 Tampa 3.7
37 Oklahoma City 3.3
38 Providence 3.1
39 Kansas City 3.1
40 Nashville 3.0
41 Cincinnati 3.0
42 St. Louis 2.9
43 New Orleans 2.8
44 Pittsburgh 2.7
45 San Antonio 2.6
46 Cleveland 2.4
47 Miami 2.4
48 Memphis 2.3
49 Louisville 2.1
50 Birmingham 1.7
Hispanic and Latino Population
Percent of total population, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 San Antonio 56.2
2 Riverside 54.0
3 Miami 46.4
4 Los Angeles 45.4
5 Houston 38.8
6 San Diego 35.0
7 Orlando 33.1
8 Austin 32.7
9 Las Vegas 32.6
10 Phoenix 32.1
11 Dallas 29.7
12 San Jose 26.0
13 New York 25.5
14 Denver 23.9
15 Chicago 23.4
16 Sacramento 22.8
17 San Francisco 22.3
18 Tampa 21.8
19 Salt Lake City 19.4
United States 19.1
20 Washington, D.C. 17.0
21 Hartford 17.0
22 Oklahoma City 14.8
23 Providence 14.8
24 Portland 13.3
25 Boston 12.3
26 Milwaukee 11.7
27 Atlanta 11.5
28 Charlotte 11.4
29 Raleigh 11.3
30 Seattle 11.2
31 Jacksonville 10.7
32 Philadelphia 10.6
33 Kansas City 10.0
34 New Orleans 9.6
35 Nashville 8.3
36 Virginia Beach 7.8
37 Indianapolis 7.6
38 Richmond 7.1
39 Baltimore 7.0
40 Cleveland 6.7
41 Minneapolis 6.3
42 Memphis 6.3
43 Louisville 6.0
44 Buffalo 5.7
45 Detroit 5.1
46 Birmingham 5.1
47 Columbus 4.9
48 Cincinnati 3.9
49 St. Louis 3.4
50 Pittsburgh 2.1
Other Races Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of population identifying as American Indian, Pacific Islander, or Some Other Race, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Oklahoma City 3.4
2 Salt Lake City 2.6
3 Phoenix 2.2
4 Seattle 2.1
5 Sacramento 1.8
6 San Francisco 1.6
7 Las Vegas 1.5
8 Portland 1.5
9 New York 1.4
10 Boston 1.4
11 San Diego 1.3
United States 1.3
12 Riverside 1.3
13 Providence 1.3
14 Virginia Beach 1.1
15 Minneapolis 1.0
16 Los Angeles 1.0
17 Orlando 1.0
18 Washington, D.C. 1.0
19 San Jose 1.0
20 Miami 0.9
21 Austin 0.9
22 Jacksonville 0.9
23 Baltimore 0.9
24 New Orleans 0.9
25 Denver 0.9
26 Kansas City 0.9
27 Buffalo 0.8
28 Charlotte 0.8
29 Tampa 0.8
30 Raleigh 0.8
31 San Antonio 0.7
32 Philadelphia 0.7
33 Dallas 0.7
34 Milwaukee 0.7
35 Richmond 0.7
36 Atlanta 0.7
37 Columbus 0.7
38 Indianapolis 0.7
39 Birmingham 0.6
40 Houston 0.6
41 Hartford 0.6
42 St. Louis 0.6
43 Nashville 0.5
44 Detroit 0.5
45 Cincinnati 0.5
46 Chicago 0.5
47 Pittsburgh 0.5
48 Louisville 0.5
49 Cleveland 0.4
50 Memphis 0.3
Multiracial Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of population identifying as two or more races, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Oklahoma City 8.3
2 Seattle 7.6
3 Sacramento 6.6
4 Portland 6.4
5 Las Vegas 5.9
6 Columbus 5.7
7 San Francisco 5.6
8 Virginia Beach 5.6
9 St. Louis 5.5
10 San Diego 5.2
11 Providence 5.1
12 Washington, D.C. 5.0
13 Minneapolis 5.0
14 Jacksonville 5.0
15 Boston 5.0
16 Pittsburgh 4.7
17 Kansas City 4.6
18 Baltimore 4.5
19 San Jose 4.5
20 Orlando 4.5
21 Detroit 4.5
22 Denver 4.5
23 Louisville 4.4
24 New Orleans 4.3
25 Cincinnati 4.3
United States 4.3
26 Richmond 4.3
27 Atlanta 4.3
28 Austin 4.1
29 Nashville 4.1
30 Hartford 4.1
31 Philadelphia 4.1
32 Cleveland 4.1
33 Phoenix 4.0
34 Indianapolis 4.0
35 Raleigh 4.0
36 Salt Lake City 3.9
37 Charlotte 3.9
38 Tampa 3.7
39 Buffalo 3.7
40 Milwaukee 3.7
41 Los Angeles 3.6
42 Dallas 3.5
43 New York 3.4
44 Chicago 3.2
45 Miami 3.2
46 Riverside 3.1
47 Houston 3.1
48 Memphis 3.0
49 San Antonio 2.8
50 Birmingham 2.3
Immigrant Population
Percent of total population, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B05012)
1 Miami 42.3
2 San Jose 40.7
3 Los Angeles 32.4
4 San Francisco 31.6
5 New York 29.8
6 Washington, D.C. 24.1
7 Houston 23.9
8 San Diego 22.3
9 Riverside 21.8
10 Las Vegas 21.8
11 Seattle 20.7
12 Orlando 20.7
13 Boston 20.1
14 Sacramento 19.1
15 Dallas 18.9
16 Chicago 18.1
17 Austin 15.9
18 Tampa 15.7
19 Atlanta 14.6
20 Hartford 14.5
21 Providence 14.2
22 Phoenix 14.1
United States 13.9
23 Raleigh 13.2
24 Salt Lake City 12.9
25 Portland 12.3
26 Denver 12.0
27 Philadelphia 11.8
28 San Antonio 11.5
29 Baltimore 11.5
30 Charlotte 11.1
31 Minneapolis 10.8
32 Detroit 10.3
33 Jacksonville 10.2
34 Columbus 9.8
35 Indianapolis 8.8
36 Nashville 8.8
37 Oklahoma City 7.9
38 Richmond 7.9
39 Milwaukee 7.6
40 New Orleans 7.1
41 Kansas City 6.8
42 Buffalo 6.8
43 Virginia Beach 6.5
44 Louisville 6.2
45 Cleveland 5.9
46 Memphis 5.8
47 Cincinnati 5.5
48 St. Louis 4.6
49 Birmingham 4.4
50 Pittsburgh 3.9
Change in Immigrant Population
Percent change, 2019-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B05012)
1 Indianapolis 31.5
2 Jacksonville 17.0
3 Birmingham 14.8
4 Orlando 14.8
5 Columbus 14.0
6 Baltimore 12.8
7 Memphis 12.4
8 Hartford 11.9
9 Tampa 11.8
10 Raleigh 10.3
11 Philadelphia 10.0
12 Austin 9.6
13 Buffalo 9.4
14 Charlotte 7.7
15 Providence 7.0
16 Seattle 6.9
17 Washington, D.C. 6.6
18 Atlanta 6.3
19 Houston 6.2
20 Salt Lake City 5.9
21 Cincinnati 5.8
22 Boston 5.4
23 San Antonio 4.5
24 Sacramento 4.1
25 Minneapolis 3.5
26 Dallas 2.9
27 Chicago 2.9
United States 2.8
28 New York 2.7
29 Nashville 2.5
30 Oklahoma City 2.4
31 Denver 2.2
32 Riverside 2.2
33 Richmond 2.0
34 Miami 1.3
35 Milwaukee 1.3
36 Detroit 0.6
37 Phoenix -0.1
38 San Jose -0.2
39 San Francisco -1.0
40 Las Vegas -1.5
41 Kansas City -1.9
42 Portland -3.9
43 St. Louis -4.0
44 San Diego -4.0
45 Los Angeles -4.1
46 Virginia Beach -5.2
47 Pittsburgh -6.4
48 Cleveland -7.6
49 Louisville -8.4
50 New Orleans -8.5

St. Louis has an aging population with one of the oldest median ages among the peer regions. The age of the population has important implications for the workforce and social service programs.

Median Age
2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01002)
1 Pittsburgh 42.9
2 Miami 42.1
3 Tampa 42.1
4 Cleveland 41.8
5 Buffalo 40.9
6 Providence 40.8
7 San Francisco 40.6
8 Detroit 40.4
9 Hartford 40.4
10 St. Louis 40.0
11 New York 39.7
12 Louisville 39.6
13 New Orleans 39.5
14 Boston 39.5
15 Portland 39.4
16 Philadelphia 39.3
17 Jacksonville 39.3
18 Birmingham 39.3
19 Baltimore 39.3
United States 39.0
20 Milwaukee 38.8
21 Chicago 38.7
22 Richmond 38.7
23 Orlando 38.5
24 Los Angeles 38.5
25 Las Vegas 38.3
26 Cincinnati 38.3
27 Sacramento 38.3
28 San Jose 38.2
29 Kansas City 38.2
30 Washington, D.C. 38.2
31 Minneapolis 38.1
32 Charlotte 38.0
33 Seattle 37.7
34 Phoenix 37.6
35 Raleigh 37.5
36 San Diego 37.3
37 Virginia Beach 37.3
38 Atlanta 37.3
39 Denver 37.3
40 Nashville 37.1
41 Indianapolis 37.0
42 Memphis 36.9
43 Columbus 36.9
44 Oklahoma City 36.0
45 Austin 35.9
46 San Antonio 35.7
47 Riverside 35.6
48 Dallas 35.5
49 Houston 35.4
50 Salt Lake City 34.0
Children
Population under age 18 as a percent of total population, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Houston 25.7
2 Salt Lake City 25.4
3 Dallas 24.8
4 Riverside 24.7
5 Memphis 24.5
6 San Antonio 24.2
7 Indianapolis 24.0
8 Oklahoma City 23.8
9 Kansas City 23.3
10 Atlanta 23.3
11 Columbus 23.0
12 Minneapolis 22.9
13 Raleigh 22.9
14 Cincinnati 22.8
15 Charlotte 22.7
16 Washington, D.C. 22.4
17 Birmingham 22.4
18 Milwaukee 22.3
19 Phoenix 22.3
20 Nashville 22.3
21 Las Vegas 22.2
22 Louisville 22.0
23 Sacramento 21.9
24 Jacksonville 21.9
25 Virginia Beach 21.9
26 New Orleans 21.8
27 Chicago 21.8
United States 21.7
28 Baltimore 21.7
29 Austin 21.6
30 St. Louis 21.5
31 Detroit 21.5
32 Philadelphia 21.1
33 Orlando 21.1
34 Richmond 21.0
35 New York 20.9
36 Denver 20.8
37 San Diego 20.7
38 Seattle 20.6
39 Cleveland 20.5
40 Los Angeles 20.5
41 San Jose 20.4
42 Portland 20.0
43 Buffalo 19.8
44 Miami 19.7
45 Hartford 19.5
46 Tampa 19.2
47 Providence 19.1
48 Boston 19.1
49 San Francisco 18.9
50 Pittsburgh 18.5
Change in Children
Percentage point change in population under age 18 as a percent of total population, 2012-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Baltimore -0.8
2 Washington, D.C. -0.9
3 Oklahoma City -1.0
4 Virginia Beach -1.1
5 Pittsburgh -1.1
6 Buffalo -1.2
7 New Orleans -1.2
8 Birmingham -1.2
9 Miami -1.3
10 Jacksonville -1.3
11 Columbus -1.4
12 New York -1.4
13 Tampa -1.5
14 Minneapolis -1.6
15 Memphis -1.6
16 Louisville -1.6
17 Cincinnati -1.6
18 Houston -1.7
19 Philadelphia -1.7
20 Nashville -1.7
21 St. Louis -1.7
22 Seattle -1.8
23 Orlando -1.8
24 Richmond -1.8
United States -1.8
25 Kansas City -1.8
26 Milwaukee -1.8
27 Providence -1.9
28 San Francisco -1.9
29 Indianapolis -1.9
30 San Antonio -1.9
31 Cleveland -1.9
32 Boston -1.9
33 Detroit -1.9
34 Hartford -2.0
35 San Diego -2.1
36 Sacramento -2.2
37 Las Vegas -2.3
38 Dallas -2.5
39 Atlanta -2.6
40 Chicago -2.7
41 Charlotte -2.8
42 Raleigh -2.8
43 Portland -3.1
44 Riverside -3.1
45 Los Angeles -3.2
46 Phoenix -3.3
47 Austin -3.4
48 San Jose -3.4
49 Denver -3.6
50 Salt Lake City -3.7
Young Adults
Population aged 18 - 34 as a percent of total population, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Austin 26.8
2 Salt Lake City 26.2
3 San Diego 25.9
4 Denver 25.3
5 Seattle 25.1
6 San Jose 24.8
7 San Antonio 24.7
8 Oklahoma City 24.7
9 Virginia Beach 24.7
10 Boston 24.6
11 Nashville 24.6
12 Los Angeles 24.5
13 Riverside 24.5
14 Dallas 24.3
15 Columbus 24.2
16 Phoenix 24.0
17 Orlando 23.9
18 Houston 23.7
19 Richmond 23.6
20 Hartford 23.4
21 Atlanta 23.4
22 Portland 23.3
23 Providence 23.2
24 Raleigh 23.2
25 Sacramento 23.2
26 Indianapolis 23.1
27 Memphis 23.1
28 Chicago 23.0
29 Las Vegas 23.0
30 Philadelphia 23.0
31 Charlotte 23.0
United States 22.9
32 Washington, D.C. 22.7
33 New York 22.7
34 Cincinnati 22.6
35 Buffalo 22.5
36 Milwaukee 22.5
37 San Francisco 22.4
38 Minneapolis 22.4
39 Birmingham 22.3
40 Baltimore 22.3
41 Kansas City 22.2
42 Louisville 22.0
43 Jacksonville 22.0
44 Detroit 21.9
45 St. Louis 21.6
46 New Orleans 21.5
47 Pittsburgh 21.4
48 Cleveland 21.2
49 Tampa 21.2
50 Miami 20.7
Working-Age Adults
Population aged 18 - 64 as a percent of total population, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Austin 66.5
2 Denver 65.0
3 Seattle 64.9
4 San Jose 64.6
5 Los Angeles 64.0
6 San Diego 63.8
7 Raleigh 63.7
8 Boston 63.6
9 San Francisco 63.5
10 Nashville 63.5
11 Portland 63.4
12 Atlanta 63.2
13 Orlando 63.1
14 Washington, D.C. 63.1
15 Dallas 63.0
16 Salt Lake City 62.8
17 Charlotte 62.6
18 Columbus 62.4
19 Providence 62.4
20 Hartford 62.2
21 Richmond 62.1
22 Las Vegas 62.1
23 San Antonio 62.1
24 Chicago 62.0
25 Houston 61.9
26 Virginia Beach 61.9
27 New York 61.8
28 Philadelphia 61.6
29 Minneapolis 61.5
30 Riverside 61.3
31 Sacramento 61.3
32 Baltimore 61.3
33 Oklahoma City 61.3
34 Indianapolis 61.1
35 Phoenix 61.0
United States 61.0
36 Jacksonville 60.8
37 Miami 60.8
38 Louisville 60.6
39 Detroit 60.6
40 Buffalo 60.6
41 Kansas City 60.4
42 Milwaukee 60.4
43 Cincinnati 60.4
44 St. Louis 60.3
45 Tampa 60.3
46 New Orleans 60.2
47 Birmingham 60.2
48 Memphis 60.1
49 Pittsburgh 59.9
50 Cleveland 59.4
Seniors
Population aged 65 and older as a percent of total population, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Pittsburgh 21.6
2 Tampa 20.5
3 Cleveland 20.1
4 Buffalo 19.6
5 Miami 19.5
6 Providence 18.5
7 Hartford 18.3
8 St. Louis 18.1
9 New Orleans 18.0
10 Detroit 17.9
11 San Francisco 17.5
12 Birmingham 17.4
13 Louisville 17.4
United States 17.3
14 Philadelphia 17.3
15 Jacksonville 17.3
16 Milwaukee 17.3
17 New York 17.2
18 Boston 17.2
19 Baltimore 17.0
20 Richmond 16.9
21 Cincinnati 16.8
22 Sacramento 16.7
23 Phoenix 16.7
24 Portland 16.6
25 Kansas City 16.2
26 Chicago 16.2
27 Virginia Beach 16.2
28 Orlando 15.9
29 Las Vegas 15.8
30 Minneapolis 15.6
31 Los Angeles 15.5
32 San Diego 15.5
33 Memphis 15.4
34 San Jose 15.0
35 Oklahoma City 14.9
36 Indianapolis 14.9
37 Charlotte 14.6
38 Columbus 14.6
39 Seattle 14.6
40 Washington, D.C. 14.5
41 Nashville 14.3
42 Denver 14.2
43 Riverside 14.0
44 San Antonio 13.8
45 Atlanta 13.5
46 Raleigh 13.4
47 Houston 12.3
48 Dallas 12.2
49 Austin 12.0
50 Salt Lake City 11.9

St. Louis has a slightly larger proportion of the population that is disabled, relative to the peer regions. The percentages of seniors and children with disabilities in the region are similar to that of the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the working-age population with a disability is slightly higher in the St. Louis region compared to the peer regions.

Disability Rate
Percent of total population, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 New Orleans 16.3
2 Oklahoma City 15.6
3 Pittsburgh 15.2
4 Cleveland 14.9
5 Birmingham 14.9
6 San Antonio 14.8
7 Tampa 14.5
8 Virginia Beach 14.4
9 Memphis 14.3
10 Louisville 14.1
11 Detroit 14.0
12 St. Louis 14.0
13 Las Vegas 13.9
14 Providence 13.7
15 Buffalo 13.7
16 Philadelphia 13.7
17 Portland 13.5
United States 13.4
18 Jacksonville 13.3
19 Cincinnati 13.3
20 Indianapolis 13.0
21 Sacramento 12.9
22 Richmond 12.7
23 Orlando 12.7
24 Baltimore 12.6
25 Kansas City 12.5
26 Columbus 12.5
27 Phoenix 12.5
28 Hartford 12.3
29 Milwaukee 12.0
30 Seattle 11.8
31 Riverside 11.8
32 Nashville 11.7
33 New York 11.4
34 Boston 11.3
35 Miami 11.3
36 San Diego 11.3
37 Los Angeles 11.1
38 Atlanta 11.1
39 Chicago 11.1
40 Denver 11.1
41 San Francisco 11.0
42 Houston 10.9
43 Salt Lake City 10.9
44 Austin 10.8
45 Charlotte 10.7
46 Minneapolis 10.5
47 Dallas 10.4
48 Raleigh 10.2
49 Washington, D.C. 9.5
50 San Jose 9.3
Children with Disabilities
Percent of children under 18, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 San Antonio 7.3
2 New Orleans 6.7
3 Oklahoma City 6.4
4 Cleveland 5.9
5 Pittsburgh 5.7
6 Birmingham 5.6
7 Philadelphia 5.4
8 Cincinnati 5.4
9 Louisville 5.3
10 Las Vegas 5.2
11 Virginia Beach 5.2
12 Richmond 5.1
13 Phoenix 5.1
14 Tampa 4.9
15 Providence 4.9
16 Orlando 4.9
17 Memphis 4.8
United States 4.8
18 St. Louis 4.8
19 Jacksonville 4.8
20 Indianapolis 4.8
21 Hartford 4.8
22 Atlanta 4.7
23 Baltimore 4.7
24 Salt Lake City 4.7
25 Detroit 4.6
26 Nashville 4.6
27 Portland 4.6
28 Houston 4.5
29 Columbus 4.5
30 Sacramento 4.4
31 Buffalo 4.4
32 Boston 4.4
33 Denver 4.3
34 Austin 4.3
35 Kansas City 4.1
36 Miami 4.0
37 New York 4.0
38 Charlotte 3.8
39 Los Angeles 3.8
40 Milwaukee 3.8
41 Dallas 3.7
42 Seattle 3.7
43 San Diego 3.6
44 Minneapolis 3.6
45 Riverside 3.6
46 Washington, D.C. 3.5
47 Raleigh 3.4
48 Chicago 3.4
49 San Francisco 3.3
50 San Jose 2.7
Working-Age Adults with Disabilities
Percent of adults aged 18 - 64, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 New Orleans 14.1
2 Oklahoma City 13.8
3 Virginia Beach 12.8
4 Memphis 12.7
5 San Antonio 12.7
6 Cleveland 12.6
7 Birmingham 12.5
8 Pittsburgh 12.2
9 Louisville 12.0
10 Detroit 11.9
11 Las Vegas 11.7
12 St. Louis 11.6
13 Providence 11.6
14 Philadelphia 11.5
15 Jacksonville 11.5
16 Cincinnati 11.5
17 Buffalo 11.4
18 Tampa 11.4
19 Indianapolis 11.3
20 Portland 11.3
United States 11.0
21 Columbus 10.9
22 Richmond 10.7
23 Kansas City 10.5
24 Sacramento 10.4
25 Baltimore 10.3
26 Phoenix 10.2
27 Orlando 10.0
28 Milwaukee 9.8
29 Riverside 9.7
30 Austin 9.7
31 Nashville 9.7
32 Hartford 9.7
33 Seattle 9.6
34 Salt Lake City 9.6
35 Denver 9.3
36 Atlanta 9.2
37 Houston 9.0
38 Dallas 8.9
39 Minneapolis 8.9
40 San Diego 8.8
41 Chicago 8.7
42 Boston 8.7
43 Charlotte 8.6
44 Raleigh 8.5
45 Los Angeles 8.3
46 New York 8.3
47 San Francisco 7.7
48 Miami 7.4
49 Washington, D.C. 7.4
50 San Jose 5.8
Seniors with Disabilities
Percent of adults aged 65 and older, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 San Antonio 38.1
2 Oklahoma City 37.9
3 Memphis 35.8
4 New Orleans 35.8
5 Riverside 35.5
6 Birmingham 35.4
7 Las Vegas 35.0
8 Houston 34.0
9 Indianapolis 33.9
10 Orlando 33.8
11 San Jose 33.6
12 Sacramento 33.5
13 Louisville 33.3
14 St. Louis 33.1
United States 33.1
15 Seattle 33.1
16 Los Angeles 33.0
17 Detroit 33.0
18 Virginia Beach 32.9
19 Portland 32.9
20 Tampa 32.8
21 Dallas 32.4
22 Columbus 32.4
23 Kansas City 32.2
24 Pittsburgh 32.2
25 Nashville 32.1
26 New York 32.0
27 Philadelphia 31.7
28 San Diego 31.5
29 San Francisco 31.4
30 Baltimore 31.4
31 Miami 31.3
32 Atlanta 31.3
33 Cleveland 31.2
34 Salt Lake City 31.1
35 Phoenix 31.0
36 Chicago 30.9
37 Cincinnati 30.9
38 Charlotte 30.8
39 Jacksonville 30.7
40 Providence 30.5
41 Milwaukee 30.3
42 Buffalo 30.2
43 Raleigh 30.1
44 Richmond 29.9
45 Hartford 29.5
46 Denver 29.5
47 Boston 29.2
48 Austin 28.3
49 Washington, D.C. 28.3
50 Minneapolis 27.7

The composition of households in the United States has changed in the past few decades, including smaller household sizes and an increasing proportion of non-family households, which is in part due to more people over the age of 65 living alone.

