Where We Stand

The Strategic Assessment of the St. Louis Region

The Where We Stand (WWS) series produced by East-West Gateway (EWG) has provided comparisons of the St. Louis region with other large metropolitan areas since 1992. WWS ranks St. Louis among the 50 most populous Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) in the United States (the peer regions) on a broad range of topics important to the region.

In November of 2018, EWG published the eighth edition of WWS coupled with an expanded webpage. Explore this webpage to find more on where St. Louis stands among its peer metropolitan regions. Email us at wws@ewgateway.org with feedback, questions, or to subscribe to our email list.

Note: Acrobat Reader is required to view many of the files on this page.

Where We Stand 8th Edition

Where We Stand – 8th Edition

The eighth edition focuses on three topic areas that are strategic priorities for EWG and regional partners. In May of 2018, the EWG Board of Directors along with representative from the business and non-profit sectors affirmed that economic development, workforce development, and public safety are three areas that require a regional collaborative effort. The 130 metrics in this edition pertain to these focus areas. An introductory chapter on demographics is also included to provide an overview of the population of St. Louis and the peer regions.

Where We Stand Updates, White Papers, and Technical Reports

EWG staff produces several types of reports that complement the main publication. Where We Stand Updates, White Papers, and Technical Reports are periodically released to update St. Louis’ standing based on new data, provide further insight on a specific topic, or provide more detail on methodologies used in the calculations for Where We Stand reports.

8th Edition Updates
8th Edition White Papers
8th Edition Technical Reports
7th Edition Updates

Where We Stand Data

WWS tables that appear in the eighth edition of WWS as well as tables included in previous editions are grouped here by topic areas. EWG will update these tables on a periodic basis. If you are interested in updated data for a Where We Stand table that you viewed previously, please contact us at wws@ewgateway.org.

Demographics

Shifts in demographics pose challenges to the St. Louis region as well as opportunities. This section provides data on the region’s slow population growth, an aging population, the growing immigrant population, the proportion of the population with disabilities, and the composition of households. See page 1 of Where We Stand – 8th Edition for further discussion. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

St. Louis has had slow but steady population growth in recent years. Natural change (more births than deaths) accounts for most of the region’s population increases. International migration also contributes a small amount. These factors have produced population growth despite the fact that more people move out of St. Louis to other parts of the country than move in. St. Louis has a relatively high proportion of adults who have served in the military. See Where We Stand 8th Edition Update 4 for further discussion.