Average Household Size
2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11002, B11001)
1 Riverside 3.2
2 Los Angeles 2.8
3 San Jose 2.8
4 Salt Lake City 2.8
5 Houston 2.7
6 Dallas 2.7
7 San Diego 2.7
8 Las Vegas 2.7
9 Sacramento 2.7
10 San Antonio 2.7
11 Atlanta 2.7
12 Raleigh 2.6
13 Phoenix 2.6
14 Washington, D.C. 2.6
15 Miami 2.6
16 San Francisco 2.6
17 Orlando 2.6
18 New York 2.6
19 Memphis 2.5
20 Oklahoma City 2.5
United States 2.5
21 Charlotte 2.5
22 Chicago 2.5
23 Baltimore 2.5
24 Indianapolis 2.5
25 Seattle 2.5
26 Virginia Beach 2.5
27 Birmingham 2.5
28 New Orleans 2.5
29 Jacksonville 2.4
30 Philadelphia 2.4
31 Minneapolis 2.4
32 Columbus 2.4
33 Detroit 2.4
34 Portland 2.4
35 Boston 2.4
36 Kansas City 2.4
37 Tampa 2.4
38 Cincinnati 2.4
39 Nashville 2.4
40 Richmond 2.4
41 Denver 2.4
42 Austin 2.4
43 Providence 2.4
44 Hartford 2.4
45 Louisville 2.4
46 St. Louis 2.3
47 Milwaukee 2.3
48 Cleveland 2.3
49 Pittsburgh 2.2
50 Buffalo 2.2
Family Households
Percent of all households, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Riverside 75.6
2 San Jose 69.5
3 Houston 69.0
4 Salt Lake City 68.1
5 Raleigh 67.3
6 Dallas 67.2
7 Jacksonville 67.1
8 Atlanta 67.0
9 San Antonio 66.8
10 Orlando 66.6
11 Sacramento 66.4
12 Los Angeles 66.2
13 San Diego 66.1
14 Phoenix 65.9
15 Birmingham 65.2
16 Miami 65.0
17 Memphis 64.8
18 Charlotte 64.8
19 Las Vegas 64.8
20 Indianapolis 64.4
21 Oklahoma City 64.3
United States 64.1
22 Nashville 64.0
23 Virginia Beach 64.0
24 New York 63.7
25 Washington, D.C. 63.6
26 Cincinnati 63.6
27 Richmond 63.5
28 Philadelphia 62.9
29 Minneapolis 62.8
30 Baltimore 62.8
31 Chicago 62.7
32 San Francisco 62.6
33 St. Louis 62.4
34 Detroit 62.1
35 Louisville 62.0
36 Columbus 62.0
37 Kansas City 62.0
38 Boston 61.4
39 Hartford 61.4
40 Providence 61.2
41 Seattle 60.9
42 Tampa 60.7
43 Portland 60.1
44 Denver 59.8
45 New Orleans 59.7
46 Austin 59.5
47 Buffalo 59.0
48 Milwaukee 58.6
49 Pittsburgh 58.4
50 Cleveland 57.6
Families with Children
Percent of all households, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11003)
1 Riverside 32.9
2 Houston 32.0
3 Raleigh 31.6
4 Dallas 31.1
5 Salt Lake City 30.5
6 San Jose 30.3
7 Indianapolis 28.8
8 Atlanta 28.8
9 San Antonio 28.5
10 Memphis 28.1
11 Columbus 28.1
12 Oklahoma City 28.0
13 Washington, D.C. 28.0
14 Charlotte 27.7
15 Sacramento 27.6
16 Nashville 27.6
17 Minneapolis 27.2
18 Phoenix 27.1
19 San Diego 27.0
20 Kansas City 26.9
21 Seattle 26.9
22 Jacksonville 26.8
23 Birmingham 26.7
24 Orlando 26.6
25 Baltimore 26.6
26 Las Vegas 26.5
27 Austin 26.5
28 Cincinnati 26.4
29 Virginia Beach 26.4
30 Chicago 26.1
United States 26.0
31 Los Angeles 25.9
32 New York 25.6
33 Richmond 25.6
34 San Francisco 25.6
35 Boston 25.5
36 Philadelphia 25.5
37 Hartford 25.3
38 St. Louis 25.3
39 Louisville 25.1
40 Milwaukee 25.1
41 Portland 25.1
42 Denver 25.1
43 Miami 24.8
44 Detroit 24.4
45 New Orleans 24.1
46 Providence 23.9
47 Buffalo 23.0
48 Tampa 22.4
49 Cleveland 22.1
50 Pittsburgh 20.9
Single Parent Families
Percent of family households with children, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11003)
1 Memphis 47.7
2 New Orleans 42.7
3 Cleveland 38.9
4 Las Vegas 38.1
5 Providence 37.9
6 Buffalo 37.2
7 Miami 37.2
8 Virginia Beach 37.1
9 Milwaukee 36.4
10 Louisville 34.8
11 San Antonio 34.4
12 Tampa 34.2
13 Jacksonville 34.1
14 Hartford 33.9
15 St. Louis 33.8
16 Columbus 33.7
17 Detroit 33.7
18 Baltimore 33.3
19 Phoenix 33.0
20 Oklahoma City 32.7
21 Atlanta 32.5
22 Birmingham 32.5
23 Philadelphia 32.2
United States 31.9
24 Richmond 31.8
25 Houston 31.7
26 Los Angeles 31.5
27 Cincinnati 31.4
28 Chicago 30.9
29 Kansas City 30.5
30 Orlando 30.1
31 Riverside 30.0
32 Indianapolis 29.9
33 Nashville 29.8
34 Charlotte 29.5
35 New York 29.5
36 Sacramento 28.7
37 Portland 28.7
38 Pittsburgh 28.3
39 Boston 27.3
40 San Diego 27.3
41 Dallas 27.2
42 Minneapolis 26.5
43 Denver 26.5
44 Salt Lake City 26.1
45 Washington, D.C. 25.8
46 Seattle 25.1
47 Raleigh 23.8
48 Austin 22.0
49 San Francisco 21.7
50 San Jose 20.0
Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren
Households where a grandparent is responsible for own grandchildren as a percent of households with children, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B10063, B11003)
1 Memphis 7.2
2 Birmingham 7.2
3 Las Vegas 5.4
4 New Orleans 5.3
5 Cincinnati 5.2
6 Virginia Beach 5.0
7 Oklahoma City 4.7
8 Atlanta 4.7
9 San Antonio 4.6
10 Louisville 4.6
11 Cleveland 4.5
12 Philadelphia 4.3
13 Riverside 4.3
14 Jacksonville 4.3
15 Houston 4.3
16 Charlotte 4.1
17 Tampa 4.1
United States 4.1
18 Dallas 4.1
19 Richmond 4.0
20 Los Angeles 3.9
21 Orlando 3.9
22 Miami 3.8
23 Providence 3.8
24 St. Louis 3.7
25 Nashville 3.5
26 Chicago 3.5
27 Indianapolis 3.5
28 Phoenix 3.4
29 Columbus 3.3
30 Buffalo 3.3
31 Detroit 3.3
32 Baltimore 3.3
33 Washington, D.C. 3.2
34 New York 3.2
35 Kansas City 3.1
36 Sacramento 3.1
37 San Diego 3.1
38 Denver 3.0
39 Pittsburgh 3.0
40 Salt Lake City 3.0
41 San Francisco 2.9
42 Austin 2.6
43 Milwaukee 2.5
44 Seattle 2.5
45 Hartford 2.3
46 Raleigh 2.3
47 Boston 2.2
48 Minneapolis 1.9
49 Portland 1.8
50 San Jose 1.7
Persons Aged 65 and Older Living Alone
Percent of all households, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11010, B11001)
1 Pittsburgh 15.1
2 Cleveland 14.5
3 Buffalo 14.2
4 Providence 13.6
5 Tampa 13.4
6 Detroit 13.0
7 New Orleans 13.0
8 Miami 12.6
9 Milwaukee 12.5
10 Hartford 12.5
11 St. Louis 12.4
12 Louisville 12.2
13 Boston 12.1
14 Baltimore 12.1
15 New York 11.7
16 Philadelphia 11.7
17 Cincinnati 11.6
United States 11.5
18 Richmond 11.4
19 Kansas City 11.3
20 Chicago 11.3
21 Birmingham 11.2
22 Sacramento 11.2
23 Portland 11.1
24 San Francisco 10.9
25 Virginia Beach 10.8
26 Minneapolis 10.7
27 Memphis 10.6
28 Las Vegas 10.2
29 Indianapolis 10.1
30 Phoenix 10.0
31 Jacksonville 10.0
32 Oklahoma City 10.0
33 Columbus 9.9
34 Denver 9.4
35 Los Angeles 9.2
36 Seattle 9.1
37 Washington, D.C. 9.1
38 Charlotte 9.0
39 San Diego 8.9
40 Riverside 8.8
41 Nashville 8.6
42 San Antonio 8.6
43 Raleigh 8.5
44 Orlando 8.5
45 Atlanta 8.4
46 San Jose 8.1
47 Dallas 7.9
48 Houston 7.4
49 Austin 6.9
50 Salt Lake City 6.9

Land Use

Land use is important to community planning and economic development. It is also important to the environmental quality of a region. This section highlights St. Louis’ relatively low-population density, dispersed development patterns, and large amount of farmland. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

The St. Louis region has low-population density relative to the peer regions, particularly in the central city, with a relatively large proportion of the population living in rural parts of the region.

Population Density
Population per land square mile, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census
1 New York 2,934
2 Los Angeles 2,655
3 San Francisco 1,854
4 Boston 1,405
5 Philadelphia 1,356
6 Chicago 1,312
7 Tampa 1,309
8 Miami 1,209
9 Detroit 1,118
10 Baltimore 1,090
11 Milwaukee 1,072
12 Providence 1,055
13 Cleveland 1,033
14 Washington, D.C. 971
15 Dallas 916
16 Houston 889
17 Orlando 795
18 San Diego 779
19 Buffalo 742
20 San Jose 724
21 Atlanta 716
22 Raleigh 701
23 Seattle 687
Peer Average 664
24 Austin 574
25 Minneapolis 524
26 Jacksonville 523
27 Virginia Beach 511
28 Cincinnati 497
29 Indianapolis 497
30 Charlotte 492
31 Sacramento 474
32 Columbus 451
33 Pittsburgh 445
34 Louisville 397
35 New Orleans 389
36 Portland 375
37 San Antonio 363
38 Nashville 360
39 Denver 358
40 St. Louis 356
41 Phoenix 344
42 Richmond 307
43 Kansas City 305
44 Las Vegas 294
45 Memphis 291
46 Oklahoma City 265
47 Birmingham 249
48 Riverside 171
49 Salt Lake City 165
Urbanized Area Density
Population per land square mile, 2020
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census
1 Los Angeles 6,945
2 San Jose 5,979
3 New York 5,677
4 San Francisco 5,503
5 Las Vegas 4,927
6 Miami 4,871
7 San Diego 4,349
8 Denver 3,992
9 Portland 3,900
10 Sacramento 3,895
11 Salt Lake City 3,797
12 Washington, D.C. 3,573
13 Chicago 3,509
14 Seattle 3,498
15 Phoenix 3,469
16 Riverside 3,420
Peer Average 3,230
17 Dallas 3,100
18 Baltimore 3,043
19 San Antonio 3,024
20 Houston 3,011
21 Philadelphia 2,944
22 Columbus 2,850
23 New Orleans 2,836
24 Austin 2,820
25 Minneapolis 2,763
26 Detroit 2,710
27 Buffalo 2,693
28 Virginia Beach 2,683
29 Milwaukee 2,651
30 Orlando 2,642
31 Tampa 2,635
32 Cleveland 2,470
33 Boston 2,444
34 Louisville 2,324
35 Oklahoma City 2,301
36 Providence 2,300
37 Kansas City 2,297
38 Indianapolis 2,288
39 St. Louis 2,254
40 Cincinnati 2,155
41 Richmond 2,067
42 Memphis 2,066
43 Jacksonville 1,974
44 Raleigh 1,933
45 Atlanta 1,924
46 Nashville 1,908
47 Pittsburgh 1,856
48 Hartford 1,748
49 Charlotte 1,746
50 Birmingham 1,486
Largest City Share of MSA Population
Percent of total population, 2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 San Antonio 60.9
2 Jacksonville 58.9
3 San Jose 51.5
4 Memphis 48.2
5 Louisville 47.8
6 Oklahoma City 46.5
7 Austin 44.5
8 San Diego 42.7
9 Columbus 42.4
10 Indianapolis 42.3
11 New York 42.0
12 Milwaukee 37.6
13 Nashville 34.6
14 Raleigh 34.4
15 Phoenix 34.2
16 Charlotte 34.0
17 Houston 33.2
18 New Orleans 30.8
19 Los Angeles 30.0
20 Las Vegas 28.9
21 Chicago 28.5
22 Portland 26.3
Peer Average 26.1
23 Virginia Beach 26.0
24 Philadelphia 26.0
25 Denver 24.4
26 Kansas City 22.9
27 Buffalo 22.7
28 Sacramento 21.7
29 Baltimore 21.5
30 Seattle 18.9
31 San Francisco 18.7
32 Cleveland 18.7
33 Birmingham 18.2
34 Dallas 17.8
35 Richmond 17.5
36 Salt Lake City 16.4
37 Detroit 15.5
38 Boston 14.2
39 Cincinnati 13.8
40 Pittsburgh 12.9
41 Tampa 12.5
42 Minneapolis 11.7
43 Washington, D.C. 11.2
44 Orlando 11.1
45 Providence 11.1
46 St. Louis 10.8
47 Hartford 10.2
48 Atlanta 8.4
49 Miami 7.6
50 Riverside 7.1
Change in Largest City Share of Population
Percentage difference, 2010-2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 New Orleans 1.9
2 Seattle 1.2
3 Columbus 0.9
4 Denver 0.9
5 Charlotte 0.8
6 Boston 0.7
7 Richmond 0.6
8 San Diego 0.6
9 Washington, D.C. 0.6
10 Los Angeles 0.5
11 Tampa 0.4
12 Miami 0.4
13 Philadelphia 0.4
14 Atlanta 0.3
15 Minneapolis 0.3
16 New York 0.3
17 Oklahoma City 0.2
18 Portland 0.1
19 San Francisco 0.1
20 Kansas City 0.1
21 Chicago -0.0
22 Pittsburgh -0.0
23 Sacramento -0.0
24 Providence -0.0
25 Riverside -0.1
26 Virginia Beach -0.1
27 Orlando -0.1
Peer Average -0.1
28 Hartford -0.1
29 Cincinnati -0.2
30 San Jose -0.3
31 Phoenix -0.3
32 Buffalo -0.3
33 Louisville -0.4
34 Cleveland -0.4
35 Birmingham -0.6
36 Milwaukee -0.6
37 St. Louis -0.7
38 Salt Lake City -0.7
39 Dallas -0.8
40 Memphis -1.0
41 Detroit -1.1
42 Las Vegas -1.1
43 San Antonio -1.1
44 Indianapolis -1.1
45 Raleigh -1.3
46 Baltimore -1.4
47 Nashville -1.5
48 Houston -2.1
49 Jacksonville -2.2
50 Austin -2.3
Rural Population
Percent of total population, 2020
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census
1 Birmingham 27.8
2 Nashville 22.4
3 Oklahoma City 19.4
4 Richmond 19.4
5 Pittsburgh 18.5
6 Charlotte 18.2
7 Louisville 17.3
8 Columbus 16.6
9 Raleigh 16.0
10 Cincinnati 15.9
11 Memphis 15.9
12 St. Louis 15.0
13 San Antonio 14.9
14 Hartford 14.4
15 Buffalo 13.9
16 Minneapolis 13.6
17 Austin 12.6
18 Kansas City 12.5
19 Indianapolis 12.0
20 Atlanta 11.9
21 Virginia Beach 10.9
22 Baltimore 10.6
23 Cleveland 9.9
24 Portland 9.8
25 Jacksonville 9.7
26 Providence 9.5
27 Milwaukee 8.8
28 Washington, D.C. 8.8
29 New Orleans 8.2
30 Dallas 8.0
31 Sacramento 7.7
32 Detroit 7.5
Peer Average 7.4
33 Houston 7.0
34 Philadelphia 6.5
35 Boston 6.5
36 Seattle 5.8
37 Denver 5.7
38 Riverside 5.4
39 Orlando 5.3
40 San Diego 4.4
41 Tampa 4.3
42 Phoenix 4.1
43 Chicago 3.0
44 New York 2.3
45 San Jose 2.0
46 Salt Lake City 1.8
47 Las Vegas 1.3
48 San Francisco 1.0
49 Los Angeles 0.7
50 Miami 0.6

Development in the St. Louis region is dispersed throughout the region. The large amount of developed land per capita is an indication of low density. This development pattern has led to lower housing costs relative to many other large metro regions but can increase transportation costs for families and make access to amenities more challenging. For further discussion, see the Developed Land per Capita performance indicator on OneSTL.

Land Area
In square miles, 2020
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census
1 Riverside 27,277
2 Phoenix 14,568
3 Atlanta 8,686
4 Dallas 8,675
5 Denver 8,345
6 Houston 8,269
7 Las Vegas 7,892
8 St. Louis 7,864
9 Salt Lake City 7,684
10 San Antonio 7,313
11 Kansas City 7,257
12 Chicago 7,195
13 Minneapolis 7,048
14 Portland 6,688
15 New York 6,684
16 Washington, D.C. 6,568
17 Seattle 5,870
18 Nashville 5,689
19 Charlotte 5,597
Peer Average 5,513
20 Oklahoma City 5,512
21 Pittsburgh 5,283
22 Sacramento 5,095
23 Miami 5,067
24 Los Angeles 4,852
25 Columbus 4,797
26 Philadelphia 4,603
27 Memphis 4,575
28 Cincinnati 4,546
29 Birmingham 4,489
30 Richmond 4,364
31 Indianapolis 4,307
32 Austin 4,220
33 San Diego 4,210
34 Detroit 3,892
35 Virginia Beach 3,530
36 Orlando 3,491
37 Boston 3,486
38 Louisville 3,237
39 New Orleans 3,203
40 Jacksonville 3,202
41 San Jose 2,680
42 Baltimore 2,602
43 Tampa 2,515
44 San Francisco 2,470
45 Raleigh 2,118
46 Cleveland 1,999
47 Providence 1,587
48 Buffalo 1,565
49 Hartford 1,515
50 Milwaukee 1,455
Developed Land per Capita
Developed acres per capita, 2021
Source: MRLS Consortium, National Land Cover Database; U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Birmingham 0.40
2 Kansas City 0.32
3 Memphis 0.32
4 Pittsburgh 0.32
5 Oklahoma City 0.31
6 St. Louis 0.31
7 Nashville 0.30
8 Charlotte 0.29
9 Richmond 0.29
10 Louisville 0.28
11 Indianapolis 0.28
12 Cleveland 0.26
13 Jacksonville 0.26
14 Cincinnati 0.26
15 Columbus 0.25
16 Minneapolis 0.25
17 Hartford 0.24
18 Atlanta 0.24
19 Detroit 0.23
20 Raleigh 0.23
21 San Antonio 0.23
22 Milwaukee 0.22
23 Virginia Beach 0.22
24 Portland 0.22
25 Riverside 0.21
26 New Orleans 0.21
27 Buffalo 0.21
28 Houston 0.21
29 Orlando 0.20
30 Tampa 0.20
31 Providence 0.20
32 Austin 0.19
33 Dallas 0.19
34 Denver 0.19
Peer Average 0.18
35 Baltimore 0.18
36 Seattle 0.18
37 Sacramento 0.18
38 Phoenix 0.18
39 Salt Lake City 0.17
40 Chicago 0.17
41 Philadelphia 0.17
42 Boston 0.17
43 Washington, D.C. 0.16
44 San Diego 0.15
45 Miami 0.13
46 Las Vegas 0.13
47 San Jose 0.12
48 San Francisco 0.11
49 New York 0.10
50 Los Angeles 0.09
Change in Developed Land per Capita
Percent change in developed acres per capita, 2016-2021
Source: MRLS Consortium, National Land Cover Database; U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Austin 7.6
2 Dallas 5.7
3 Houston 5.0
4 Raleigh 4.8
5 Phoenix 4.5
6 Las Vegas 4.4
7 Sacramento 4.1
8 San Antonio 4.0
9 Jacksonville 3.9
10 Denver 3.8
11 Salt Lake City 3.3
12 Orlando 3.1
13 Nashville 3.1
14 Oklahoma City 2.6
15 Charlotte 2.4
16 Indianapolis 2.3
17 Atlanta 2.2
Peer Average 2.0
18 Richmond 1.9
19 Washington, D.C. 1.9
20 Tampa 1.8
21 Columbus 1.7
22 Riverside 1.5
23 Louisville 1.5
24 Memphis 1.4
25 Kansas City 1.4
26 Cincinnati 1.3
27 New Orleans 1.2
28 Minneapolis 1.2
29 Portland 1.1
30 Virginia Beach 1.0
31 Miami 1.0
32 Baltimore 1.0
33 Seattle 1.0
34 Birmingham 1.0
35 Pittsburgh 0.9
36 Milwaukee 0.9
37 Providence 0.8
38 St. Louis 0.8
39 Philadelphia 0.7
40 San Jose 0.7
41 San Diego 0.7
42 Boston 0.7
43 Buffalo 0.6
44 Los Angeles 0.6
45 Hartford 0.6
46 Chicago 0.5
47 Detroit 0.5
48 Cleveland 0.5
49 San Francisco 0.4
50 New York 0.3
Rural Land Area
Percent of total land area in square miles, 2020
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census
1 Salt Lake City 95.8
2 Riverside 95.3
3 Las Vegas 94.2
4 Denver 91.6
5 Portland 91.3
6 Oklahoma City 90.9
7 Phoenix 90.8
8 San Antonio 90.1
9 Sacramento 88.8
10 Kansas City 88.5
11 Richmond 88.3
12 Memphis 88.1
13 Birmingham 87.9
14 San Jose 87.8
15 New Orleans 87.1
16 Columbus 86.9
17 St. Louis 86.5
18 Louisville 85.9
19 Nashville 85.8
20 Minneapolis 83.6
21 Austin 83.2
22 Virginia Beach 83.1
23 San Diego 82.8
24 Seattle 81.6
25 Indianapolis 81.2
Peer Average 81.0
26 Cincinnati 80.6
27 Pittsburgh 80.3
28 Charlotte 77.7
29 Jacksonville 77.0
30 Buffalo 76.2
31 Miami 75.3
32 Washington, D.C. 75.2
33 Dallas 73.9
34 Houston 73.4
35 Orlando 72.6
36 Raleigh 71.0
37 Atlanta 67.9
38 Baltimore 67.9
39 San Francisco 65.4
40 Chicago 63.1
41 Milwaukee 62.8
42 Cleveland 61.9
43 Detroit 61.5
44 Los Angeles 61.1
45 Hartford 60.8
46 Providence 58.4
47 Philadelphia 56.9
48 Tampa 54.1
49 New York 48.1
50 Boston 45.8

The St. Louis region has a relatively large amount of farmland compared to the peer regions. A majority of this land is used for crops while the remainder is woodland, pasture, and other land. Farmland is an important piece of the region’s environmental health as well as the economy.

Farmland
Acres of land in farms in thousands, 2017
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture
1 Dallas 4,082
2 San Antonio 3,657
3 Kansas City 3,126
4 St. Louis 2,780
5 Oklahoma City 2,509
6 Minneapolis 2,492
7 Denver 2,489
8 Houston 2,218
9 Chicago 2,147
10 Nashville 1,831
11 Austin 1,669
12 Columbus 1,666
13 Memphis 1,623
14 Indianapolis 1,603
15 Phoenix 1,595
16 Cincinnati 1,198
17 Washington, D.C. 1,147
Peer Average 1,136
18 Louisville 1,127
19 Sacramento 929
20 Charlotte 885
21 Atlanta 872
22 Orlando 853
23 San Jose 808
24 Pittsburgh 790
25 Richmond 669
26 Philadelphia 656
27 Portland 597
28 Miami 573
29 Detroit 550
30 San Francisco 525
31 Baltimore 520
32 Birmingham 510
33 Tampa 425
34 Salt Lake City 411
35 Raleigh 368
36 Virginia Beach 363
37 Riverside 332
38 Cleveland 310
39 Buffalo 283
40 New Orleans 263
41 San Diego 222
42 Boston 171
43 Seattle 151
44 Hartford 100
45 Los Angeles 90
46 Providence 89
Change in Farmland
Percent change in acres, 2012-2017
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture
1 Providence 20.6
2 New Orleans 14.5
3 Baltimore 5.8
4 Louisville 5.5
5 Virginia Beach 4.2
Peer Average 3.9
6 Memphis 3.1
7 Richmond 3.1
8 Cleveland 2.0
9 Atlanta 1.9
10 Oklahoma City 1.7
11 San Antonio 0.4
12 Philadelphia 0.4
13 San Diego 0.3
14 Sacramento 0.2
15 Dallas 0.2
16 San Francisco 0.1
17 Kansas City 0.1
18 Orlando -0.0
19 Denver -0.1
20 Birmingham -0.7
21 Buffalo -0.8
22 Detroit -1.4
23 Cincinnati -1.5
24 Nashville -2.0
25 San Jose -3.1
26 Pittsburgh -3.3
27 Salt Lake City -3.4
28 Phoenix -3.4
29 Washington, D.C. -3.8
30 Chicago -3.8
31 Minneapolis -4.1
32 St. Louis -4.6
33 Columbus -4.6
34 Austin -4.8
35 Indianapolis -5.1
36 Tampa -5.6
37 Charlotte -5.7
38 Miami -6.0
39 Raleigh -7.0
40 Portland -7.3
41 Seattle -9.4
42 Boston -10.3
43 Houston -17.2
44 Hartford -20.6
45 Riverside -21.2
46 Los Angeles -40.7
Organic Farms
Number of farms using organic practices, 2017
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture
1 San Diego 358
2 Riverside 228
3 Minneapolis 164
4 Sacramento 156
5 Portland 137
6 New York 123
7 San Francisco 99
8 Boston 93
9 San Jose 92
10 Columbus 86
11 Philadelphia 85
12 Seattle 81
13 Washington, D.C. 68
Peer Average 51
14 Cleveland 49
15 Chicago 49
16 Miami 45
17 Los Angeles 40
18 Pittsburgh 39
19 Providence 38
20 Buffalo 38
21 Detroit 35
22 Kansas City 30
23 Baltimore 29
24 Tampa 28
25 Cincinnati 26
26 Atlanta 25
27 Denver 24
28 Milwaukee 24
29 Nashville 23
30 Orlando 23
31 St. Louis 22
32 Indianapolis 22
33 Phoenix 22
34 Hartford 21
35 Raleigh 21
36 Houston 20
37 Austin 20
38 Dallas 15
39 Salt Lake City 11
40 Richmond 10
41 Charlotte 10
42 Virginia Beach 9
43 San Antonio 8
44 Louisville 8
45 Jacksonville 6
46 Memphis 4
47 Birmingham 3
48 Oklahoma City 2
49 Las Vegas 1
50 New Orleans 1

Housing

When it comes to housing, St. Louis is one of the most affordable large metropolitan regions in the country. However, black families are less likely than white families to own a home, more likely to be housing cost-burdened, and much more likely to live in areas of concentrated poverty. The region is also one of the most racially segregated among the peers. Where one lives is an important factor in many aspects of life including access to jobs and amenities, quality of schools, and exposure to crime. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

The St. Louis region continues to have some of the lowest priced housing among the peer regions, even with an increase in prices that was similar to the national average over the past five years. The rate of homeownership in the region is one of the highest among the peers. However, black households are nearly twice as likely to rent as white households. Relative to the peers, the region has a high vacancy rate and a low rate of new housing starts.

Homeownership
Owner-occupied units as a percent of all occupied housing units, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25003)
1 Detroit 71.5
2 Minneapolis 70.5
3 Pittsburgh 70.5
4 St. Louis 69.7
5 Birmingham 69.5
6 Louisville 69.2
7 Cincinnati 69.1
8 Raleigh 67.8
9 Salt Lake City 67.6
10 Richmond 67.6
11 Indianapolis 67.5
12 Baltimore 67.3
13 Jacksonville 67.2
14 Tampa 67.0
15 Philadelphia 66.9
16 Phoenix 66.7
17 Cleveland 66.6
18 Atlanta 66.5
19 Hartford 66.5
20 Buffalo 66.1
21 New Orleans 65.9
22 Charlotte 65.8
23 Riverside 65.8
24 Chicago 65.4
25 Kansas City 65.3
United States 65.2
26 Nashville 65.0
27 Denver 64.5
28 Virginia Beach 64.2
29 Washington, D.C. 63.9
30 San Antonio 63.5
31 Oklahoma City 63.3
32 Sacramento 62.8
33 Providence 62.8
34 Orlando 61.9
35 Portland 61.6
36 Boston 61.5
37 Columbus 61.2
38 Memphis 60.8
39 Houston 60.5
40 Dallas 60.2
41 Milwaukee 60.1
42 Miami 59.9
43 Seattle 59.8
44 Austin 58.8
45 Las Vegas 57.8
46 San Francisco 56.2
47 San Jose 54.9
48 San Diego 54.5
49 New York 51.7
50 Los Angeles 47.9
Racial Disparity in Homeownership
Ratio of non-Hispanic black to non-Hispanic white, owner-occupied units as a percent of all occupied units, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 Milwaukee 2.69
2 Minneapolis 2.50
3 Portland 2.35
4 Pittsburgh 2.16
5 Columbus 2.10
6 Seattle 2.09
7 Cincinnati 2.08
8 Las Vegas 2.06
9 San Diego 2.05
10 Louisville 1.97
11 New York 1.95
12 Cleveland 1.90
13 Oklahoma City 1.89
14 San Francisco 1.88
15 Kansas City 1.84
16 Buffalo 1.83
17 Phoenix 1.82
18 Chicago 1.81
19 Boston 1.81
20 Indianapolis 1.81
21 Los Angeles 1.80
22 Dallas 1.77
23 St. Louis 1.75
24 Detroit 1.73
25 Charlotte 1.71
26 Houston 1.68
27 Sacramento 1.68
28 Memphis 1.68
29 Hartford 1.67
30 Riverside 1.67
United States 1.65
31 Baltimore 1.64
32 Nashville 1.64
33 San Antonio 1.63
34 Denver 1.63
35 Providence 1.62
36 Tampa 1.58
37 Virginia Beach 1.58
38 Miami 1.57
39 Philadelphia 1.56
40 Jacksonville 1.55
41 Austin 1.55
42 Birmingham 1.54
43 Orlando 1.53
44 New Orleans 1.52
45 Raleigh 1.49
46 Atlanta 1.45
47 Richmond 1.40
48 Washington, D.C. 1.36
Median Sales Price of Existing Single-Family Homes
In thousands of dollars, 2018
Source: National Association of Realtors
1 San Jose 1,340.0
2 San Francisco 987.5
3 San Diego 634.0
4 Seattle 501.4
5 Boston 477.4
6 Denver 449.9
7 Washington, D.C. 424.0
8 New York 410.0
9 Portland 395.7
10 Sacramento 365.0
11 Riverside 360.0
12 Miami 350.0
13 Salt Lake City 331.7
14 Austin 315.9
15 Providence 292.5
16 Las Vegas 288.8
17 Baltimore 285.6
18 Raleigh 283.6
19 Minneapolis 273.4
20 Phoenix 269.8
21 Orlando 265.0
United States 261.6
22 Nashville 260.5
23 Dallas 260.0
24 Chicago 259.4
25 Richmond 258.8
26 Milwaukee 250.3
27 Jacksonville 247.0
28 Charlotte 241.5
29 Houston 238.8
30 Tampa 235.0
31 Hartford 235.0
32 Philadelphia 229.0
33 San Antonio 228.1
34 Atlanta 219.9
35 Virginia Beach 219.0
36 New Orleans 210.1
37 Birmingham 207.3
38 Kansas City 206.5
39 Columbus 201.8
40 Indianapolis 187.1
41 Louisville 180.1
42 Memphis 177.9
43 St. Louis 177.5
44 Cincinnati 174.3
45 Oklahoma City 159.5
46 Cleveland 153.3
47 Buffalo 152.8
Change in Median Sales Price of Existing Single-Family Homes
Percent change, 2013-2018, adjusted to 2018 dollars
Source: National Association of Realtors; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 San Jose 59.4
2 Las Vegas 54.2
3 Orlando 53.3
4 Tampa 52.7
5 Denver 48.7
6 Atlanta 46.2
7 Jacksonville 42.5
8 Sacramento 41.4
9 Riverside 38.3
10 Seattle 38.3
11 Portland 38.3
12 Dallas 37.4
13 Nashville 37.0
14 San Francisco 36.8
15 Phoenix 36.3
16 Raleigh 33.6
17 Salt Lake City 33.4
18 Miami 32.0
19 Austin 31.5
20 Columbus 31.1
21 Minneapolis 29.3
22 Charlotte 28.6
23 Memphis 27.5
24 Indianapolis 27.0
25 San Diego 26.7
26 Chicago 25.8
27 Kansas City 23.8
28 San Antonio 23.8
United States 22.9
29 St. Louis 22.6
30 Houston 22.2
31 Cleveland 20.8
32 Louisville 19.8
33 Cincinnati 19.3
34 New Orleans 18.3
35 Boston 17.8
36 Providence 17.6
37 Birmingham 16.5
38 Richmond 15.7
39 Milwaukee 15.7
40 Buffalo 8.2
41 Virginia Beach 5.3
42 Baltimore 5.2
43 Washington, D.C. 3.0
44 New York -2.9
45 Oklahoma City -3.3
46 Philadelphia -3.6
47 Hartford -4.0
Housing Units
Housing units per 1,000 population, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25002,B03002)
1 Pittsburgh 482.8
2 Cleveland 471.2
3 Buffalo 466.6
4 New Orleans 465.8
5 Tampa 459.7
6 St. Louis 454.6
7 Milwaukee 447.3
8 Birmingham 445.1
9 Louisville 443.4
10 Detroit 440.9
11 Miami 437.1
12 Jacksonville 436.9
13 Providence 436.8
14 Kansas City 434.6
15 Nashville 434.6
16 Austin 432.9
17 Denver 432.4
18 Hartford 432.2
19 Memphis 431.7
United States 431.4
20 Cincinnati 428.9
21 Columbus 428.5
22 Indianapolis 428.4
23 Virginia Beach 427.6
24 Oklahoma City 427.0
25 Richmond 425.3
26 Portland 424.6
27 Seattle 423.8
28 Baltimore 423.6
29 Charlotte 423.4
30 Philadelphia 422.1
31 Boston 421.2
32 Minneapolis 420.6
33 Chicago 420.3
34 Raleigh 415.5
35 Orlando 414.8
36 New York 411.6
37 Phoenix 411.4
38 San Francisco 410.0
39 Las Vegas 409.4
40 Washington, D.C. 400.0
41 Atlanta 399.9
42 San Antonio 398.2
43 Sacramento 395.5
44 Houston 393.8
45 Dallas 389.8
46 San Diego 380.7
47 Salt Lake City 376.0
48 Los Angeles 372.0
49 San Jose 370.6
50 Riverside 345.0
Change in Housing Units
Percent change in housing units per 1,000 population, 2012-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25002,B03002)
1 Austin 8.6
2 Los Angeles 7.4
3 San Jose 6.8
4 Nashville 5.3
5 Chicago 5.2
6 Denver 5.0
7 Salt Lake City 4.8
8 San Francisco 4.6
9 Virginia Beach 4.4
10 Milwaukee 4.4
11 San Antonio 4.3
12 Portland 4.2
13 New York 4.2
14 Philadelphia 4.1
15 Memphis 3.8
16 New Orleans 3.6
17 Charlotte 3.5
18 Boston 3.5
19 Raleigh 3.5
20 Washington, D.C. 3.5
21 Hartford 3.4
22 San Diego 3.3
23 Pittsburgh 3.3
24 Houston 3.3
25 St. Louis 3.2
26 Minneapolis 3.1
27 Louisville 2.5
28 Baltimore 2.3
United States 2.2
29 Miami 2.0
30 Buffalo 1.9
31 Cleveland 1.8
32 Richmond 1.8
33 Seattle 1.8
34 Dallas 1.7
35 Oklahoma City 1.6
36 Kansas City 1.3
37 Providence 0.9
38 Columbus 0.8
39 Birmingham 0.6
40 Indianapolis 0.6
41 Detroit 0.5
42 Atlanta 0.1
43 Cincinnati -0.1
44 Jacksonville -0.2
45 Riverside -0.3
46 Sacramento -0.6
47 Phoenix -2.0
48 Orlando -3.1
49 Las Vegas -3.7
50 Tampa -4.0
Vacancy Rate
Vacant units as a percent of all housing units, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25002)
1 New Orleans 13.9
2 Miami 12.6
3 Tampa 12.1
4 Birmingham 10.7
5 Riverside 10.3
6 Pittsburgh 9.9
7 Las Vegas 9.8
8 Memphis 9.7
United States 9.7
9 Raleigh 9.3
10 Oklahoma City 8.6
11 Phoenix 8.4
12 Cleveland 8.3
13 Jacksonville 8.2
14 St. Louis 8.2
15 Orlando 8.0
16 Detroit 8.0
17 San Antonio 8.0
18 Sacramento 7.4
19 San Francisco 7.4
20 New York 7.4
21 Virginia Beach 7.4
22 Houston 7.2
23 Indianapolis 7.1
24 Atlanta 7.1
25 Providence 7.0
26 Charlotte 6.9
27 Buffalo 6.7
28 Columbus 6.6
29 Kansas City 6.6
30 Nashville 6.5
31 Hartford 6.4
32 Baltimore 6.2
33 Milwaukee 6.2
34 Chicago 6.1
35 Dallas 6.1
36 San Diego 6.0
37 Los Angeles 6.0
38 Louisville 6.0
39 Salt Lake City 5.9
40 Cincinnati 5.8
41 San Jose 5.8
42 Seattle 5.7
43 Philadelphia 5.7
44 Boston 5.6
45 Richmond 5.6
46 Denver 5.2
47 Portland 5.0
48 Washington, D.C. 5.0
49 Austin 4.6
50 Minneapolis 4.5
Change in Vacancy Rate
Percentage point change in vacant units as a percent of all housing units, 2012-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25002)
1 San Jose 2.2
2 Raleigh 2.1
3 San Francisco 1.3
4 Pittsburgh -0.2
5 New Orleans -0.5
6 Minneapolis -0.6
7 Milwaukee -0.8
8 Denver -0.8
9 Hartford -1.1
10 Boston -1.2
11 Portland -1.2
12 Seattle -1.3
13 New York -1.7
14 San Diego -1.7
15 San Antonio -1.9
16 Washington, D.C. -2.0
17 Dallas -2.2
18 Birmingham -2.2
19 St. Louis -2.4
20 Nashville -2.4
21 Oklahoma City -2.4
22 Virginia Beach -2.5
23 Sacramento -2.5
24 Salt Lake City -2.7
25 Memphis -2.7
26 Charlotte -2.8
United States -2.8
27 Philadelphia -2.9
28 Baltimore -3.0
29 Kansas City -3.0
30 Buffalo -3.1
31 Providence -3.2
32 Columbus -3.3
33 Louisville -3.4
34 Chicago -3.6
35 Cleveland -3.7
36 Austin -3.8
37 Indianapolis -3.8
38 Houston -4.0
39 Riverside -4.2
40 Atlanta -4.5
41 Detroit -4.6
42 Tampa -4.6
43 Cincinnati -4.6
44 Richmond -5.3
45 Miami -5.4
46 Las Vegas -5.9
47 Phoenix -6.3
48 Jacksonville -7.4
49 Orlando -10.1
Housing Permits
New permitted units per 1,000 units, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Building Permits Survey and American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25001)
1 Austin 42.5
2 Raleigh 36.2
3 Nashville 32.8
4 Jacksonville 32.6
5 Houston 26.8
6 Dallas 25.8
7 Orlando 25.7
8 Charlotte 23.9
9 San Antonio 23.5
10 Phoenix 23.3
11 Salt Lake City 21.7
12 Tampa 20.1
13 Atlanta 19.6
14 Richmond 18.6
15 Denver 18.6
16 Seattle 15.9
17 Minneapolis 15.5
18 Indianapolis 14.1
19 Las Vegas 14.0
20 Columbus 13.3
21 Washington, D.C. 12.8
22 Portland 12.3
23 Kansas City 11.8
United States 11.7
24 San Jose 11.5
25 Sacramento 11.4
26 Oklahoma City 11.2
27 Riverside 10.5
28 Louisville 9.7
29 Birmingham 8.4
30 Virginia Beach 8.2
31 San Diego 7.6
32 Memphis 7.5
33 Miami 7.5
34 New York 7.3
35 New Orleans 7.2
36 St. Louis 7.2
37 Boston 7.1
38 Los Angeles 6.8
39 Cincinnati 6.4
40 San Francisco 6.0
41 Philadelphia 5.5
42 Baltimore 5.5
43 Pittsburgh 5.0
44 Milwaukee 4.6
45 Chicago 4.5
46 Detroit 4.2
47 Cleveland 3.8
48 Hartford 3.7
49 Buffalo 3.0
50 Providence 2.9
Change in Housing Permits
Percent change in new permitted units, 2017-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Building Permits Survey
1 San Antonio 94.5
2 Jacksonville 78.8
3 Houston 78.6
4 Tampa 64.1
5 Phoenix 61.3
6 Austin 58.7
7 Minneapolis 57.4
8 Birmingham 54.7
9 Raleigh 52.1
10 Orlando 50.4
11 Richmond 47.3
12 Atlanta 42.2
13 Indianapolis 40.8
14 New Orleans 40.5
15 Salt Lake City 37.1
16 Nashville 37.1
17 Columbus 36.9
18 Pittsburgh 30.9
United States 29.9
19 Oklahoma City 27.5
20 Hartford 27.2
21 St. Louis 25.2
22 Dallas 25.0
23 New York 19.0
24 Charlotte 18.8
25 Washington, D.C. 18.6
26 Cleveland 15.7
27 Riverside 14.1
28 Kansas City 13.9
29 Sacramento 13.6
30 Memphis 11.5
31 Philadelphia 6.4
32 Providence 5.6
33 Los Angeles 4.6
34 Denver 3.3
35 Miami 1.5
36 Virginia Beach 0.4
37 Boston -2.1
38 Seattle -2.5
39 Buffalo -3.6
40 Baltimore -3.7
41 San Jose -3.9
42 Cincinnati -4.6
43 Louisville -4.9
44 Las Vegas -7.2
45 San Diego -10.5
46 Milwaukee -13.5
47 Portland -18.8
48 Chicago -20.3
49 Detroit -21.3
50 San Francisco -33.9

Despite relatively affordable housing, St. Louis has a substantial number of homeowners as well as renters paying more than 30 percent of their income on housing. A larger proportion of black owners and renters are cost-burdened compared to their white counterparts.