Population
2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
United States 328,239,523
1 New York 19,895,340
2 Los Angeles 13,214,799
3 Chicago 9,458,539
4 Dallas 7,634,779
5 Houston 7,066,141
6 Washington, D.C. 6,267,226
7 Miami 6,166,488
8 Philadelphia 6,102,434
9 Atlanta 6,020,364
10 Phoenix 4,948,203
11 Boston 4,873,019
12 San Francisco 4,731,803
13 Riverside 4,650,631
14 Detroit 4,319,629
15 Seattle 3,979,845
16 Minneapolis 3,640,043
17 San Diego 3,338,330
18 Tampa 3,194,831
19 Denver 2,967,239
20 St. Louis 2,803,228
21 Baltimore 2,800,053
22 Charlotte 2,612,437
23 Orlando 2,608,147
24 San Antonio 2,550,960
25 Portland 2,492,412
26 Sacramento 2,363,730
27 Pittsburgh 2,317,600
28 Las Vegas 2,266,715
29 Austin 2,227,083
30 Cincinnati 2,198,450
31 Kansas City 2,157,990
32 Columbus 2,122,271
33 Indianapolis 2,074,537
34 Cleveland 2,048,449
35 San Jose 1,990,660
36 Nashville 1,934,317
37 Virginia Beach 1,732,436
38 Providence 1,624,578
39 Milwaukee 1,575,179
40 Jacksonville 1,559,514
41 Oklahoma City 1,408,950
42 Raleigh 1,390,785
43 Memphis 1,346,045
44 Louisville 1,288,981
45 Richmond 1,284,875
46 New Orleans 1,270,530
47 Salt Lake City 1,232,696
48 Hartford 1,204,877
49 Birmingham 1,153,956
50 Buffalo 1,127,983
Population Change
Percent change, 2010-2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Austin 29.8
2 Raleigh 23.0
3 Orlando 22.2
4 Houston 19.4
5 San Antonio 19.1
6 Dallas 19.0
7 Phoenix 18.0
8 Charlotte 17.8
9 Nashville 17.5
10 Denver 16.7
11 Las Vegas 16.2
12 Jacksonville 15.9
13 Seattle 15.7
14 Tampa 14.8
15 Atlanta 13.9
16 Salt Lake City 13.3
17 Oklahoma City 12.4
18 Portland 12.0
19 Columbus 11.6
20 Washington, D.C. 11.2
21 Miami 10.8
22 Riverside 10.1
23 Sacramento 10.0
24 Indianapolis 9.9
25 Minneapolis 9.2
26 San Francisco 9.1
27 Richmond 8.9
28 San Jose 8.4
29 San Diego 7.8
30 Kansas City 7.4
31 Boston 7.0
32 New Orleans 6.8
United States 6.3
33 Louisville 5.1
34 Cincinnati 4.0
35 Virginia Beach 3.3
36 Baltimore 3.3
37 Los Angeles 3.0
38 Birmingham 2.3
39 Philadelphia 2.3
40 Memphis 2.3
41 New York 1.7
42 Providence 1.5
43 Milwaukee 1.2
44 St. Louis 0.6
45 Detroit 0.5
46 Chicago -0.0
47 Hartford -0.6
48 Buffalo -0.7
49 Cleveland -1.4
50 Pittsburgh -1.6
Population Change
Percent change, 2018-2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Austin 2.8
2 Raleigh 2.1
3 Phoenix 2.0
4 Las Vegas 1.8
5 Jacksonville 1.8
6 Charlotte 1.7
7 Dallas 1.6
8 Nashville 1.6
9 San Antonio 1.5
10 Orlando 1.3
11 Houston 1.3
12 Tampa 1.3
13 Atlanta 1.3
14 Denver 1.2
15 Salt Lake City 1.2
16 Seattle 1.1
17 Oklahoma City 1.1
18 Indianapolis 1.1
19 Sacramento 0.9
20 Columbus 0.9
21 Richmond 0.9
22 Minneapolis 0.8
23 Riverside 0.8
24 Portland 0.8
25 Kansas City 0.6