Housing Cost-Burdened Owners
Owners paying at least 30% of income on housing as a percent of all homeowners, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25091)
1 Miami 33.7
2 Los Angeles 33.6
3 Riverside 32.4
4 San Diego 32.1
5 New York 31.9
6 San Francisco 28.8
7 Sacramento 27.7
8 Boston 26.5
9 Orlando 26.4
10 San Jose 26.0
11 Portland 25.7
12 Tampa 25.7
13 Las Vegas 25.7
14 Chicago 25.0
15 Virginia Beach 24.9
16 Seattle 24.9
17 Providence 24.8
18 New Orleans 24.7
19 San Antonio 24.7
20 Denver 24.2
21 Houston 23.8
22 Dallas 23.7
23 Philadelphia 23.2
24 Hartford 23.0
25 Baltimore 22.8
United States 22.8
26 Jacksonville 21.9
27 Washington, D.C. 21.9
28 Austin 21.9
29 Detroit 21.3
30 Memphis 21.0
31 Milwaukee 20.7
32 Phoenix 20.5
33 Kansas City 20.5
34 Atlanta 20.4
35 Minneapolis 20.1
36 Nashville 20.1
37 Cleveland 20.0
38 Oklahoma City 19.7
39 Salt Lake City 19.3
40 Richmond 19.3
41 Buffalo 19.1
42 Louisville 18.8
43 Columbus 18.4
44 Charlotte 18.3
45 Birmingham 17.7
46 St. Louis 17.7
47 Indianapolis 17.7
48 Cincinnati 17.6
49 Pittsburgh 17.2
50 Raleigh 17.0
Racial Disparity in Housing Cost-Burdened Owners
Ratio of percent of black to percent of white owners paying at least 30% of income on housing, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 Milwaukee 1.98
2 Raleigh 1.86
3 Indianapolis 1.70
4 Kansas City 1.70
5 Cleveland 1.68
6 Denver 1.65
7 Pittsburgh 1.65
8 Memphis 1.65
9 Boston 1.61
10 Richmond 1.58
11 Detroit 1.57
12 Orlando 1.57
13 Cincinnati 1.53
14 San Francisco 1.51
15 Virginia Beach 1.50
16 Hartford 1.49
17 Baltimore 1.47
18 Charlotte 1.45
19 St. Louis 1.45
20 Columbus 1.44
21 Atlanta 1.42
22 Chicago 1.42
23 Minneapolis 1.40
United States 1.39
24 San Diego 1.38
25 New Orleans 1.37
26 Birmingham 1.36
27 Philadelphia 1.36
28 Dallas 1.36
29 Buffalo 1.35
30 Nashville 1.34
31 New York 1.33
32 Washington, D.C. 1.33
33 Houston 1.33
34 Oklahoma City 1.32
35 Miami 1.32
36 Los Angeles 1.30
37 San Antonio 1.29
38 Las Vegas 1.28
39 Jacksonville 1.25
40 Phoenix 1.23
41 Louisville 1.23
42 Riverside 1.22
43 Portland 1.17
44 Tampa 1.17
45 Seattle 1.16
46 Austin 1.16
47 Sacramento 1.16
48 Providence 0.98
Housing Cost-Burdened Renters
Renters paying at least 30% of income on housing as a percent of all renters, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25070)
1 Miami 64.6
2 Orlando 60.6
3 Riverside 60.2
4 Sacramento 59.1
5 Las Vegas 58.3
6 San Diego 58.3
7 Los Angeles 58.2
8 New Orleans 58.2
9 Tampa 57.6
10 Virginia Beach 55.7
11 San Antonio 55.4
12 Birmingham 54.2
13 Memphis 53.9
14 Phoenix 53.9
15 Richmond 53.7
16 Houston 53.5
17 Dallas 53.5
18 Boston 53.3
19 Jacksonville 53.2
20 Atlanta 53.2
21 Hartford 53.0
22 Baltimore 53.0
23 Portland 52.6
24 New York 52.6
25 Denver 52.0
United States 51.9
26 Philadelphia 51.8
27 Detroit 51.7
28 Nashville 51.2
29 Minneapolis 51.0
30 Indianapolis 50.5
31 Chicago 50.4
32 Cleveland 50.1
33 Oklahoma City 50.1
34 Seattle 50.0
35 Charlotte 49.9
36 Buffalo 49.7
37 Milwaukee 49.5
38 Salt Lake City 49.2
39 Louisville 49.1
40 San Francisco 48.9
41 Providence 48.6
42 Austin 48.5
43 Raleigh 48.3
44 Washington, D.C. 47.8
45 Columbus 47.3
46 Kansas City 46.7
47 St. Louis 46.6
48 Cincinnati 46.5
49 San Jose 45.7
50 Pittsburgh 43.2
Racial Disparity in Housing Cost-Burdened Renters
Ratio of percent of black to percent of white renters paying at least 30% of income on housing, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 San Francisco 1.43
2 Cincinnati 1.43
3 Raleigh 1.42
4 Indianapolis 1.39
5 Hartford 1.39
6 Buffalo 1.38
7 Atlanta 1.33
8 Charlotte 1.33
9 Oklahoma City 1.33
10 Phoenix 1.32
11 Seattle 1.31
12 Dallas 1.30
13 San Antonio 1.30
14 Chicago 1.30
15 Pittsburgh 1.29
16 Kansas City 1.28
17 Richmond 1.28
18 Denver 1.28
19 Boston 1.25
20 San Diego 1.24
21 Washington, D.C. 1.24
22 Houston 1.23
23 St. Louis 1.22
24 Tampa 1.21
25 Minneapolis 1.21
United States 1.21
26 Philadelphia 1.20
27 New Orleans 1.20
28 Las Vegas 1.20
29 Miami 1.20
30 Sacramento 1.19
31 Memphis 1.19
32 Baltimore 1.19
33 Milwaukee 1.19
34 Virginia Beach 1.18
35 Orlando 1.17
36 New York 1.16
37 Columbus 1.16
38 Austin 1.16
39 Cleveland 1.16
40 Los Angeles 1.15
41 Detroit 1.14
42 Riverside 1.10
43 Nashville 1.09
44 Portland 1.09
45 Birmingham 1.08
46 Louisville 1.08
47 Jacksonville 1.04
48 Providence 0.85
Median Monthly Housing Costs
In dollars, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25105)
1 San Jose 2,724
2 San Francisco 2,473
3 San Diego 2,153
4 Boston 2,006
5 Los Angeles 1,988
6 Washington, D.C. 1,985
7 Seattle 1,962
8 New York 1,861
9 Denver 1,799
10 Sacramento 1,755
11 Riverside 1,732
12 Austin 1,695
13 Portland 1,659
14 Miami 1,609
15 Baltimore 1,550
16 Dallas 1,540
17 Minneapolis 1,498
18 Salt Lake City 1,485
19 Orlando 1,481
20 Atlanta 1,474
21 Hartford 1,466
22 Phoenix 1,443
23 Las Vegas 1,442
24 Chicago 1,438
25 Raleigh 1,434
26 Philadelphia 1,433
27 Providence 1,424
28 Virginia Beach 1,420
29 Nashville 1,375
30 Houston 1,375
31 Jacksonville 1,351
32 Richmond 1,335
33 Tampa 1,327
34 San Antonio 1,282
35 Charlotte 1,280
United States 1,268
36 Columbus 1,246
37 Kansas City 1,217
38 Milwaukee 1,177
39 Indianapolis 1,135
40 New Orleans 1,133
41 Detroit 1,123
42 Memphis 1,120
43 Cincinnati 1,103
44 St. Louis 1,102
45 Oklahoma City 1,074
46 Louisville 1,073
47 Cleveland 1,038
48 Birmingham 1,032
49 Buffalo 1,016
50 Pittsburgh 973
Median Monthly Rent
In dollars, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25064)
1 San Jose 2,601
2 San Francisco 2,300
3 San Diego 2,045
4 Los Angeles 1,887
5 Washington, D.C. 1,864
6 Boston 1,859
7 Seattle 1,848
8 Denver 1,749
9 Miami 1,712
10 Riverside 1,707
11 Sacramento 1,699
12 New York 1,685
13 Phoenix 1,616
14 Orlando 1,611
15 Austin 1,599
16 Portland 1,555
17 Atlanta 1,549
18 Las Vegas 1,485
19 Tampa 1,477
20 Dallas 1,467
21 Baltimore 1,461
22 Jacksonville 1,443
23 Salt Lake City 1,431
24 Raleigh 1,424
25 Nashville 1,413
26 Virginia Beach 1,365
27 Philadelphia 1,358
28 Charlotte 1,355
29 Minneapolis 1,355
30 Houston 1,317
United States 1,300
31 Richmond 1,298
32 Chicago 1,294
33 Hartford 1,268
34 San Antonio 1,263
35 Providence 1,201
36 Columbus 1,186
37 Kansas City 1,157
38 New Orleans 1,148
39 Memphis 1,132
40 Detroit 1,121
41 Indianapolis 1,092
42 Birmingham 1,082
43 Milwaukee 1,054
44 St. Louis 1,036
45 Louisville 1,029
46 Oklahoma City 1,027
47 Cincinnati 996
48 Buffalo 980
49 Cleveland 970
50 Pittsburgh 964
Housing Affordability
Median housing costs as a percent of median household income, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25105, B19013)
1 Miami 27.3
2 Los Angeles 27.2
3 San Diego 26.1
4 Riverside 25.1
5 Orlando 24.7
6 Las Vegas 24.4
7 New York 24.4
8 Sacramento 23.6
9 San Francisco 23.2
10 Boston 23.1
11 Tampa 23.0
12 Virginia Beach 22.9
13 Dallas 22.3
14 Portland 22.3
15 New Orleans 22.1
16 Houston 22.0
17 Seattle 22.0
18 San Jose 22.0
19 Denver 21.8
20 San Antonio 21.8
21 Austin 21.5
22 Memphis 21.0
23 Jacksonville 20.9
24 Providence 20.9
25 Phoenix 20.9
26 Atlanta 20.8
27 Chicago 20.8
28 Nashville 20.6
29 Baltimore 20.6
30 Hartford 20.5
31 Philadelphia 20.4
United States 20.4
32 Washington, D.C. 20.3
33 Milwaukee 19.9
34 Charlotte 19.9
35 Columbus 19.7
36 Richmond 19.7
37 Minneapolis 19.7
38 Oklahoma City 19.4
39 Kansas City 19.4
40 Salt Lake City 19.4
41 Cleveland 19.1
42 Detroit 18.9
43 Raleigh 18.6
44 Louisville 18.5
45 Birmingham 18.4
46 Indianapolis 18.0
47 Buffalo 17.7
48 St. Louis 17.7
49 Cincinnati 17.6
50 Pittsburgh 16.5
Housing Plus Transportation Affordability
Transportation and housing costs as a percent of median household income, 2015-2019
Source: Center for Neighborhood Technology
1 Miami 58
2 Riverside 57
3 Los Angeles 55
4 Orlando 54
5 Memphis 54
6 New Orleans 54
7 Tampa 53
8 San Diego 53
9 Las Vegas 51
10 Sacramento 51
11 Jacksonville 50
12 Birmingham 50
13 San Antonio 50
14 Phoenix 49
15 Oklahoma City 49
16 Cleveland 49
17 Louisville 48
18 Detroit 48
19 Houston 48
20 Charlotte 48
21 Virginia Beach 48
Peer Average 48
22 Philadelphia 47
23 Portland 47
24 Providence 47
25 Atlanta 47
26 Nashville 47
27 Buffalo 47
28 Milwaukee 47
29 Chicago 47
30 Dallas 47
31 New York 46
32 Richmond 46
33 St. Louis 46
34 Cincinnati 46
35 Austin 46
36 Columbus 46
37 Pittsburgh 46
38 Indianapolis 46
39 Kansas City 46
40 Hartford 45
41 Salt Lake City 45
42 Denver 44
43 Seattle 44
44 Boston 44
45 Raleigh 43
46 Baltimore 43
47 San Francisco 42
48 San Jose 42
49 Minneapolis 42
50 Washington, D.C. 39

St. Louis is one of the most racially segregated regions among the peers. The dissimilarity index is a standard measure of segregation. A score of 0 would mean a region is completely integrated and a score of 100 would mean a community is completely segregated. Black residents are much more likely to live in areas of concentrated poverty—where 40 percent or more of the residents live in poverty. See Where We Stand 7th Edition, Update 3 and Update 4 for further discussion.

Racial Segregation
Black-White segregation scores based on the dissimilarity index, 2018-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Milwaukee 78.7
2 New York 75.3
3 Chicago 74.2
4 Cleveland 73.1
5 Detroit 72.1
6 St. Louis 70.6
7 Buffalo 69.3
8 Philadelphia 66.8
9 Cincinnati 66.4
10 Los Angeles 65.7
United States 65.6
11 Pittsburgh 64.8
12 Miami 64.6
13 Hartford 64.5
14 Boston 63.7
15 Indianapolis 63.6
16 Denver 63.3
17 Birmingham 62.9
18 Columbus 62.7
19 New Orleans 61.9
20 Baltimore 61.9
21 Washington, D.C. 61.1
22 Memphis 61.0
23 Atlanta 60.4
24 San Francisco 59.9
25 Houston 59.9
26 Louisville 57.8
27 Kansas City 57.7
28 Sacramento 57.7
29 Providence 56.2
30 Minneapolis 56.1
31 Salt Lake City 55.3
32 Dallas 54.8
33 Jacksonville 54.7
34 San Diego 54.2
35 Orlando 53.3
36 Tampa 53.2
37 Nashville 52.9
38 Seattle 52.6
39 Charlotte 52.6
40 Richmond 52.3
41 Oklahoma City 51.5
42 Portland 50.7
43 Phoenix 50.3
44 San Antonio 49.7
45 San Jose 49.7
46 Austin 48.5
47 Virginia Beach 48.2
48 Riverside 48.1
49 Raleigh 42.9
50 Las Vegas 42.3
Concentrated Poverty
Percent of poor residents living in census tracts with a poverty rate of 40% or more, 2018-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (B17001)
1 Memphis 23.2
2 Milwaukee 20.9
3 Detroit 20.3
4 Cleveland 20.2
5 Buffalo 18.8
6 Cincinnati 17.9
7 New Orleans 17.1
8 Philadelphia 14.8
9 Birmingham 13.7
10 Louisville 13.5
11 New York 13.2
12 Columbus 13.2
13 Houston 10.9
14 Baltimore 9.1
United States 9.0
15 Hartford 8.9
16 Chicago 8.6
17 Indianapolis 8.5
18 Richmond 8.3
19 Jacksonville 8.2
20 St. Louis 8.2
21 Oklahoma City 8.1
22 Austin 7.5
23 Pittsburgh 7.1
24 Dallas 6.9
25 Minneapolis 6.9
26 San Antonio 6.2
27 Atlanta 5.7
28 Virginia Beach 5.6
29 Miami 5.3
30 Kansas City 4.6
31 Sacramento 4.5
32 Charlotte 4.1
33 Las Vegas 4.0
34 Nashville 3.9
35 Phoenix 3.9
36 Tampa 3.8
37 Los Angeles 3.4
38 Boston 3.4
39 San Diego 3.3
40 San Francisco 3.3
41 Orlando 3.2
42 Raleigh 2.8
43 Providence 2.5
44 Washington, D.C. 1.8
45 Seattle 1.7
46 Portland 1.2
47 Riverside 1.0
48 San Jose 0.6
49 Denver 0.3
50 Salt Lake City 0.2
Racial Disparity in Concentrated Poverty
Ratio of black to non-Hispanic white residents, 2018-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (B17001, B17001B, B17001H)
1 Nashville 24.36
2 Denver 19.03
3 St. Louis 15.39
4 Jacksonville 9.88
5 Chicago 9.00
6 Kansas City 8.71
7 Miami 8.62
8 Birmingham 7.24
9 Hartford 6.97
10 New Orleans 6.68
11 San Jose 6.41
12 Buffalo 6.34
13 Memphis 6.31
14 Baltimore 5.82
15 Virginia Beach 5.49
16 Cleveland 5.12
17 Tampa 4.90
18 Houston 4.63
19 Riverside 4.61
20 Louisville 4.57
21 Dallas 4.52
22 Milwaukee 4.42
23 San Antonio 4.06
24 Richmond 4.00
25 Phoenix 3.88
26 Philadelphia 3.73
27 Atlanta 3.73
28 Charlotte 3.69
29 Detroit 3.66
30 Providence 3.35
31 Boston 3.32
United States 3.01
32 Indianapolis 2.96
33 Pittsburgh 2.91
34 Cincinnati 2.89
35 Orlando 2.83
36 Las Vegas 2.77
37 Los Angeles 2.39
38 Oklahoma City 2.39
39 Washington, D.C. 2.15
40 Minneapolis 2.00
41 Columbus 1.79
42 New York 1.44
43 Seattle 1.07
44 Portland 0.89
45 Austin 0.79
46 San Diego 0.54
47 Sacramento 0.42
48 San Francisco 0.40
49 Raleigh 0.28
50 Salt Lake City 0.00

Transportation

The region’s transportation network provides assets important to the growth of St. Louis, including an extensive road network—serving residents, businesses, and freight—and low congestion relative to the peer regions. The region’s challenges in this section include relatively high crash fatalities and lack of access for non-auto commuters. For further discussion, see the performance indicators in the Connected Theme on OneSTL. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

St. Louis has an extensive road network with a larger number of lane miles per square mile than the average for the peer regions. Residents in St. Louis drive more miles, on average, than their counterparts in most of the peer regions. The average vehicle miles traveled decreased substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic and has not yet returned to pre-pandemic levels. The fourth table indicates St. Louis has a relatively large percentage of bridge deck area that is in poor or worse condition.