26 Washington, D.C. 0.5
United States 0.5
27 Cincinnati 0.4
28 Miami 0.4
29 Virginia Beach 0.3
30 Boston 0.3
31 Memphis 0.3
32 Louisville 0.2
33 Birmingham 0.2
34 Philadelphia 0.2
35 Providence 0.1
36 San Diego 0.1
37 San Francisco 0.1
38 Milwaukee 0.1
39 New Orleans 0.0
40 Baltimore -0.0
41 St. Louis -0.0
42 Detroit -0.1
43 Hartford -0.1
44 San Jose -0.2
45 Buffalo -0.2
46 Pittsburgh -0.2
47 Cleveland -0.3
48 Los Angeles -0.3
49 Chicago -0.3
50 New York -0.3
Natural Change
Births minus deaths as a percent of 2010 population, 2010-2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Salt Lake City 10.0
2 Houston 9.1
3 Austin 8.7
4 Dallas 8.1
5 Washington, D.C. 7.6
6 Raleigh 6.9
7 San Jose 6.9
8 San Antonio 6.8
9 Riverside 6.8
10 San Diego 6.6
11 Atlanta 6.5
12 Denver 6.4
13 Minneapolis 6.3
14 Phoenix 5.9
15 Los Angeles 5.9
16 Seattle 5.9
17 Columbus 5.7
18 Las Vegas 5.4
19 Nashville 5.4
20 Oklahoma City 5.2
21 Indianapolis 5.2
22 Charlotte 5.0
23 Memphis 4.9
24 Kansas City 4.9
25 New York 4.9
26 Orlando 4.9
27 Virginia Beach 4.7
28 San Francisco 4.7
29 Chicago 4.6
30 Sacramento 4.4
31 Portland 4.3
32 Jacksonville 3.9
33 Milwaukee 3.8
United States 3.8
34 New Orleans 3.7
35 Cincinnati 3.5
36 Richmond 3.4
37 Miami 3.2
38 Baltimore 3.2
39 Boston 3.1
40 Philadelphia 2.6
41 Louisville 2.6
42 St. Louis 2.5
43 Birmingham 2.2
44 Detroit 2.0
45 Hartford 1.1
46 Providence 0.9
47 Cleveland 0.7
48 Tampa 0.4
49 Buffalo -0.0
50 Pittsburgh -1.5
Net Migration
Percent of 2010 population, 2010-2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Austin 20.7
2 Orlando 17.3
3 Raleigh 16.0
4 Tampa 14.3
5 Charlotte 12.7
6 San Antonio 12.1
7 Phoenix 12.1
8 Nashville 12.0
9 Jacksonville 11.9
10 Dallas 10.9
11 Las Vegas 10.7
12 Houston 10.2
13 Denver 10.1
14 Seattle 9.8
15 Portland 7.6
16 Miami 7.6
17 Atlanta 7.4
18 Oklahoma City 7.2
19 Columbus 5.9
20 Sacramento 5.6
21 Richmond 5.6
22 Indianapolis 4.7
23 San Francisco 4.5
24 Boston 4.0
25 Washington, D.C. 3.6
26 Salt Lake City 3.3
27 Riverside 3.3
28 New Orleans 3.0
29 Minneapolis 3.0
30 Kansas City 2.6
31 Louisville 2.6
United States 2.5
32 San Jose 1.5
33 San Diego 1.3
34 Providence 0.7
35 Cincinnati 0.6
36 Baltimore 0.2
37 Birmingham 0.2
38 Pittsburgh -0.0
39 Philadelphia -0.3
40 Buffalo -0.6
41 Virginia Beach -1.4
42 Detroit -1.4
43 Hartford -1.7
44 St. Louis -1.9
45 Cleveland -2.0
46 Milwaukee -2.5
47 Memphis -2.6
48 Los Angeles -2.8
49 New York -3.2
50 Chicago -4.7
Net International Migration
Percent of 2010 population, 2010-2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Miami 11.1
2 Orlando 8.5
3 San Jose 8.3
4 Boston 6.3
5 Washington, D.C. 5.8
6 Seattle 5.8
7 Houston 5.6
8 San Francisco 5.3
9 New York 4.3