Road Network
Freeway lane miles per urbanized area square mile, 2020
Source: Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Salt Lake City 4.0
2 Los Angeles 2.9
3 Baltimore 2.5
4 San Jose 2.5
5 Dallas 2.4
6 San Antonio 2.4
7 Houston 2.1
8 Washington, D.C. 2.1
9 Austin 2.0
10 San Diego 2.0
11 San Francisco 1.9
12 Cleveland 1.8
13 Miami 1.8
14 Kansas City 1.8
15 St. Louis 1.8
16 Riverside 1.7
17 Denver 1.7
18 Richmond 1.6
19 New York 1.6
20 Milwaukee 1.5
21 Sacramento 1.5
22 Seattle 1.5
Peer Average 1.4
23 Columbus 1.4
24 Orlando 1.4
25 Cincinnati 1.4
26 Phoenix 1.4
27 Birmingham 1.4
28 Hartford 1.4
29 Louisville 1.3
30 New Orleans 1.3
31 Oklahoma City 1.3
32 Jacksonville 1.3
33 Detroit 1.3
34 Minneapolis 1.3
35 Portland 1.2
36 Charlotte 1.2
37 Nashville 1.2
38 Providence 1.1
39 Indianapolis 1.1
40 Buffalo 1.1
41 Philadelphia 1.1
42 Memphis 1.1
43 Boston 1.0
44 Pittsburgh 1.0
45 Las Vegas 1.0
46 Tampa 0.9
47 Atlanta 0.8
48 Chicago 0.8
49 Raleigh 0.8
50 Virginia Beach 0.6
Vehicle Miles Traveled
Average daily VMT per capita on freeways and arterials, 2020
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Nashville 26.6
2 Birmingham 24.2
3 Memphis 20.7
4 Kansas City 20.3
5 Richmond 20.2
6 Atlanta 19.8
7 St. Louis 19.5
8 Jacksonville 19.5
9 Raleigh 18.9
10 Charlotte 18.5
11 San Antonio 18.1
12 Oklahoma City 18.1
13 Houston 18.0
14 Dallas 17.7
15 Indianapolis 17.3
16 Cincinnati 16.9
17 Orlando 16.9
18 Hartford 16.5
19 Milwaukee 16.4
20 Minneapolis 16.3
21 Denver 16.2
22 Columbus 16.2
23 Virginia Beach 16.1
Peer Average 16.0
24 Riverside 16.0
25 Phoenix 15.9
26 Austin 15.9
27 Tampa 15.9
28 Salt Lake City 15.8
29 Detroit 15.7
30 San Diego 15.6
31 Los Angeles 15.4
32 Cleveland 15.3
33 Boston 15.3
34 Baltimore 15.1
35 Sacramento 14.3
36 Buffalo 13.7
37 Louisville 13.7
38 Miami 13.7
39 Washington, D.C. 13.5
40 Providence 13.4
41 Pittsburgh 13.2
42 Seattle 13.1
43 Chicago 12.2
44 Las Vegas 12.0
45 Philadelphia 12.0
46 San Francisco 11.9
47 San Jose 11.8
48 Portland 11.7
49 New Orleans 11.1
50 New York 9.0
Change in Vehicle Miles Traveled
Percent change in average daily VMT per capita, 2000-2020
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Raleigh 39.3
2 Nashville 11.1
3 Buffalo 6.9
4 Memphis 6.6
5 Charlotte 5.1
6 Birmingham 1.3
7 Tampa 0.6
8 Salt Lake City -2.1
9 San Antonio -2.2
10 Cleveland -2.6
11 Milwaukee -3.5
12 Cincinnati -5.1
13 Las Vegas -6.6
14 Phoenix -7.3
15 St. Louis -8.2
16 Jacksonville -8.4
17 Richmond -9.5
18 Riverside -9.6
19 Boston -9.7
20 Kansas City -9.8
21 Austin -10.8
22 New Orleans -12.2
23 Miami -12.2
24 Philadelphia -12.3
25 Atlanta -12.8
Peer Average -12.9
26 Virginia Beach -13.1
27 Hartford -13.4
28 Sacramento -14.0
29 Baltimore -15.3
30 Columbus -15.6
31 Denver -16.3
32 Houston -16.8
33 New York -16.9
34 Pittsburgh -17.6
35 Detroit -19.0
36 Chicago -19.2
37 Providence -20.2
38 Minneapolis -20.3
39 San Diego -20.6
40 Orlando -20.9
41 San Francisco -21.0
42 Dallas -23.5
43 Washington, D.C. -24.6
44 Los Angeles -24.9
45 Portland -25.0
46 Indianapolis -25.1
47 Oklahoma City -26.4
48 Seattle -33.5
49 Louisville -37.6
50 San Jose -40.7
Deficient Bridges
Percent of total bridge deck area, 2019
Source: FHWA, National Bridge Inventory
1 Providence 19.0
2 San Francisco 14.7
3 New York 12.6
4 Boston 12.4
5 Chicago 12.2
6 San Jose 11.4
7 New Orleans 10.9
8 Hartford 10.6
9 Birmingham 9.0
10 Detroit 8.9
11 St. Louis 8.8
12 Louisville 8.5
13 Philadelphia 7.5
14 Buffalo 7.5
15 Charlotte 6.4
16 Cleveland 6.4
17 Oklahoma City 6.3
18 Pittsburgh 6.0
19 Kansas City 6.0
20 Virginia Beach 6.0
United States 5.9
21 Seattle 5.6
22 Denver 5.5
23 Riverside 5.3
24 Nashville 5.0
25 Richmond 4.8
26 Raleigh 4.7
27 Milwaukee 4.6
28 Baltimore 4.6
29 Memphis 4.5
30 Los Angeles 4.3
31 Indianapolis 3.7
32 Minneapolis 3.7
33 Portland 3.6
34 San Diego 3.4
35 Cincinnati 3.4
36 Washington, D.C. 3.2
37 Columbus 3.0
38 Sacramento 3.0
39 Dallas 2.0
40 Miami 1.5
41 Atlanta 1.4
42 Jacksonville 0.9
43 Houston 0.9
44 Orlando 0.7
45 Salt Lake City 0.7
46 Las Vegas 0.5
47 Tampa 0.5
48 Phoenix 0.4
49 San Antonio 0.4
50 Austin 0.1

The metrics in this section reflect traffic congestion, the efficiency of the system and freight movement, and protecting the environment. Typically, all of the measures indicate St. Louis has relatively little congestion compared to the peer regions. The data for 2020 show a bit of a different story, but it is too soon to know if this is a change in the trend or a reflection of what happened in one year. The last four tables in this section are measures the state departments of transportation, metropolitan planning organizations, and transit agencies are required to track, according to federal transportation legislation. The truck travel time reliability is a metric that lacks an intuitive interpretation, but it indicates the region’s highway system is more reliable for moving freight than many of the peers. See Where We Stand 8th Edition, Update 7 for further discussion.

Annual Delay per Auto Traveler
Average hours lost due to congestion per auto traveler, 2020
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 New York 56
2 Boston 50
3 Houston 49
4 San Francisco 46
5 Los Angeles 46
6 Washington, D.C. 42
7 Austin 41
8 Dallas 40
9 Chicago 39
10 Sacramento 38
11 Philadelphia 37
12 Atlanta 37
13 Detroit 35
14 Oklahoma City 35
15 Kansas City 34
16 St. Louis 33
17 Providence 33
18 San Antonio 32
19 Minneapolis 32
20 Seattle 31
21 San Jose 31
22 Portland 31
23 Hartford 31
Peer Average 31
24 Buffalo 29
25 Milwaukee 29
26 Cleveland 29
27 Nashville 28
28 Memphis 28
29 Columbus 27
30 Baltimore 27
31 Miami 27
32 Salt Lake City 26
33 Denver 26
34 Indianapolis 26
35 Cincinnati 26
36 New Orleans 26
37 Riverside 25
38 Pittsburgh 25
39 Phoenix 25
40 Richmond 24
41 San Diego 24
42 Charlotte 24
43 Birmingham 23
44 Orlando 22
45 Louisville 22
46 Virginia Beach 22
47 Jacksonville 21
48 Las Vegas 18
49 Tampa 18
50 Raleigh 17
Change in Annual Delay per Auto Traveler
Change in average hours lost due to congestion per auto traveler, 2010-2020
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Richmond -4.0
2 Kansas City -6.0
3 Houston -6.0
4 Oklahoma City -8.0
5 Providence -8.0
6 Austin -8.0
7 Sacramento -8.0
8 San Antonio -10.0
9 St. Louis -10.0
10 Salt Lake City -10.0
11 Dallas -10.0
12 Cleveland -10.0
13 Milwaukee -11.0
14 Buffalo -12.0
15 Birmingham -12.0
16 Memphis -12.0
17 Philadelphia -13.0
18 Pittsburgh -14.0
19 Columbus -14.0
20 Cincinnati -15.0
21 Louisville -15.0
22 Boston -15.0
23 Minneapolis -15.0
24 Hartford -15.0
25 Virginia Beach -16.0
26 Indianapolis -16.0
27 Detroit -16.0
28 Raleigh -17.0
29 Nashville -18.0
Peer Average -18.7
30 New Orleans -19.0
31 Jacksonville -20.0
32 Chicago -20.0
33 Portland -20.0
34 Baltimore -20.0
35 Charlotte -21.0
36 New York -22.0
37 Atlanta -23.0
38 Tampa -24.0
39 Denver -24.0
40 Phoenix -25.0
41 Orlando -26.0
42 Las Vegas -26.0
43 Miami -28.0
44 San Diego -30.0
45 San Jose -32.0
46 Riverside -33.0
47 Seattle -33.0
48 San Francisco -44.0
49 Washington, D.C. -48.0
50 Los Angeles -51.0
Travel Time Index
Ratio of peak period travel time to free-flow travel time, 2020
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 New York 1.17
2 Los Angeles 1.16
3 San Francisco 1.16
4 Houston 1.15
5 Austin 1.13
6 Providence 1.13
7 Washington, D.C. 1.12
8 Detroit 1.12
9 Oklahoma City 1.12
10 Philadelphia 1.12
11 Dallas 1.12
12 San Antonio 1.12
13 San Jose 1.12
14 Boston 1.12
15 Miami 1.11
16 Sacramento 1.11
17 New Orleans 1.11
18 Seattle 1.11
19 Minneapolis 1.11
20 Portland 1.10
21 San Diego 1.10
22 Atlanta 1.10
23 Chicago 1.10
24 Kansas City 1.10
Peer Average 1.09
25 Denver 1.09
26 Memphis 1.08
27 St. Louis 1.08
28 Cleveland 1.08
29 Riverside 1.08
30 Columbus 1.08
31 Pittsburgh 1.08
32 Phoenix 1.08
33 Buffalo 1.08
34 Tampa 1.08
35 Hartford 1.07
36 Orlando 1.07
37 Milwaukee 1.07
38 Richmond 1.07
39 Baltimore 1.07
40 Las Vegas 1.07
41 Virginia Beach 1.06
42 Nashville 1.06
43 Charlotte 1.06
44 Cincinnati 1.06
45 Salt Lake City 1.06
46 Indianapolis 1.06
47 Jacksonville 1.06
48 Birmingham 1.05
49 Louisville 1.05
50 Raleigh 1.05
Commuter Stress Index
Congestion experienced by travelers in peak direction at peak times, 2020
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 1.21
2 New York 1.21
3 San Francisco 1.18
4 Houston 1.16
5 Providence 1.15
6 Washington, D.C. 1.14
7 Austin 1.14
8 Dallas 1.14
9 Sacramento 1.13
10 San Antonio 1.13
11 Detroit 1.13
12 Philadelphia 1.13
13 Oklahoma City 1.13
14 Boston 1.13
15 Miami 1.12
16 San Jose 1.12
17 Seattle 1.12
18 Minneapolis 1.12
19 Portland 1.11
20 San Diego 1.11
21 New Orleans 1.11
22 Atlanta 1.11
23 Chicago 1.11
24 Kansas City 1.11
Peer Average 1.11
25 Denver 1.10
26 Phoenix 1.09
27 Riverside 1.09
28 Buffalo 1.09
29 Baltimore 1.09
30 Jacksonville 1.09
31 Tampa 1.09
32 Cleveland 1.09
33 Hartford 1.09
34 Pittsburgh 1.09
35 Columbus 1.09
36 Memphis 1.08
37 Richmond 1.08
38 St. Louis 1.08
39 Orlando 1.08
40 Virginia Beach 1.07
41 Charlotte 1.07
42 Nashville 1.07
43 Cincinnati 1.07
44 Salt Lake City 1.07
45 Milwaukee 1.07
46 Indianapolis 1.07
47 Las Vegas 1.07
48 Birmingham 1.06
49 Louisville 1.06
50 Raleigh 1.05
Congestion Costs
Average annual costs per auto traveler, in 2020 dollars, 2020
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 New York 1,322
2 San Francisco 1,301
3 Los Angeles 1,142
4 Boston 1,103
5 Houston 1,097
6 Austin 945
7 Washington, D.C. 905
8 Atlanta 869
9 Chicago 852
10 Dallas 848
11 Sacramento 800
12 Philadelphia 789
13 St. Louis 719
14 San Jose 712
15 Detroit 710
16 Kansas City 694
17 Portland 690
18 Cleveland 686
19 Seattle 685
20 San Antonio 682
Peer Average 672
21 San Diego 665
22 Nashville 659
23 Oklahoma City 656
24 Buffalo 649
25 Columbus 645
26 Providence 630
27 Minneapolis 620
28 Cincinnati 608
29 Miami 608
30 Hartford 606
31 Milwaukee 602
32 New Orleans 597
33 Charlotte 585
34 Pittsburgh 552
35 Baltimore 549
36 Denver 545
37 Salt Lake City 544
38 Birmingham 521
39 Riverside 511
40 Phoenix 489
41 Indianapolis 487
42 Richmond 482
43 Orlando 471
44 Jacksonville 448
45 Memphis 427
46 Tampa 401
47 Virginia Beach 399
48 Louisville 386
49 Las Vegas 363
50 Raleigh 361
Truck Congestion Costs
Average annual costs per 1,000 vehicle miles traveled, in millions of dollars, 2020
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 San Francisco 8.6
2 New Orleans 8.3
3 New York 7.6
4 San Jose 6.2
5 Oklahoma City 5.4
6 Chicago 5.3
7 Portland 4.8
8 Houston 4.3
9 Austin 4.3
10 St. Louis 4.2
11 Kansas City 4.2
12 Detroit 4.0
13 Los Angeles 3.9
14 Philadelphia 3.8
15 Boston 3.8
16 Cleveland 3.4
17 Memphis 3.4
Peer Average 3.4
18 Sacramento 3.3
19 San Antonio 3.3
20 Seattle 3.2
21 Milwaukee 3.2
22 Dallas 3.2
23 Louisville 3.1
24 Buffalo 3.1
25 Hartford 3.0
26 Washington, D.C. 3.0
27 Indianapolis 2.9
28 Nashville 2.9
29 Providence 2.9
30 Columbus 2.9
31 Baltimore 2.8
32 Riverside 2.7
33 Pittsburgh 2.7
34 Salt Lake City 2.6
35 Denver 2.5
36 Minneapolis 2.5
37 Atlanta 2.5
38 Miami 2.5
39 Phoenix 2.4
40 Cincinnati 2.3
41 San Diego 2.1
42 Orlando 2.1
43 Las Vegas 2.1
44 Charlotte 2.0
45 Birmingham 1.8
46 Richmond 1.7
47 Tampa 1.7
48 Virginia Beach 1.6
49 Jacksonville 1.3
50 Raleigh 1.1
Peak Hour Excessive Delay
Hours per capita spent on roads with more than normal delay during evening rush hour (3-7 p.m.), 2021
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 32.7
2 Nashville 21.0
3 New York 20.6
4 Seattle 18.9
5 San Francisco 18.3
6 Riverside 16.6
7 Atlanta 14.4
8 Baltimore 13.9
9 San Jose 13.7
10 Houston 13.5
11 Philadelphia 13.1
12 Washington, D.C. 13.1
13 Chicago 12.1
14 San Diego 11.9
15 Denver 11.7
16 Dallas 11.4
17 Austin 11.3
18 San Antonio 10.6
Peer Average 10.3
19 Charlotte 10.0
20 Detroit 9.8
21 Pittsburgh 9.3
22 Las Vegas 9.1
23 Memphis 9.1
24 Sacramento 9.0
25 Louisville 8.4
26 Miami 8.3
27 Buffalo 8.1
28 Portland 7.8
29 Orlando 7.4
30 Cincinnati 6.8
31 Providence 6.7
32 St. Louis 6.6
33 Tampa 6.5
34 Hartford 5.7
35 Virginia Beach 5.2
36 Cleveland 5.0
37 Raleigh 5.0
38 Jacksonville 4.7
39 Phoenix 4.2
40 Columbus 3.6
41 Kansas City 3.5
42 Minneapolis 3.2
43 Indianapolis 3.0
Interstate Travel Time Reliability
Percent of person-miles traveled on interstates that are reliable, 2021
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Cleveland 98.9
2 Memphis 98.7
3 Richmond 98.7
4 Buffalo 98.6
5 St. Louis 98.0
6 Columbus 97.3
7 Kansas City 97.0
8 Louisville 96.9
9 Birmingham 96.5
10 Raleigh 96.2
11 Salt Lake City 94.8
12 Hartford 94.6
13 Pittsburgh 94.5
14 Detroit 93.5
15 Jacksonville 92.0
16 Minneapolis 90.9
17 Cincinnati 90.6
18 Charlotte 90.6
19 Sacramento 90.1
20 Providence 89.8
21 Virginia Beach 89.2
22 Baltimore 87.6
23 Milwaukee 87.6
24 Indianapolis 87.5
25 Oklahoma City 85.2
26 Nashville 84.3
27 San Jose 84.2
Peer Average 83.4
28 Miami 80.1
29 San Diego 79.9
30 Philadelphia 79.8
31 San Antonio 79.2
32 New York 78.6
33 New Orleans 77.9
34 Boston 77.4
35 Houston 75.9
36 Las Vegas 75.7
37 Riverside 75.4
38 Tampa 75.3
39 Chicago 74.4
40 Dallas 74.2
41 San Francisco 73.0
42 Washington, D.C. 70.7
43 Atlanta 70.6
44 Portland 69.3
45 Austin 68.8
46 Denver 68.8
47 Seattle 65.4
48 Orlando 63.3
49 Phoenix 59.5
50 Los Angeles 53.0
Non-Interstate Travel Time Reliability
Percent of person-miles traveled on non-interstates that are reliable, 2021
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Oklahoma City 97.7
2 Miami 97.6
3 Raleigh 96.0
4 Orlando 95.9
5 Buffalo 95.8
6 Tampa 94.7
7 Memphis 94.7
8 Indianapolis 94.7
9 Minneapolis 94.6
10 Jacksonville 94.4
11 Kansas City 94.1
12 Denver 93.9
13 Virginia Beach 93.8
14 Chicago 93.5
15 Hartford 93.3
16 Columbus 93.2
17 Detroit 93.0
18 Cleveland 93.0
19 St. Louis 92.9
20 Las Vegas 92.8
21 Philadelphia 92.8
22 Providence 92.0
23 Milwaukee 91.9
24 Pittsburgh 91.8
25 Cincinnati 90.7
26 Washington, D.C. 90.7
27 Baltimore 90.4
28 Nashville 89.6
Peer Average 89.5
29 Austin 89.0
30 Phoenix 88.5
31 Atlanta 88.4
32 Salt Lake City 88.3
33 Sacramento 88.0
34 Houston 87.3
35 Portland 86.3
36 Charlotte 85.8
37 New Orleans 85.6
38 Louisville 85.5
39 Birmingham 85.4
40 Boston 84.8
41 Richmond 84.6
42 Dallas 84.1
43 San Jose 83.9
44 New York 83.6
45 San Francisco 82.7
46 San Diego 82.4
47 Seattle 82.1
48 San Antonio 78.5
49 Riverside 76.9
50 Los Angeles 76.0
Truck Travel Time Reliability Index
2021
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Seattle 2.47
2 Washington, D.C. 2.43
3 Los Angeles 2.37
4 Orlando 2.36
5 Phoenix 2.28
6 Portland 2.19
7 Atlanta 2.17
8 Houston 2.13
9 New York 2.06
10 Riverside 2.05
11 Dallas 2.04
12 New Orleans 2.04
13 San Francisco 2.03
14 Miami 1.99
15 San Diego 1.97
16 Denver 1.94
17 Austin 1.90
18 Virginia Beach 1.87
19 Boston 1.85
20 Memphis 1.85
21 Chicago 1.84
22 Philadelphia 1.76
Peer Average 1.76
23 Oklahoma City 1.75
24 San Jose 1.74
25 Tampa 1.70
26 San Antonio 1.68
27 Las Vegas 1.68
28 Baltimore 1.68
29 Sacramento 1.66
30 Nashville 1.65
31 Cincinnati 1.61
32 Louisville 1.58
33 Providence 1.57
34 Detroit 1.54
35 Milwaukee 1.53
36 Indianapolis 1.52
37 Charlotte 1.52
38 Minneapolis 1.51
39 Jacksonville 1.50
40 Birmingham 1.48
41 Salt Lake City 1.44
42 Raleigh 1.42
43 Hartford 1.40
44 Pittsburgh 1.39
45 Kansas City 1.36
46 St. Louis 1.33
47 Columbus 1.28
48 Richmond 1.26
49 Buffalo 1.24
50 Cleveland 1.23

Each year, thousands of people die in motor vehicle crashes in the United States. Based on data for urbanized areas, St. Louis has one of the higher overall crash fatality rates among the peers. The region’s fatality rate due to speed is particularly high relative to the peers. The region is below the national average on crash fatalities associated with distracted driving as well as those that involve drugs and alcohol. See Where We Stand 7th Edition Update, 9 for further discussion.

Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Las Vegas 1.88
2 Memphis 1.43
3 Tampa 1.38
4 Miami 1.34
5 Louisville 1.20
6 Riverside 1.10
7 Phoenix 1.06
8 Orlando 1.06
9 Jacksonville 1.04
10 New Orleans 1.02
11 Philadelphia 0.96
12 San Antonio 0.87
13 Dallas 0.86
14 Atlanta 0.82
15 St. Louis 0.81
16 Charlotte 0.80
17 Sacramento 0.80
18 Houston 0.79
19 Birmingham 0.79
20 Virginia Beach 0.79
United States 0.79
21 Oklahoma City 0.78
22 Hartford 0.76
23 Portland 0.76
24 Indianapolis 0.76
25 Kansas City 0.74
26 Baltimore 0.74
27 Denver 0.74
28 Pittsburgh 0.74
29 San Diego 0.72
30 Los Angeles 0.72
31 Milwaukee 0.70
32 Chicago 0.69
33 Columbus 0.68
34 San Jose 0.68
35 Detroit 0.68
36 Cincinnati 0.67
37 Austin 0.64
38 New York 0.63
39 Richmond 0.62
40 Seattle 0.61
41 Washington, D.C. 0.60
42 Providence 0.59
43 Salt Lake City 0.58
44 Cleveland 0.52
45 San Francisco 0.48
46 Nashville 0.45
47 Raleigh 0.42
48 Minneapolis 0.40
49 Buffalo 0.35
50 Boston 0.35
Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Associated with Speed
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Las Vegas 0.39
2 Milwaukee 0.28
3 St. Louis 0.26
4 Riverside 0.24
5 Oklahoma City 0.23
6 Providence 0.23
7 Kansas City 0.23
8 Virginia Beach 0.22
9 Phoenix 0.21
10 Charlotte 0.21
11 Memphis 0.21
12 Seattle 0.20
13 Philadelphia 0.20
14 Denver 0.20
15 Dallas 0.20
16 Chicago 0.18
17 Pittsburgh 0.18
18 Cleveland 0.17
19 Portland 0.17
20 Hartford 0.16
21 Birmingham 0.16
22 Los Angeles 0.15
United States 0.15
23 Baltimore 0.15
24 San Diego 0.15
25 San Antonio 0.15
26 Atlanta 0.15
27 Salt Lake City 0.15
28 Cincinnati 0.14
29 Austin 0.14
30 Columbus 0.14
31 Washington, D.C. 0.13
32 Detroit 0.13
33 Sacramento 0.12
34 Indianapolis 0.12
35 Minneapolis 0.12
36 San Jose 0.11
37 Miami 0.11
38 Raleigh 0.11
39 Houston 0.10
40 Richmond 0.10
41 San Francisco 0.10
42 New York 0.10
43 Buffalo 0.09
44 Tampa 0.08
45 New Orleans 0.08
46 Boston 0.08
47 Louisville 0.07
48 Jacksonville 0.06
49 Orlando 0.06
50 Nashville 0.03
Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Associated with Distracted Drivers
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Louisville 0.22
2 San Antonio 0.18
3 Orlando 0.14
4 New Orleans 0.12
5 Oklahoma City 0.12
6 Seattle 0.12
7 Austin 0.12
8 Tampa 0.12
9 Charlotte 0.10
10 Dallas 0.10
11 Phoenix 0.09
12 New York 0.08
13 Philadelphia 0.08
14 San Jose 0.07
United States 0.07
15 Cincinnati 0.07
16 Miami 0.07
17 Washington, D.C. 0.07
18 Virginia Beach 0.07
19 Kansas City 0.06
20 Riverside 0.06
21 Las Vegas 0.06
22 St. Louis 0.06
23 Houston 0.06
24 Baltimore 0.06
25 Salt Lake City 0.05
26 Columbus 0.05
27 Atlanta 0.05
28 Richmond 0.05
29 Boston 0.05
30 San Diego 0.04
31 Sacramento 0.04
32 Portland 0.04
33 Birmingham 0.04
34 Milwaukee 0.04
35 Detroit 0.04
36 Buffalo 0.04
37 Pittsburgh 0.04
38 Jacksonville 0.04
39 Providence 0.04
40 Memphis 0.03
41 Minneapolis 0.03
42 Los Angeles 0.03
43 Chicago 0.03
44 Raleigh 0.02
45 Hartford 0.02
46 San Francisco 0.02
47 Denver 0.02
48 Nashville 0.02
49 Indianapolis 0.01
50 Cleveland 0.01
Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Associated with Drugs or Alcohol
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Las Vegas 0.60
2 Jacksonville 0.54
3 Riverside 0.44
4 New Orleans 0.40
5 San Antonio 0.35
6 Denver 0.34
7 Houston 0.34
8 Tampa 0.34
9 Philadelphia 0.33
10 Charlotte 0.32
11 Dallas 0.29
12 Orlando 0.29
13 Cincinnati 0.27
14 Oklahoma City 0.26
15 Phoenix 0.25
United States 0.25
16 Sacramento 0.25
17 Miami 0.25
18 Baltimore 0.24
19 Detroit 0.23
20 Milwaukee 0.23
21 San Diego 0.22
22 Nashville 0.21
23 Los Angeles 0.20
24 Pittsburgh 0.19
25 St. Louis 0.19
26 San Jose 0.19
27 Richmond 0.18
28 Virginia Beach 0.17
29 Kansas City 0.17
30 New York 0.17
31 Washington, D.C. 0.16
32 Indianapolis 0.16
33 Columbus 0.16
34 Cleveland 0.16
35 San Francisco 0.16
36 Austin 0.16
37 Birmingham 0.15
38 Salt Lake City 0.15
39 Portland 0.14
40 Seattle 0.13
41 Memphis 0.13
42 Hartford 0.13
43 Chicago 0.13
44 Louisville 0.12
45 Providence 0.12
46 Raleigh 0.10
47 Minneapolis 0.09
48 Atlanta 0.09
49 Boston 0.07
50 Buffalo 0.04

The St. Louis transit system ranks about in the middle among the peers for total ridership, the utility of the system, and the amount of funding spent on the system. Regions with more extensive transit systems tend to be more densely populated. The range among the peer regions is considerable on these metrics. For further discussion, see the Transit Ridership performance indicator on OneSTL.

Transit Ridership
Annual transit boardings per capita, 2022
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 New York 144.2
2 San Francisco 53.6
3 Boston 47.5
4 Seattle 36.7
5 Washington, D.C. 36.7
Peer Average 35.1
6 Chicago 33.0
7 Philadelphia 32.7
8 Los Angeles 29.0
9 Portland 26.8
10 Salt Lake City 26.7
11 Baltimore 23.8
12 Denver 22.9
13 San Diego 21.0
14 Pittsburgh 19.3
15 Las Vegas 19.2
16 Minneapolis 15.7
17 Milwaukee 15.2
18 Miami 14.6
19 New Orleans 14.4
20 Buffalo 13.9
21 San Antonio 12.6
22 Hartford 12.3
23 Cleveland 11.5
24 Austin 11.3
25 Atlanta 10.6
26 Houston 9.9
27 San Jose 9.7
28 Charlotte 9.5
29 Orlando 9.5
30 St. Louis 9.1
31 Phoenix 9.0
32 Richmond 8.5
33 Dallas 8.3
34 Providence 8.0
35 Kansas City 7.5
36 Cincinnati 7.5
37 Tampa 7.4
38 Sacramento 6.7
39 Columbus 6.6
40 Raleigh 6.6
41 Nashville 5.7
42 Louisville 5.6
43 Jacksonville 4.9
44 Virginia Beach 4.5
45 Riverside 4.2
46 Detroit 3.7
47 Indianapolis 3.6
48 Memphis 2.8
49 Oklahoma City 2.7
50 Birmingham 2.4
Change in Transit Ridership
Percent change in annual transit boardings, 2019-2022
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 Richmond -7.5
2 Kansas City -19.7
3 Oklahoma City -20.6
4 Raleigh -24.0
5 Tampa -26.6
6 New Orleans -27.3
7 Cincinnati -28.7
8 Miami -28.9
9 Salt Lake City -29.4
10 Orlando -33.6
11 San Diego -33.9
12 Austin -34.3
13 Los Angeles -34.6
14 New York -34.7
15 Hartford -35.6
16 Las Vegas -35.9
17 Houston -36.3
18 Nashville -36.4
19 Milwaukee -36.8
20 Dallas -38.2
21 Indianapolis -38.8
Peer Average -40.0
22 Cleveland -40.3
23 San Antonio -40.9
24 Providence -41.1
25 Denver -41.8
26 Seattle -42.3
27 Philadelphia -43.6
28 Boston -44.7
29 Birmingham -45.0
30 Buffalo -45.1
31 Sacramento -45.8
32 Baltimore -46.0
33 Columbus -46.8
34 Charlotte -47.2
35 Jacksonville -47.4
36 Chicago -48.3
37 Portland -48.8
38 St. Louis -49.2
39 Pittsburgh -49.5
40 Minneapolis -50.0
41 Phoenix -50.5
42 San Jose -51.3
43 Virginia Beach -51.5
44 Riverside -52.4
45 Washington, D.C. -53.7
46 Louisville -53.8
47 Memphis -54.0
48 Atlanta -56.5
49 San Francisco -58.0
50 Detroit -60.4
Change in Transit Ridership
Percent change in annual transit boardings, 2021-2022
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 San Francisco 70.9
2 Washington, D.C. 69.4
3 Boston 67.0
4 Philadelphia 61.4
5 Raleigh 55.2
6 New Orleans 50.3
7 San Jose 47.3
8 Nashville 45.6
9 San Diego 44.6
10 Charlotte 43.1
11 Pittsburgh 42.4
12 Sacramento 40.9
13 Los Angeles 33.8
Peer Average 33.8
14 New York 33.6
15 Seattle 33.5
16 Salt Lake City 31.2
17 Riverside 30.8
18 Houston 27.5
19 Chicago 26.1
20 Denver 25.6
21 Portland 23.6
22 Minneapolis 23.2
23 Las Vegas 22.9
24 Providence 22.2
25 Austin 21.5
26 Baltimore 20.2
27 Cleveland 20.2
28 Orlando 19.3
29 Oklahoma City 17.7
30 Milwaukee 17.6
31 Kansas City 17.3
32 Dallas 17.2
33 Buffalo 16.2
34 Miami 15.6
35 Detroit 14.6
36 Louisville 13.4
37 Columbus 12.7
38 Indianapolis 10.9
39 Birmingham 10.6
40 Atlanta 10.4
41 Hartford 10.4
42 Richmond 10.1
43 St. Louis 7.1
44 Cincinnati 6.6
45 San Antonio 4.7
46 Jacksonville 3.2
47 Memphis 1.4
48 Virginia Beach -1.2
49 Tampa -4.0
50 Phoenix -30.7
Transit Utility
Ratio of annual passenger miles traveled per square mile of urbanized land area, 2022
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 New York 4,435,759
2 San Francisco 2,054,293
3 Los Angeles 922,432
4 Salt Lake City 817,160
5 Seattle 766,160
6 Chicago 710,556
7 Washington, D.C. 672,071
Peer Average 621,556
8 San Diego 615,043
9 Denver 570,175
10 Boston 532,121
11 Baltimore 464,310
12 Philadelphia 443,795
13 Portland 434,995
14 Miami 430,311
15 Las Vegas 382,402
16 San Jose 327,420
17 Minneapolis 211,300
18 Houston 203,988
19 San Antonio 200,034
20 Austin 173,966
21 New Orleans 172,253
22 Dallas 168,385
23 Orlando 167,651
24 Phoenix 156,793
25 Milwaukee 154,485
26 Pittsburgh 150,178
27 Sacramento 139,303
28 Hartford 138,615
29 Atlanta 134,973
30 Cleveland 134,850
31 St. Louis 131,275
32 Buffalo 123,411
33 Tampa 116,672
34 Riverside 115,544
35 Providence 105,287
36 Charlotte 93,238
37 Cincinnati 87,378
38 Columbus 87,308
39 Richmond 85,266
40 Virginia Beach 72,957
41 Detroit 72,417
42 Nashville 64,441
43 Kansas City 62,923
44 Jacksonville 58,738
45 Louisville 53,901
46 Indianapolis 46,018
47 Raleigh 42,369
48 Memphis 31,943
49 Oklahoma City 29,795
50 Birmingham 24,442
Transit Expenditures
Annual operating expenses per capita, in dollars, 2022
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 New York 870
2 San Francisco 730
3 Washington, D.C. 532
4 Seattle 511
5 Baltimore 411
6 Boston 409
7 Salt Lake City 357
8 Chicago 312
Peer Average 299
9 Portland 291
10 Pittsburgh 279
11 Philadelphia 276
12 Los Angeles 254
13 Denver 248
14 San Jose 231
15 Hartford 209
16 Minneapolis 200
17 New Orleans 169
18 Miami 169
19 Austin 158
20 Cleveland 153
21 Buffalo 146
22 San Diego 142
23 St. Louis 137
24 Charlotte 136
25 Sacramento 134
26 Milwaukee 132
27 Dallas 123
28 Atlanta 119
29 Houston 115
30 Orlando 114
31 Las Vegas 114
32 San Antonio 112
33 Jacksonville 102
34 Phoenix 101
35 Providence 99
36 Cincinnati 99
37 Louisville 94
38 Columbus 94
39 Tampa 76
40 Kansas City 76
41 Nashville 71
42 Virginia Beach 70
43 Riverside 70
44 Indianapolis 67
45 Richmond 62
46 Detroit 61
47 Raleigh 57
48 Memphis 57
49 Birmingham 45
50 Oklahoma City 37

The measures in this section indicate that St. Louis is about average with respect to how efficiently people can reach destinations when considering time, distance, and cost. The region has shorter than average commute times, a higher Walk Score for the city of St. Louis than is average among the largest cities of the peer regions, and below average number of flight departures. Residents in St. Louis who do not have access to a vehicle are limited in the destinations they can reach. Black households are far more likely to have this barrier. For further discussion see the Employment Transit Access and the Residential Transit Access performance indicators on OneSTL.

No-Vehicle Households
Households without access to a vehicle as a percent of all households, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25045)
1 New York 30.5
2 Chicago 12.6
3 Boston 12.5
4 Philadelphia 12.3
5 San Francisco 11.8
6 Buffalo 11.5
7 Washington, D.C. 10.3
8 Baltimore 10.1
9 Hartford 9.7
10 Providence 9.7
11 Pittsburgh 9.6
12 Milwaukee 9.5
13 New Orleans 9.1
14 Cleveland 9.0
15 Seattle 8.7
United States 8.3
16 Miami 8.1
17 Portland 7.9
18 Memphis 7.9
19 Detroit 7.8
20 Los Angeles 7.7
21 Las Vegas 7.7
22 St. Louis 7.5
23 Minneapolis 7.0
24 Cincinnati 6.9
25 Louisville 6.8
26 San Jose 6.3
27 Columbus 6.3
28 Richmond 6.2
29 Indianapolis 6.1
30 Virginia Beach 6.1
31 Kansas City 6.0
32 Houston 5.9
33 Denver 5.9
34 Sacramento 5.8
35 San Antonio 5.7
36 Tampa 5.7
37 Jacksonville 5.4
38 Orlando 5.4
39 Atlanta 5.3
40 Oklahoma City 5.2
41 San Diego 5.1
42 Birmingham 5.1
43 Austin 4.8
44 Dallas 4.8
45 Phoenix 4.7
46 Salt Lake City 4.7
47 Charlotte 4.3
48 Riverside 4.3
49 Raleigh 4.1
50 Nashville 4.0
Racial Disparity in No-Vehicle Households
Ratio of non-Hispanic Black to non-Hispanic White, percent of households without access to a vehicle, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 Cincinnati 4.52
2 Hartford 4.15
3 St. Louis 4.02
4 Pittsburgh 3.92
5 Buffalo 3.89
6 Minneapolis 3.81
7 Denver 3.59
8 Milwaukee 3.58
9 Louisville 3.54
10 Indianapolis 3.50
11 Charlotte 3.46
12 Detroit 3.42
13 Cleveland 3.37
14 Baltimore 3.37
15 Nashville 3.34
16 Virginia Beach 3.33
17 Memphis 3.33
18 New Orleans 3.30
19 Philadelphia 3.29
20 Kansas City 3.29
21 Jacksonville 3.26
22 Richmond 3.00
23 Birmingham 2.97
24 Orlando 2.94
25 Boston 2.88
26 Dallas 2.83
27 Chicago 2.77
28 Columbus 2.72
United States 2.72
29 Atlanta 2.65
30 San Antonio 2.64
31 Oklahoma City 2.61
32 Houston 2.54
33 Portland 2.54
34 Las Vegas 2.48
35 Phoenix 2.46
36 Raleigh 2.44
37 Seattle 2.40
38 Los Angeles 2.39
39 Riverside 2.38
40 San Diego 2.30
41 Sacramento 2.21
42 Austin 2.16
43 San Francisco 2.10
44 Tampa 2.04
45 Washington, D.C. 2.00
46 New York 2.00
47 Miami 1.73
48 Providence 1.72
Average Commute Time
In minutes, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08013, B08302)
1 New York 35.8
2 Riverside 32.6
3 Washington, D.C. 32.3
4 Atlanta 30.9
5 San Francisco 30.2
6 Chicago 30.2
7 Boston 30.1
8 Houston 30.0
9 Miami 29.5
10 Los Angeles 29.2
11 Baltimore 29.0
12 Philadelphia 28.6
13 Seattle 28.5
14 Tampa 28.5
15 Orlando 28.4
16 Dallas 27.7
17 Nashville 27.1
18 San Antonio 27.0
19 Sacramento 26.8
20 Denver 26.8
21 Birmingham 26.7
22 Raleigh 26.6
23 Austin 26.4
United States 26.4
24 Providence 26.4
25 New Orleans 26.4
26 Pittsburgh 26.3
27 Charlotte 26.3
28 Detroit 26.0
29 Jacksonville 25.8
30 San Jose 25.8
31 Phoenix 25.8
32 Indianapolis 25.6
33 San Diego 25.5
34 Cincinnati 25.2
35 Virginia Beach 24.9
36 St. Louis 24.8
37 Portland 24.8
38 Richmond 24.8
39 Las Vegas 24.6
40 Hartford 24.5
41 Cleveland 24.2
42 Oklahoma City 24.1
43 Minneapolis 24.0
44 Memphis 23.9
45 Louisville 23.8
46 Columbus 23.5
47 Kansas City 22.8
48 Salt Lake City 22.8
49 Milwaukee 22.5
50 Buffalo 21.8
Transportation Expenses
As a percent of median household income, 2011-2015
Source: Center for Neighborhood Technology
1 Memphis 27
2 Riverside 27
3 Birmingham 26
4 Oklahoma City 26
5 Orlando 26
6 Louisville 25
7 New Orleans 25
8 Indianapolis 25
9 Nashville 25
10 Charlotte 25
11 San Antonio 25
12 Tampa 25
13 Miami 24
14 Cleveland 24
15 Phoenix 24
16 Jacksonville 24
17 Las Vegas 24
18 Buffalo 24
19 Sacramento 24
20 Salt Lake City 23
21 Pittsburgh 23
22 St. Louis 23
23 Atlanta 23
24 Cincinnati 23
25 Kansas City 23
26 Columbus 23
27 Detroit 23
28 Milwaukee 22
29 Raleigh 22
30 Los Angeles 22
31 San Diego 22
32 Houston 22
33 Portland 22
34 Dallas 22
Peer Average 21
35 Virginia Beach 21
36 Richmond 21
37 Austin 21
38 Providence 21
39 Minneapolis 20
40 Denver 20
41 Philadelphia 20
42 Chicago 20
43 Hartford 19
44 Seattle 19
45 Baltimore 18
46 Boston 17
47 San Francisco 16
48 San Jose 16
49 New York 15
50 Washington, D.C. 14
Walk Score of Largest City
2018
Source: Walk Score
1 New York 89.2
2 San Francisco 86.0
3 Boston 80.9
4 Miami 79.2
5 Philadelphia 79.0
6 Providence 79.0
7 Chicago 77.8
8 Washington, D.C. 77.3
9 Seattle 73.1
10 Hartford 71.0
11 Baltimore 69.4
12 Minneapolis 69.2
13 Buffalo 67.8
14 Los Angeles 67.4
15 Portland 64.7
16 St. Louis 64.5
17 Milwaukee 62.1
18 Pittsburgh 61.9
Peer Average 61.6
19 Denver 60.5
20 Cleveland 59.5
21 New Orleans 57.6
22 Salt Lake City 57.0
23 Detroit 55.4
24 Richmond 51.4
25 San Diego 50.9
26 San Jose 50.5
27 Cincinnati 50.4
28 Tampa 50.0
29 Atlanta 49.2
30 Houston 48.7
31 Sacramento 47.1
32 Dallas 46.2
33 Orlando 42.1
34 Riverside 41.3
35 Las Vegas 41.1
36 Phoenix 40.8
37 Columbus 40.7
38 Austin 40.3
39 San Antonio 37.6
40 Memphis 36.8
41 Birmingham 35.4
42 Kansas City 34.2
43 Louisville 33.3
44 Oklahoma City 33.1
45 Virginia Beach 32.9
46 Raleigh 30.1
47 Indianapolis 29.8
48 Nashville 28.3
49 Jacksonville 26.8
50 Charlotte 25.9
Daily Flight Departures
Average number of scheduled passenger departures from area airports, 2018
Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Air Carrier Statistics
1 New York 1,572
2 Chicago 1,403
3 Atlanta 1,175
4 Dallas 1,081
5 Los Angeles 1,034
6 Miami 836
7 Denver 777
8 Houston 751
9 San Francisco 721
10 Charlotte 713
11 Washington, D.C. 684
12 Seattle 599
13 Phoenix 537
14 Boston 532
15 Detroit 515
16 Minneapolis 512
17 Philadelphia 481
18 Las Vegas 469
19 Orlando 440
Peer Average 401
20 Salt Lake City 350
21 Baltimore 324
22 San Diego 274
23 Portland 268
24 Memphis 264
25 St. Louis 252
26 Tampa 248
27 Nashville 216
28 Raleigh 190
29 Indianapolis 190
30 Louisville 185
31 Austin 185
32 San Jose 181
33 Pittsburgh 170
34 Kansas City 162
35 Cincinnati 156
36 New Orleans 156
37 Sacramento 153
38 Cleveland 147
39 Columbus 141
40 Riverside 124
41 San Antonio 122
42 Milwaukee 110
43 Jacksonville 96
44 Hartford 92
45 Providence 92
46 Buffalo 88
47 Virginia Beach 84
48 Richmond 84
49 Oklahoma City 71
50 Birmingham 58
Change in Daily Flight Departures
Percent change, 2013-2018
Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Air Carrier Statistics
1 San Jose 49.4
2 Seattle 44.1
3 Boston 27.4
4 Austin 26.1
5 Orlando 22.5
6 Sacramento 21.3
7 Miami 19.2
8 Tampa 17.2
9 San Diego 17.1
10 Nashville 16.6
11 Portland 14.4
12 New Orleans 14.3
13 Los Angeles 12.7
14 Pittsburgh 12.1
15 Raleigh 11.8
16 Louisville 10.7
17 San Francisco 10.6
18 Jacksonville 9.2
19 Las Vegas 9.1
20 St. Louis 9.0
21 Indianapolis 8.4
22 Richmond 7.6
23 Providence 7.1
24 Riverside 7.1
25 Baltimore 5.7
26 Columbus 5.6
27 Salt Lake City 5.3
Peer Average 4.3
28 New York 4.0
29 Birmingham 3.5
30 Dallas 3.4
31 Chicago 0.1
32 Denver -0.4
33 Charlotte -1.1
34 Phoenix -1.5
35 San Antonio -1.8
36 Cincinnati -2.0
37 Hartford -2.0
38 Atlanta -3.0
39 Kansas City -3.5
40 Oklahoma City -3.9
41 Washington, D.C. -5.8
42 Houston -6.4
43 Memphis -6.6
44 Minneapolis -6.9
45 Detroit -8.5
46 Milwaukee -11.3
47 Virginia Beach -11.7
48 Buffalo -13.0
49 Philadelphia -14.6
50 Cleveland -34.2