10 Hartford 3.9
11 Tampa 3.8
12 Dallas 3.7
13 Austin 3.7
14 San Diego 3.5
15 Columbus 3.1
16 Providence 3.1
17 Raleigh 3.0
18 Los Angeles 2.9
19 Salt Lake City 2.9
20 Atlanta 2.7
21 Minneapolis 2.6
22 Philadelphia 2.6
23 Detroit 2.6
24 Phoenix 2.5
United States 2.5
25 Jacksonville 2.5
26 Denver 2.4
27 Nashville 2.4
28 Sacramento 2.4
29 Richmond 2.4
30 Baltimore 2.3
31 Indianapolis 2.3
32 Charlotte 2.2
33 Virginia Beach 2.2
34 Portland 2.2
35 Buffalo 2.1
36 San Antonio 2.1
37 Chicago 2.1
38 Oklahoma City 2.0
39 Cleveland 1.7
40 New Orleans 1.7
41 Louisville 1.7
42 Milwaukee 1.6
43 Cincinnati 1.5
44 Kansas City 1.4
45 Pittsburgh 1.3
46 Las Vegas 1.2
47 St. Louis 1.2
48 Memphis 1.0
49 Birmingham 0.7
50 Riverside 0.6
Net Domestic Migration
Percent of 2010 population, 2010-2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Austin 17.1
2 Raleigh 13.0
3 Tampa 10.5
4 Charlotte 10.5
5 San Antonio 10.0
6 Nashville 9.6
7 Las Vegas 9.5
8 Phoenix 9.5
9 Jacksonville 9.4
10 Orlando 8.7
11 Denver 7.7
12 Dallas 7.2
13 Portland 5.5
14 Oklahoma City 5.2
15 Atlanta 4.6
16 Houston 4.5
17 Seattle 4.1
18 Sacramento 3.2
19 Richmond 3.2
20 Columbus 2.8
21 Riverside 2.6
22 Indianapolis 2.4
23 New Orleans 1.3
24 Kansas City 1.2
25 Louisville 0.9
26 Salt Lake City 0.5
27 Minneapolis 0.3
Peer Average -0.2
28 Birmingham -0.6
29 San Francisco -0.9
30 Cincinnati -0.9
31 Pittsburgh -1.3
32 Baltimore -2.1
33 San Diego -2.1
34 Washington, D.C. -2.2
35 Boston -2.3
36 Providence -2.4
37 Buffalo -2.7
38 Philadelphia -2.9
39 St. Louis -3.0
40 Miami -3.5
41 Virginia Beach -3.5
42 Memphis -3.7
43 Cleveland -3.8
44 Detroit -4.0
45 Milwaukee -4.1
46 Hartford -5.6
47 Los Angeles -5.8
48 Chicago -6.7
49 San Jose -6.8
50 New York -7.5
Veterans
Percent of adults aged 18 and older who served in the military, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B21001)
1 Virginia Beach 15.2
2 Jacksonville 11.6
3 San Antonio 9.9
4 Tampa 9.2
5 Oklahoma City 8.9
6 Las Vegas 8.4
7 St. Louis 8.1
8 San Diego 7.9
9 Richmond 7.8
10 Washington, D.C. 7.8
11 Baltimore 7.7
12 Kansas City 7.7
13 Phoenix 7.6
14 Seattle 7.5
15 Louisville 7.4
16 Pittsburgh 7.3
17 Birmingham 7.2
18 Denver 7.1
19 Memphis 7.1
20 Buffalo 7.0
United States 6.9
21 Charlotte 6.8
22 Cincinnati 6.8
23 Atlanta 6.8
24 Orlando 6.8
25 Cleveland 6.7
26 Portland 6.6
27 Columbus 6.6
28 Sacramento 6.5
29 Indianapolis 6.5
30 Nashville 6.5
31 Raleigh 6.4
32 Austin 6.2
33 New Orleans 6.1
34 Providence 6.0
35 Riverside 5.9
36 Detroit 5.8
37 Dallas 5.8
38 Philadelphia 5.8
39 Milwaukee 5.7
40 Minneapolis 5.6
41 Hartford 5.4
42 Houston 5.0
43 Boston 4.7
44 Chicago 4.4
45 Salt Lake City 4.3
46 Miami 3.9
47 San Francisco 3.7
48 Los Angeles 3.3
49 San Jose 3.3
50 New York 3.1

Over 90 percent of the population in St. Louis is black or white. The Hispanic or Latino and Asian populations in the region are small relative to the peer regions but have increased in numbers. Compared to peer regions, St. Louis has few immigrants.

White Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of total population, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Pittsburgh 84.9
2 Cincinnati 78.9
3 Buffalo 76.7
4 Louisville 75.1
5 Minneapolis 74.6
6 Providence 74.1
7 St. Louis 73.4
8 Portland 72.3
9 Kansas City 72.0
10 Columbus 71.8
11 Nashville 71.4
12 Indianapolis 71.3
13 Salt Lake City 70.8
14 Cleveland 69.3
15 Boston 69.2
16 Milwaukee 65.9
17 Detroit 65.9
18 Hartford 65.7
19 Oklahoma City 63.6
20 Denver 63.5
21 Jacksonville 62.1
22 Seattle 61.7
23 Birmingham 61.6
24 Tampa 61.4
25 Philadelphia 61.0
26 Raleigh 60.7
United States 60.0
27 Charlotte 59.9
28 Richmond 57.0
29 Baltimore 55.5
30 Virginia Beach 54.6
31 Phoenix 54.5
32 Chicago 52.3
33 Austin 51.6
34 Sacramento 51.3
35 New Orleans 51.0
36 Atlanta 45.9
37 Orlando 45.2
38 New York 45.1
39 Dallas 44.9
40 San Diego 44.8
41 Washington, D.C. 44.7
42 Memphis 42.7
43 Las Vegas 41.3
44 San Francisco 38.6
45 Houston 35.1
46 San Antonio 33.2
47 Riverside 30.7
48 San Jose 30.5
49 Miami 29.5
50 Los Angeles 29.2
Black Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of total population, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Memphis 47.4
2 New Orleans 34.8
3 Atlanta 34.2
4 Birmingham 30.6
5 Virginia Beach 30.1
6 Richmond 29.3
7 Baltimore 29.3
8 Washington, D.C. 24.9
9 Charlotte 22.7
10 Detroit 21.9
11 Jacksonville 21.2
12 Philadelphia 20.3
13 Miami 20.0
14 Raleigh 19.7
15 Cleveland 19.4
16 St. Louis 18.0
17 Houston 16.8
18 Milwaukee 16.2
19 Chicago 16.1
20 Dallas 15.9
21 Columbus 15.8
22 New York 15.7
23 Orlando 15.5
24 Indianapolis 15.3
25 Nashville 15.1
26 Louisville 15.0
United States 12.4
27 Kansas City 12.2
28 Cincinnati 12.0
29 Las Vegas 11.9
30 Buffalo 11.9
31 Tampa 11.6
32 Hartford 10.5
33 Oklahoma City 10.2
34 Minneapolis 8.6
35 Pittsburgh 8.1
36 Boston 7.8
37 San Francisco 7.2
38 Riverside 6.9
39 Austin 6.9
40 Sacramento 6.7
41 San Antonio 6.3
42 Los Angeles 6.3
43 Seattle 5.9
44 Denver 5.5
45 Phoenix 5.4
46 Providence 5.4
47 San Diego 4.7
48 Portland 2.8
49 San Jose 2.3
50 Salt Lake City 1.8
Asian Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of total population, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 San Jose 36.5
2 San Francisco 26.8
3 Los Angeles 16.1
4 Seattle 14.5
5 Sacramento 13.6
6 San Diego 11.8
7 New York 11.4
8 Washington, D.C. 10.3
9 Las Vegas 9.8
10 Boston 8.2
11 Houston 7.8
12 Dallas 7.3
13 Riverside 6.9
14 Portland 6.9
15 Minneapolis 6.9
16 Chicago 6.8
17 Raleigh 6.2
18 Philadelphia 6.1
19 Atlanta 6.1
20 Austin 6.0
21 Baltimore 5.7
United States 5.6
22 Hartford 5.3
23 Detroit 4.8
24 Columbus 4.5
25 Orlando 4.4
26 Denver 4.2
27 Virginia Beach 3.9
28 Salt Lake City 3.9
29 Phoenix 3.9
30 Richmond 3.9
31 Charlotte 3.8
32 Milwaukee 3.8
33 Indianapolis 3.7
34 Jacksonville 3.7
35 Tampa 3.4
36 Oklahoma City 3.3
37 Buffalo 3.3
38 Providence 3.0
39 Nashville 2.9
40 New Orleans 2.9
41 Kansas City 2.9
42 Cincinnati 2.8
43 St. Louis 2.7
44 Miami 2.5
45 Cleveland 2.5
46 San Antonio 2.4
47 Pittsburgh 2.4
48 Louisville 2.2
49 Memphis 2.2
50 Birmingham 1.5
Hispanic and Latino Population
Percent of total population, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 San Antonio 55.7
2 Riverside 52.1
3 Miami 46.1
4 Los Angeles 45.1
5 Houston 38.0