The most popular mode of commuting to work in all of the peer regions is by car. Providing more transportation choices can have environmental benefits, increase physical activity, and reduce traffic congestion. The St. Louis region’s long-range transportation plan includes a goal to increase non-single occupancy travel (SOV); St. Louis has a lower rate on this metric than many of the peer regions. See the Transportation Choice performance indicator on OneSTL for further discussion.

Workers Who Commute by Driving Alone
Percent of workers, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 Birmingham 77.4
2 Oklahoma City 77.2
3 Virginia Beach 76.1
4 Memphis 76.1
5 Riverside 73.9
6 Louisville 73.7
7 St. Louis 73.6
8 Providence 73.5
9 New Orleans 73.5
10 Kansas City 73.1
11 Detroit 72.6
12 Indianapolis 72.6
13 Milwaukee 72.6
14 Cincinnati 72.5
15 Buffalo 72.4
16 Cleveland 72.1
17 Houston 71.4
18 Hartford 70.2
19 Las Vegas 70.0
20 Columbus 69.7
21 Nashville 69.5
22 Jacksonville 69.4
23 Dallas 69.2
24 Richmond 69.1
25 Miami 68.8
26 San Antonio 68.7
United States 68.7
27 Pittsburgh 68.3
28 Baltimore 67.9
29 Orlando 67.5
30 Minneapolis 66.4
31 Tampa 66.4
32 Atlanta 66.1
33 Charlotte 66.0
34 Sacramento 66.0
35 San Diego 65.8
36 Salt Lake City 65.6
37 Los Angeles 65.2
38 Raleigh 63.9
39 Phoenix 63.8
40 Philadelphia 63.4
41 Denver 63.0
42 Chicago 62.9
43 Portland 60.8
44 Austin 60.3
45 San Jose 59.8
46 Boston 57.4
47 Seattle 57.0
48 Washington, D.C. 55.6
49 San Francisco 49.7
50 New York 44.7
Workers Who Commute by Carpool
Percent of workers, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 San Antonio 11.4
2 Riverside 11.2
3 Salt Lake City 10.7
4 Houston 10.6
5 Las Vegas 10.5
6 Phoenix 9.8
7 Los Angeles 9.7
8 Memphis 9.6
9 Miami 9.3
10 Orlando 9.3
11 Dallas 9.1
12 Indianapolis 9.0
13 Sacramento 9.0
14 San Jose 8.9
15 Louisville 8.8
16 Oklahoma City 8.7
United States 8.6
17 Atlanta 8.6
18 San Diego 8.5
19 Birmingham 8.4
20 Charlotte 8.3
21 New Orleans 8.2
22 Tampa 8.2
23 Jacksonville 8.2
24 Providence 8.2
25 San Francisco 8.2
26 Virginia Beach 8.1
27 Seattle 8.0
28 Chicago 7.9
29 Cincinnati 7.9
30 Buffalo 7.8
31 Hartford 7.7
32 Washington, D.C. 7.7
33 Richmond 7.6
34 Nashville 7.6
35 Columbus 7.6
36 Milwaukee 7.5
37 Denver 7.4
38 Detroit 7.3
39 Portland 7.3
40 Baltimore 7.2
41 Minneapolis 7.0
42 Austin 7.0
43 Cleveland 6.9
44 Pittsburgh 6.8
45 Philadelphia 6.8
46 Raleigh 6.6
47 New York 6.5
48 Boston 6.4
49 Kansas City 6.4
50 St. Louis 6.3
Workers Who Commute by Public Transportation
Percent of workers, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 New York 23.8
2 Boston 8.0
3 San Francisco 7.8
4 Chicago 7.0
5 Washington, D.C. 6.0
6 Philadelphia 5.7
7 Seattle 4.6
8 Baltimore 3.2
9 Los Angeles 3.1
United States 3.1
10 Pittsburgh 3.0
11 Portland 2.9
12 Buffalo 2.6
13 Hartford 2.4
14 Miami 2.4
15 Las Vegas 2.3
16 Denver 2.2
17 San Diego 2.0
18 San Jose 2.0
19 Minneapolis 2.0
20 Milwaukee 1.8
21 Cleveland 1.7
22 New Orleans 1.6
23 Salt Lake City 1.6
24 San Antonio 1.4
25 Houston 1.4
26 Atlanta 1.4
27 Providence 1.4
28 Cincinnati 1.3
29 St. Louis 1.2
30 Columbus 1.2
31 Austin 1.1
32 Orlando 1.0
33 Sacramento 0.9
34 Phoenix 0.9
35 Detroit 0.8
36 Charlotte 0.8
37 Riverside 0.7
38 Louisville 0.7
39 Richmond 0.7
40 Nashville 0.7
41 Virginia Beach 0.7
42 Tampa 0.7
43 Dallas 0.6
44 Indianapolis 0.6
45 Kansas City 0.5
46 Jacksonville 0.5
47 Birmingham 0.5
48 Raleigh 0.4
49 Oklahoma City 0.4
50 Memphis 0.3
Workers Who Work at Home
Percent of workers, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 Austin 28.0
2 San Francisco 27.0
3 Raleigh 26.1
4 Washington, D.C. 25.4
5 Seattle 25.4
6 San Jose 24.4
7 Denver 23.7
8 Portland 23.3
9 Charlotte 22.3
10 Phoenix 21.7
11 Tampa 21.2
12 Atlanta 21.0
13 Minneapolis 20.9
14 Boston 20.8
15 Sacramento 19.8
16 Nashville 19.4
17 Orlando 19.1
18 Salt Lake City 18.9
19 Jacksonville 18.9
20 Richmond 18.7
21 Philadelphia 18.6
22 San Diego 18.6
23 Columbus 18.4
24 Dallas 18.3
25 Baltimore 18.1
26 Kansas City 17.7
27 Chicago 17.4
28 Pittsburgh 17.4
29 Los Angeles 17.2
30 Hartford 16.6
31 Detroit 16.4
32 New York 16.3
33 St. Louis 16.0
34 Cleveland 15.5
United States 15.2
35 Cincinnati 15.1
36 Indianapolis 15.1
37 Miami 14.9
38 San Antonio 14.8
39 Milwaukee 14.6
40 Louisville 13.7
41 Houston 13.0
42 Las Vegas 12.9
43 Buffalo 12.8
44 Providence 12.7
45 Birmingham 11.8
46 Riverside 11.3
47 New Orleans 11.3
48 Virginia Beach 11.1
49 Memphis 11.1
50 Oklahoma City 10.7
Workers Who Commute by Walking or Biking
Percent of workers, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 New York 6.3
2 Boston 5.5
3 San Francisco 5.5
4 Portland 4.5
5 Seattle 4.0
6 Philadelphia 3.8
7 New Orleans 3.5
8 San Diego 3.5
9 San Jose 3.4
10 Pittsburgh 3.3
11 Washington, D.C. 3.2
12 Chicago 3.2
13 Buffalo 2.9
14 Los Angeles 2.9
United States 2.9
15 Sacramento 2.7
16 Cleveland 2.6
17 Providence 2.6
18 Milwaukee 2.6
19 Virginia Beach 2.5
20 Denver 2.4
21 Richmond 2.4
22 Minneapolis 2.4
23 Salt Lake City 2.2
24 Miami 2.2
25 Austin 2.1
26 Baltimore 2.1
27 Hartford 2.0
28 San Antonio 2.0
29 Cincinnati 1.9
30 St. Louis 1.9
31 Columbus 1.9
32 Phoenix 1.8
33 Oklahoma City 1.8
34 Tampa 1.7
35 Raleigh 1.6
36 Detroit 1.6
37 Indianapolis 1.6
38 Memphis 1.6
39 Riverside 1.6
40 Jacksonville 1.5
41 Orlando 1.5
42 Louisville 1.5
43 Las Vegas 1.5
44 Dallas 1.4
45 Charlotte 1.4
46 Atlanta 1.3
47 Houston 1.3
48 Nashville 1.3
49 Kansas City 1.2
50 Birmingham 1.1
Non-Single Occupancy Vehicle Travel
Percent of workers commuting by all modes except driving alone by car, van, or truck, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 New York 52.9
2 San Francisco 48.4
3 Washington, D.C. 42.4
4 Seattle 41.9
5 Boston 40.7
6 San Jose 38.8
7 Austin 38.2
8 Portland 37.9
9 Denver 35.8
10 Chicago 35.6
11 Philadelphia 34.9
12 Raleigh 34.8
13 Phoenix 34.2
14 Salt Lake City 33.4
15 Los Angeles 33.0
16 Charlotte 32.8
17 San Diego 32.7
18 Sacramento 32.4
19 Minneapolis 32.3
20 Atlanta 32.2
21 Tampa 31.8
22 Orlando 30.9
23 Pittsburgh 30.6
24 Baltimore 30.6
United States 29.8
25 San Antonio 29.6
26 Dallas 29.4
27 Richmond 29.4
28 Jacksonville 29.1
29 Columbus 29.1
30 Nashville 29.0
31 Hartford 28.8
32 Miami 28.8
33 Las Vegas 27.2
34 Cleveland 26.8
35 Milwaukee 26.4
36 Houston 26.3
37 Indianapolis 26.3
38 Cincinnati 26.2
39 Buffalo 26.2
40 Detroit 26.1
41 Kansas City 25.7
42 St. Louis 25.4
43 Providence 24.9
44 Riverside 24.8
45 Louisville 24.7
46 New Orleans 24.6
47 Memphis 22.6
48 Virginia Beach 22.4
49 Birmingham 21.8
50 Oklahoma City 21.5

Education

A quality workforce begins with an excellent education system. This section documents that the region is about average on measures related to the competitiveness of the region’s primary and secondary school system. Regarding the adult population, the region is relatively well educated. See page 60 of Where We Stand – 8th Edition for further discussion. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

The St. Louis region is about average among the peer regions regarding the amount of education spending per pupil in primary schools. Nationwide, less than 10 percent of funding for schools is from federal sources. There is a wide range in the amount of funding from state and local sources among the peer regions. St. Louis is just below the national average on state funding per pupil and just above average on local funding per pupil. See Where We Stand 8th Edition White Paper 2 for further discussion.

Education Spending
Total spending per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 New York 26,857
2 Philadelphia 23,498
3 Buffalo 22,387
4 Hartford 22,071
5 Pittsburgh 20,346
6 Boston 19,888
7 Providence 18,315
8 Chicago 18,041
9 Cleveland 17,791
10 Washington, D.C. 17,183
11 Minneapolis 16,772
12 Baltimore 16,350
13 San Jose 16,182
14 San Francisco 15,659
15 New Orleans 15,514
16 Seattle 15,143
17 Columbus 14,958
18 Detroit 14,758
19 Los Angeles 14,586
United States 14,551
20 Portland 14,466
21 Austin 14,396
22 Cincinnati 14,331
23 San Diego 14,254
24 Milwaukee 14,230
25 Riverside 13,970
26 St. Louis 13,906
27 Sacramento 13,802
28 Houston 12,902
29 Louisville 12,555
30 Kansas City 12,299
31 Dallas 12,297
32 Virginia Beach 12,126
33 Indianapolis 12,052
34 Denver 11,975
35 San Antonio 11,897
36 Atlanta 11,715
37 Nashville 11,329
38 Richmond 11,305
39 Birmingham 11,221
40 Memphis 10,877
41 Raleigh 10,840
42 Charlotte 10,680
43 Orlando 10,664
44 Las Vegas 10,528
45 Miami 10,461
46 Tampa 10,132
47 Jacksonville 9,731
48 Phoenix 8,851
49 Salt Lake City 8,753
50 Oklahoma City 8,649
Change in Education Spending
Percent change in dollars per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Chicago 28.1
2 Portland 23.9
3 Hartford 22.1
4 Pittsburgh 20.9
5 Philadelphia 18.4
6 Seattle 16.9
7 Cleveland 16.7
8 Buffalo 16.2
9 New York 15.4
10 Nashville 14.3
11 San Jose 11.2
12 Minneapolis 10.7
13 Salt Lake City 10.7
14 Houston 10.6
15 Boston 10.4
16 St. Louis 8.8
17 Riverside 8.6
18 Providence 8.5
19 Memphis 7.7
20 Los Angeles 5.7
United States 4.3
21 San Francisco 4.3
22 Austin 2.9
23 Milwaukee 2.6
24 Baltimore 2.4
25 Louisville 2.4
26 Dallas 1.9
27 Cincinnati 1.9
28 Sacramento 1.5
29 Columbus 1.3
30 San Diego 0.6
31 Denver 0.5
32 Washington, D.C. -0.6
33 Detroit -2.7
34 Kansas City -3.3
35 San Antonio -3.8
36 Charlotte -4.8
37 Raleigh -5.6
38 Virginia Beach -6.2
39 New Orleans -8.3
40 Atlanta -9.5
41 Richmond -10.7
42 Birmingham -11.5
43 Oklahoma City -12.0
44 Indianapolis -12.3
45 Orlando -15.0
46 Jacksonville -15.1
47 Las Vegas -15.1
48 Tampa -16.2
49 Phoenix -17.4
50 Miami -28.2
Education Curriculum Spending
Dollars per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 New York 23,648
2 Hartford 19,274
3 Buffalo 19,184
4 Philadelphia 18,537
5 Boston 17,302
6 Pittsburgh 16,376
7 Providence 15,871
8 Chicago 15,582
9 Cleveland 14,751
10 Washington, D.C. 14,264
11 Baltimore 14,234
12 Columbus 12,814
13 Minneapolis 12,140
14 San Jose 12,135
15 Milwaukee 11,947
16 St. Louis 11,916
United States 11,910
17 San Francisco 11,883
18 Los Angeles 11,850
19 Seattle 11,657
20 New Orleans 11,589
21 Riverside 11,555
22 Cincinnati 11,441
23 Detroit 11,416
24 Portland 11,392
25 San Diego 11,122
26 Sacramento 10,910
27 Virginia Beach 10,611
28 Louisville 10,470
29 Richmond 10,004
30 Kansas City 9,974
31 Atlanta 9,881
32 Indianapolis 9,688
33 Denver 9,567
34 Birmingham 9,217
35 Nashville 8,976
36 Memphis 8,956
37 Miami 8,864
38 Austin 8,844
39 Houston 8,780
40 San Antonio 8,745
41 Dallas 8,652
42 Las Vegas 8,585
43 Charlotte 8,493
44 Tampa 8,420
45 Orlando 8,376
46 Jacksonville 8,303
47 Raleigh 8,280
48 Phoenix 7,447
49 Oklahoma City 6,933
50 Salt Lake City 6,812
Change in Education Curriculum Spending
Percent change in dollars per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Chicago 36.0
2 Hartford 27.6
3 Philadelphia 24.1
4 Pittsburgh 23.4
5 Seattle 23.3
6 Riverside 22.7
7 Buffalo 20.3
8 New York 18.9
9 Portland 16.0
10 Cleveland 15.3
11 St. Louis 13.9
12 San Jose 12.3
13 San Francisco 11.7
14 Minneapolis 11.7
15 Salt Lake City 11.1
16 Boston 11.0
17 Los Angeles 10.8
18 Nashville 9.6
19 Baltimore 9.2
20 Columbus 9.0
21 Sacramento 8.7
22 Providence 8.2
United States 7.5
23 Memphis 6.8
24 Houston 4.4
25 San Diego 3.7
26 Cincinnati 3.4
27 Louisville 3.2
28 Washington, D.C. 2.1
29 Denver 1.9
30 Dallas 1.7
31 Austin 0.1
32 San Antonio -0.2
33 Charlotte -1.2
34 Kansas City -1.4
35 Milwaukee -2.0
36 Richmond -3.0
37 Detroit -3.3
38 Las Vegas -3.4
39 Virginia Beach -4.0
40 Birmingham -4.7
41 Indianapolis -4.9
42 Atlanta -5.0
43 Raleigh -5.2
44 Phoenix -5.6
45 Tampa -6.6
46 Orlando -6.8
47 Oklahoma City -9.4
48 Jacksonville -9.6
49 New Orleans -11.3
50 Miami -13.5
State Funding per Pupil
Dollars per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 Buffalo 13,019
2 Hartford 9,779
3 Minneapolis 9,756
4 New York 9,524
5 Riverside 9,522
6 Los Angeles 8,840
7 Detroit 8,555
8 Seattle 8,546
9 Philadelphia 8,415
10 Sacramento 8,257
11 Providence 8,018
12 Pittsburgh 7,968
13 Indianapolis 7,950
14 Baltimore 7,363
15 Chicago 7,117
16 Portland 7,055
17 Milwaukee 6,823
18 Boston 6,737
United States 6,726
19 San Diego 6,445
20 Las Vegas 6,391
21 Kansas City 6,374
22 San Francisco 6,011
23 Louisville 6,007
24 St. Louis 5,833
25 Birmingham 5,712
26 Cincinnati 5,645
27 Charlotte 5,621
28 Cleveland 5,595
29 Virginia Beach 5,592
30 Raleigh 5,578
31 Richmond 5,347
32 Washington, D.C. 5,166
33 Atlanta 5,087
34 Denver 4,933
35 Memphis 4,864
36 New Orleans 4,850
37 Jacksonville 4,750
38 Tampa 4,702
39 Columbus 4,658
40 Orlando 4,367
41 Nashville 4,357
42 San Jose 4,253
43 Salt Lake City 4,234
44 San Antonio 3,992
45 Oklahoma City 3,888
46 Dallas 3,688
47 Phoenix 3,658
48 Houston 3,323
49 Miami 3,271
50 Austin 2,446
Change in State Funding per Pupil
Percent change in state funding per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Chicago 67.9
2 Indianapolis 36.1
3 Pittsburgh 33.1
4 Hartford 31.6
5 Buffalo 23.2
6 Seattle 21.9
7 Philadelphia 20.5
8 St. Louis 17.8
9 Nashville 17.2
10 Portland 15.5
11 Dallas 15.3
12 Kansas City 14.2
13 Memphis 11.1
14 Sacramento 10.8
15 Riverside 10.6
16 Washington, D.C. 10.2
17 Baltimore 9.8
18 Minneapolis 7.7
19 Las Vegas 7.1
20 Louisville 6.4
21 Cincinnati 5.4
22 Providence 4.3
23 New York 4.3
24 Detroit 4.0
United States 3.9
25 Milwaukee 3.7
26 Denver 1.6
27 Los Angeles 1.5
28 New Orleans 1.0
29 Charlotte -1.6
30 Atlanta -2.5
31 Salt Lake City -2.7
32 Raleigh -4.3
33 Cleveland -4.6
34 Houston -5.6
35 Boston -5.7
36 San Diego -6.6
37 Richmond -8.3
38 Birmingham -8.5
39 San Francisco -10.3
40 Virginia Beach -12.0
41 Austin -12.4
42 San Jose -12.5
43 San Antonio -14.2
44 Columbus -15.7
45 Oklahoma City -15.8
46 Jacksonville -20.7
47 Orlando -21.8
48 Tampa -23.0
49 Miami -24.2
50 Phoenix -27.5
Local Funding per Pupil
Dollars per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 New York 15,884
2 Philadelphia 13,357
3 Hartford 12,723
4 Boston 12,605
5 Pittsburgh 11,293
6 Washington, D.C. 10,880
7 San Jose 10,720
8 Cleveland 10,420
9 Chicago 10,328
10 Austin 10,083
11 Columbus 9,489
12 Providence 9,136
13 San Francisco 8,678
14 New Orleans 8,666
15 Buffalo 8,397
16 Baltimore 7,970
17 St. Louis 7,704
18 Cincinnati 7,510
19 Dallas 7,066
20 Houston 6,836
United States 6,656
21 San Diego 6,517
22 Milwaukee 6,515
23 Denver 6,216
24 San Antonio 6,024
25 Miami 6,016
26 Atlanta 6,002
27 Portland 5,751
28 Kansas City 5,750
29 Seattle 5,489
30 Louisville 5,439
31 Richmond 5,380
32 Orlando 5,368
33 Detroit 5,338
34 Virginia Beach 5,287
35 Nashville 5,215
36 Minneapolis 5,103
37 Los Angeles 4,874
38 Birmingham 4,593
39 Sacramento 4,541
40 Phoenix 4,509
41 Indianapolis 4,330
42 Oklahoma City 4,136
43 Memphis 4,107
44 Tampa 4,015
45 Jacksonville 3,938
46 Salt Lake City 3,704
47 Charlotte 3,535
48 Riverside 3,448
49 Las Vegas 2,936
50 Raleigh 2,666
Change in Local Funding per Pupil
Percent change in local funding per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Los Angeles 42.4
2 San Jose 31.7
3 San Francisco 31.2
4 New York 27.4
5 Portland 24.6
6 Boston 22.2
7 Hartford 21.9
8 Buffalo 21.7
9 Philadelphia 20.4
10 Seattle 18.4
11 Providence 15.2
12 San Diego 15.2
13 Cleveland 14.3
14 Chicago 14.0
15 St. Louis 12.3
16 Columbus 10.5
17 Pittsburgh 10.5
18 Salt Lake City 10.4
19 San Antonio 8.7
20 Austin 8.1
21 Minneapolis 7.5
22 Nashville 7.4
United States 6.8
23 Riverside 5.5
24 Denver 5.0
25 Houston 4.5
26 Louisville 3.7
27 Cincinnati 0.8
28 Milwaukee -0.9
29 Sacramento -1.1
30 New Orleans -1.4
31 Virginia Beach -1.7
32 Baltimore -2.5
33 Memphis -3.7
34 Washington, D.C. -3.8
35 Phoenix -4.1
36 Oklahoma City -4.9
37 Dallas -5.8
38 Detroit -6.1
39 Richmond -7.9
40 Kansas City -9.1
41 Birmingham -9.3
42 Orlando -11.3
43 Atlanta -16.1
44 Indianapolis -17.9
45 Miami -18.3
46 Jacksonville -21.6
47 Charlotte -23.9
48 Tampa -26.0
49 Las Vegas -32.1
50 Raleigh -57.8

Assessing and comparing the quality of schools is challenging due to the many factors that can affect student success, as well as the multitude of ways states assess the quality of their schools. This section provides rankings for metrics that are associated with the quality of school instruction. St. Louis ranks competitively on these measures collectively, but the learning experiences of schools vary considerably within the region. See Where We Stand 8th Edition White Paper 3 for further discussion.

Pupil-Teacher Ratio
2018-2019
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
1 San Diego 24.4
2 Phoenix 24.0
3 Los Angeles 23.8
4 Riverside 23.7
5 San Jose 22.9
6 Sacramento 22.9
7 Salt Lake City 22.8
8 Las Vegas 22.5
9 San Francisco 22.5
10 Portland 19.4
11 Seattle 18.8
12 Columbus 18.7
13 New Orleans 18.6
14 Miami 18.4
15 Indianapolis 18.2
16 Detroit 18.1
17 Denver 17.8
18 Oklahoma City 17.8
19 Jacksonville 17.7
20 Cincinnati 17.7
21 Cleveland 17.4
22 Birmingham 17.3
23 Orlando 17.0
24 Tampa 16.7
25 Louisville 16.7
26 Memphis 16.7
27 Minneapolis 16.4
28 Milwaukee 16.3
29 Charlotte 16.3
30 Houston 16.0
United States 16.0
31 Raleigh 16.0
32 San Antonio 15.9
33 Richmond 15.8
34 Nashville 15.7
35 Atlanta 15.5
36 Chicago 15.4
37 Dallas 15.2
38 Baltimore 15.2
39 Virginia Beach 15.1
40 Austin 15.0
41 St. Louis 14.7
42 Kansas City 14.6
43 Washington, D.C. 14.6
44 Pittsburgh 14.1
45 Philadelphia 14.0
46 Providence 13.5
47 Buffalo 13.1
48 New York 12.9
49 Boston 12.8
50 Hartford 12.8
New Teachers
Teachers in their first or second year of teaching as a percent of all teachers, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Memphis 51.7
2 Indianapolis 21.4
3 Orlando 20.9
4 San Antonio 20.1
5 Denver 19.0
6 Phoenix 18.8
7 Jacksonville 18.6
8 Dallas 16.2
9 Oklahoma City 15.6
10 Washington, D.C. 15.6
11 New Orleans 15.5
12 Houston 15.4
13 Salt Lake City 15.3
14 Baltimore 15.0
15 Nashville 14.5
16 Columbus 14.3
17 San Francisco 14.0
18 Milwaukee 13.7
19 Minneapolis 13.6
20 Tampa 13.5
21 Kansas City 13.1
Peer Average 13.1
22 Chicago 13.0
23 Austin 12.8
24 San Jose 12.4
25 Boston 12.3
26 Virginia Beach 12.2
27 Richmond 12.2
28 Cincinnati 12.2
29 Cleveland 12.0
30 Philadelphia 11.8
31 Las Vegas 11.3
32 New York 11.3
33 Riverside 11.3
34 St. Louis 11.0
35 San Diego 10.9
36 Atlanta 10.9
37 Louisville 10.8
38 Seattle 10.7
39 Hartford 10.7
40 Buffalo 10.0
41 Birmingham 9.9
42 Sacramento 9.6
43 Portland 9.4
44 Los Angeles 9.1
45 Detroit 9.0
46 Providence 9.0
47 Pittsburgh 7.4
48 Charlotte 7.1
49 Miami 6.3
50 Raleigh 6.2
Relative Wages for Elementary, Middle, and High School Teachers
Ratio of average teacher wage to the average wage of all occupations, 2019
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics
1 Riverside 1.74
2 Virginia Beach 1.44
3 Los Angeles 1.43
4 Buffalo 1.41
5 Pittsburgh 1.37
6 Cleveland 1.35
7 Providence 1.35
8 Detroit 1.32
9 Sacramento 1.32
10 Portland 1.30
11 New York 1.29
12 Jacksonville 1.29
13 San Diego 1.27
14 Columbus 1.26
15 Tampa 1.25
16 Philadelphia 1.25
17 Chicago 1.24
18 Las Vegas 1.24
19 Cincinnati 1.24
20 Memphis 1.23
21 Hartford 1.22
Peer Average 1.21
22 San Antonio 1.20
23 Baltimore 1.20
24 Orlando 1.19
25 Boston 1.18
26 Salt Lake City 1.16
27 Louisville 1.16
28 Milwaukee 1.16
29 San Francisco 1.14
30 Minneapolis 1.13
31 Washington, D.C. 1.12
32 Atlanta 1.11
33 St. Louis 1.11
34 Richmond 1.11
35 Indianapolis 1.10
36 New Orleans 1.10
37 Houston 1.09
38 Dallas 1.09
39 Birmingham 1.09
40 Miami 1.09
41 Kansas City 1.09
42 Nashville 1.08
43 Austin 1.06
44 Seattle 1.04
45 San Jose 1.03
46 Oklahoma City 0.98
47 Charlotte 0.97
48 Raleigh 0.96
49 Denver 0.96
50 Phoenix 0.93
Absent Teachers
Teachers who were absent more than 10 school days during the school year as a percent of all teachers, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Las Vegas 58.6
2 Baltimore 38.5
3 Providence 38.0
4 Virginia Beach 37.3
5 Columbus 36.8
6 Cleveland 35.5
7 Buffalo 35.2
8 Louisville 35.1
9 Hartford 34.1
10 Pittsburgh 34.1
11 Richmond 33.8
12 Raleigh 33.7
13 Birmingham 33.6
14 Seattle 33.2
15 Charlotte 31.6
16 Minneapolis 31.6
17 Oklahoma City 31.3
18 Riverside 30.5
19 Philadelphia 29.4
20 Cincinnati 29.3
21 Portland 29.3
22 Memphis 29.2
23 Atlanta 29.1
24 Kansas City 29.0
25 Houston 28.5
26 Nashville 28.5
27 Miami 27.8
28 Washington, D.C. 27.7
Peer Average 27.4
29 Chicago 27.1
30 New Orleans 26.8
31 Denver 25.7
32 San Diego 25.2
33 New York 25.2
34 San Jose 25.0
35 St. Louis 25.0
36 Boston 24.5
37 Dallas 24.2
38 San Francisco 24.1
39 Indianapolis 24.0
40 Detroit 23.6
41 Tampa 23.5
42 Phoenix 23.5
43 Jacksonville 23.1
44 San Antonio 21.9
45 Milwaukee 21.1
46 Austin 20.4
47 Los Angeles 19.7
48 Salt Lake City 19.5
49 Sacramento 17.5
50 Orlando 11.1

School districts in the St. Louis region are highly segregated, and as a result learning experiences vary considerably by race. The region has a high rate of out of school suspension, and low rate of students enrolled in Advanced Placement courses. The region has fewer students who are chronically absent than most of the peer regions, but there is a wide disparity between races on this metric as well. For a further discussion of learning environments in the St. Louis region, see Where We Stand 8th Edition White Paper 3.

Segregation of School Districts
Black-white student segregation, based on the dissimilarity index, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Cleveland 78.8
2 Milwaukee 77.9
3 Chicago 73.2
4 Buffalo 72.4
5 Detroit 71.2
6 St. Louis 70.6
7 Cincinnati 70.4
8 Indianapolis 69.8
9 Pittsburgh 69.4
10 Boston 68.0
11 New York 67.3
12 Philadelphia 65.1
13 Memphis 61.5
14 Hartford 61.3
15 Columbus 61.2
16 San Francisco 60.9
17 Denver 60.5
18 Birmingham 59.7
Peer Average 59.5
19 Kansas City 58.5
20 Los Angeles 58.3
21 Providence 55.9
22 Oklahoma City 55.6
23 Minneapolis 55.3
24 Nashville 54.4
25 Washington, D.C. 54.3
26 Dallas 52.8
27 Sacramento 51.6
28 New Orleans 50.7
29 Louisville 50.7
30 Houston 49.8
31 Seattle 46.7
32 Baltimore 44.7
33 Jacksonville 43.4
34 Portland 43.0
35 Atlanta 42.9
36 Phoenix 42.6
37 San Diego 42.1
38 Riverside 40.5
39 Virginia Beach 40.0
40 Charlotte 39.4
41 San Antonio 38.0
42 Austin 37.7
43 Richmond 37.2
44 San Jose 35.3
45 Salt Lake City 30.5
46 Orlando 27.7
47 Tampa 25.4
48 Miami 19.8
49 Raleigh 12.1
50 Las Vegas 0.0
Days of School Missed due to Out-of-School Suspension
Days missed per student, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Memphis 0.80
2 Virginia Beach 0.61
3 Buffalo 0.59
4 Richmond 0.57
5 St. Louis 0.50
6 Cleveland 0.50
7 Oklahoma City 0.43
8 Columbus 0.39
9 Charlotte 0.39
10 Raleigh 0.39
11 Detroit 0.38
12 New Orleans 0.38
13 Kansas City 0.36
14 Atlanta 0.35
15 Louisville 0.35
16 Las Vegas 0.32
17 Orlando 0.30
18 Birmingham 0.28
19 Milwaukee 0.28
20 Indianapolis 0.25
21 Philadelphia 0.25
22 Phoenix 0.25
23 Cincinnati 0.25
24 Nashville 0.23
25 Seattle 0.23
26 Jacksonville 0.22
Peer Average 0.22
27 Tampa 0.21
28 Pittsburgh 0.21
29 Baltimore 0.20
30 Washington, D.C. 0.20
31 Hartford 0.18
32 Sacramento 0.18
33 Houston 0.17
34 New York 0.17
35 Dallas 0.17
36 Providence 0.16
37 Riverside 0.16
38 San Antonio 0.16
39 Denver 0.14
40 Chicago 0.14
41 Minneapolis 0.14
42 Portland 0.13
43 San Diego 0.13
44 Austin 0.12
45 Boston 0.11
46 San Francisco 0.10
47 Miami 0.07
48 San Jose 0.07
49 Salt Lake City 0.07
50 Los Angeles 0.06
Chronic Absenteeism
Students who have missed 15 days of school or more as a percent of all students, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Washington, D.C. 25.6
2 Seattle 24.9
3 Portland 24.0
4 Buffalo 22.7
5 Milwaukee 21.5
6 Las Vegas 21.1
7 Louisville 20.9
8 Baltimore 20.9
9 Denver 20.6
10 Cleveland 20.6
11 Detroit 20.4
12 Jacksonville 19.8
13 Tampa 19.8
14 Orlando 19.8
15 Columbus 19.2
16 New York 18.9
17 Providence 18.7
18 Philadelphia 17.8
19 Pittsburgh 17.1
20 Phoenix 16.8
21 Chicago 16.4
22 New Orleans 16.4
23 Cincinnati 15.9
Peer Average 15.8
24 Miami 15.2
25 Salt Lake City 15.0
26 Virginia Beach 14.9
27 Birmingham 14.1
28 Sacramento 14.1
29 Nashville 14.1
30 St. Louis 13.7
31 Minneapolis 13.4
32 Riverside 13.1
33 Boston 13.0
34 Austin 12.9
35 Atlanta 12.7
36 Hartford 12.6
37 San Antonio 12.6
38 Kansas City 12.3
39 Oklahoma City 12.1
40 Indianapolis 11.9
41 Raleigh 11.8
42 Charlotte 11.8
43 San Francisco 11.7
44 Los Angeles 11.5
45 Dallas 11.4
46 San Diego 11.3
47 Houston 10.9
48 San Jose 10.2
49 Memphis 9.6
50 Richmond 9.6
Advanced Placement Enrollment
Percent of high-school students enrolled in advanced placement courses, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Orlando 31.4
2 San Jose 29.6
3 Washington, D.C. 28.3
4 San Diego 27.0
5 Austin 26.8
6 Baltimore 25.7
7 Atlanta 25.5
8 Dallas 25.5
9 Tampa 25.5
10 San Francisco 25.0
11 Houston 24.7
12 Milwaukee 24.5
13 Virginia Beach 23.7
14 Los Angeles 23.6
15 Louisville 23.6
16 Chicago 23.2
17 Miami 22.9
18 Jacksonville 22.5
19 San Antonio 22.0
20 Raleigh 21.7
21 Seattle 21.1
22 Richmond 20.5
Peer Average 20.4
23 Minneapolis 19.8
24 Sacramento 19.7
25 Riverside 19.2
26 Denver 19.1
27 Portland 18.3
28 Oklahoma City 18.3
29 Las Vegas 17.4
30 Boston 17.3
31 Indianapolis 17.1
32 Charlotte 17.0
33 Birmingham 16.9
34 Nashville 16.8
35 Cincinnati 16.5
36 Detroit 16.4
37 Buffalo 16.1
38 Kansas City 16.1
39 Hartford 16.0
40 St. Louis 16.0
41 New York 15.8
42 Pittsburgh 15.4
43 Philadelphia 14.9
44 Salt Lake City 14.2
45 Phoenix 13.7
46 New Orleans 13.5
47 Providence 13.2
48 Columbus 12.9
49 Cleveland 11.6
50 Memphis 7.8

Relative to the peer regions, St. Louis has an above average proportion of children enrolled in preschool, a small (and shrinking) adult population that does not have a high school diploma, and is about average on adults with a high school diploma or equivalent as the highest level of education.

Children Enrolled in Preschool
Percent of 3- and 4-year olds, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B14003)
1 New York 67.9
2 Hartford 64.2
3 Boston 60.4
4 Miami 59.9
5 San Francisco 59.7
6 San Jose 58.6
7 New Orleans 57.3
8 Portland 54.8
9 Providence 54.5
10 Birmingham 53.5
11 Denver 53.4
12 Philadelphia 53.3
13 Austin 53.0
14 St. Louis 52.8
15 Chicago 52.4
16 Atlanta 52.0
17 Orlando 51.3
18 Baltimore 51.1
19 Los Angeles 51.1
20 Cleveland 51.0
21 San Diego 50.8
22 Cincinnati 49.8
23 Washington, D.C. 49.8
24 Salt Lake City 49.0
25 Indianapolis 48.6
26 Tampa 48.4
27 Milwaukee 47.9
28 Raleigh 47.3
29 Buffalo 47.0
30 Detroit 47.0
31 Seattle 46.9
United States 46.7
32 Richmond 46.5
33 Memphis 45.6
34 Sacramento 45.6
35 Houston 45.6
36 Minneapolis 45.3
37 Jacksonville 44.9
38 Pittsburgh 44.6
39 Dallas 44.6
40 Charlotte 44.0
41 Virginia Beach 43.5
42 Nashville 42.7
43 Kansas City 41.6
44 San Antonio 41.2
45 Columbus 41.1
46 Louisville 37.5
47 Oklahoma City 37.3
48 Riverside 34.2
49 Phoenix 33.5
50 Las Vegas 32.9
No High School Diploma or Equivalent
Percent of adults aged 25 and older, 2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B15002)
1 Los Angeles 18.0
2 Riverside 17.5
3 Houston 14.9
4 Las Vegas 13.2
5 Miami 13.0
6 New York 12.5
7 Dallas 12.2
8 San Antonio 11.6
9 San Jose 11.2
10 New Orleans 10.9
11 Providence 10.8
12 Phoenix 10.6
13 San Francisco 10.6
United States 10.4
14 San Diego 10.3
15 Chicago 10.3
16 Oklahoma City 10.0
17 Memphis 9.6
18 Birmingham 9.6
19 Sacramento 9.4
20 Orlando 9.4
21 Indianapolis 9.2
22 Salt Lake City 8.9
23 Detroit 8.8
24 Tampa 8.7
25 Atlanta 8.5
26 Charlotte 8.5
27 Louisville 8.2
28 Cleveland 8.1
29 Austin 7.9
30 Columbus 7.9
31 Washington, D.C. 7.9
32 Boston 7.8
33 Baltimore 7.7
34 Philadelphia 7.7
35 Denver 7.6
36 Hartford 7.6
37 Nashville 7.6
38 Virginia Beach 7.6
39 Cincinnati 7.5
40 Jacksonville 7.5
41 Buffalo 7.4
42 Portland 7.3
43 Richmond 7.1
44 Seattle 6.9
45 Milwaukee 6.8
46 St. Louis 6.7
47 Kansas City 6.6
48 Raleigh 6.6
49 Minneapolis 5.8
50 Pittsburgh 4.8
Change in No High School Diploma or Equivalent
Percentage point difference, 2012-2022
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B15002)
1 Minneapolis -0.9
2 Portland -1.3
3 Seattle -1.3
4 Boston -1.5
5 Columbus -1.5
6 San Francisco -1.5
7 Indianapolis -1.9
8 Salt Lake City -1.9
9 Washington, D.C. -2.0
10 Kansas City -2.1
11 Buffalo -2.1
12 Oklahoma City -2.2
13 Las Vegas -2.3
14 Miami -2.4
15 Hartford -2.4
16 Denver -2.5
17 Sacramento -2.5
18 Virginia Beach -2.6
19 New York -2.7
20 Chicago -2.9
21 Detroit -2.9
22 Baltimore -2.9
23 San Jose -2.9
24 Orlando -3.0
25 Tampa -3.0
26 Phoenix -3.1
27 Pittsburgh -3.1