6 San Diego 34.1
7 Austin 32.6
8 Orlando 31.9
9 Las Vegas 31.6
10 Phoenix 31.3
11 Dallas 29.3
12 San Jose 26.1
13 New York 25.0
14 Denver 23.3
15 Chicago 22.6
16 Sacramento 22.0
17 San Francisco 21.9
18 Tampa 20.6
19 Salt Lake City 18.5
United States 18.4
20 Washington, D.C. 16.3
21 Hartford 15.5
22 Oklahoma City 13.8
23 Providence 13.6
24 Portland 12.4
25 Boston 11.7
26 Milwaukee 11.1
27 Atlanta 11.0
28 Raleigh 10.9
29 Charlotte 10.6
30 Seattle 10.4
31 Philadelphia 9.9
32 Jacksonville 9.5
33 Kansas City 9.3
34 New Orleans 9.0
35 Nashville 7.6
36 Virginia Beach 7.1
37 Indianapolis 7.0
38 Richmond 6.6
39 Baltimore 6.3
40 Cleveland 6.2
41 Minneapolis 6.0
42 Memphis 5.8
43 Louisville 5.3
44 Buffalo 5.3
45 Detroit 4.6
46 Birmingham 4.5
47 Columbus 4.4
48 Cincinnati 3.4
49 St. Louis 3.1
50 Pittsburgh 1.9
Immigrant Population
Percent of total population, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B05012)
1 Miami 41.6
2 San Jose 39.7
3 Los Angeles 32.9
4 San Francisco 30.9
5 New York 29.7
6 Houston 23.4
7 Washington, D.C. 22.9
8 San Diego 22.8
9 Las Vegas 22.6
10 Riverside 21.4
11 Seattle 19.7
12 Dallas 19.2
13 Boston 19.2
14 Orlando 19.1
15 Sacramento 18.8
16 Chicago 17.6
17 Austin 15.7
18 Tampa 14.4
19 Phoenix 14.3
20 Atlanta 14.2
United States 13.7
21 Providence 13.7
22 Hartford 13.1
23 Portland 12.9
24 Raleigh 12.8
25 Salt Lake City 12.5
26 Denver 11.9
27 San Antonio 11.5
28 Philadelphia 10.9
29 Charlotte 10.7
30 Minneapolis 10.6
31 Baltimore 10.3
32 Detroit 10.3
33 Jacksonville 9.4
34 Nashville 9.1
35 Columbus 8.7
36 Richmond 8.1
37 Oklahoma City 8.0
38 New Orleans 7.6
39 Milwaukee 7.5
40 Kansas City 7.1
41 Virginia Beach 7.0
42 Indianapolis 6.9
43 Louisville 6.8
44 Cleveland 6.4
45 Buffalo 6.4
46 Cincinnati 5.3
47 Memphis 5.1
48 St. Louis 4.8
49 Pittsburgh 4.2
50 Birmingham 3.9
Change in Immigrant Population
Percent change, 2016-2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B05012)
1 Louisville 33.5
2 Nashville 22.2
3 Cincinnati 21.7
4 Columbus 19.0
5 Austin 18.3
6 Jacksonville 17.1
7 Charlotte 15.1
8 Tampa 14.2
9 Orlando 13.6
10 Seattle 13.4
11 Richmond 13.0
12 Raleigh 11.8
13 Virginia Beach 10.2
14 Dallas 10.2
15 Pittsburgh 9.5
16 Salt Lake City 8.3
17 Cleveland 7.8
18 Milwaukee 7.5
19 Atlanta 7.4
20 Oklahoma City 6.8
21 Detroit 6.6
22 Sacramento 6.0
23 Kansas City 5.8
24 Portland 5.6
25 Phoenix 4.7
26 Las Vegas 4.3
27 Miami 4.3
28 Houston 4.1
29 Boston 3.8
30 San Jose 3.7
United States 2.7
31 Buffalo 2.6
32 Hartford 2.5
33 Minneapolis 2.4
34 Riverside 2.3
35 Memphis 2.3
36 Washington, D.C. 2.3
37 Denver 1.5
38 Providence 1.4
39 San Francisco 1.4
40 Indianapolis 0.8
41 New Orleans 0.3
42 St. Louis -0.1
43 San Antonio -0.8
44 Chicago -0.8
45 Baltimore -1.0
46 Philadelphia -1.3
47 Los Angeles -2.8
48 New York -3.4
49 San Diego -4.5
50 Birmingham -8.2

St. Louis has an aging population with one of the oldest median ages among the peer regions. The age of the population has important implications for the workforce and social service programs.

Median Age
2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01002)
1 Pittsburgh 42.9
2 Tampa 42.2
3 Miami 41.6
4 Cleveland 41.4
5 Hartford 41.0
6 Buffalo 40.8
7 Providence 40.4
8 Detroit 39.9
9 St. Louis 39.7
10 Louisville 39.4
11 San Francisco 39.2
12 New York 39.1
13 Richmond 39.1
14 New Orleans 39.0
15 Philadelphia 38.9
16 Boston 38.8
17 Birmingham 38.8
18 Jacksonville 38.7
19 Baltimore 38.6
United States 38.5
20 Portland 38.4
21 Milwaukee 38.2
22 Cincinnati 38.0
23 Chicago 38.0
24 Sacramento 37.8
25 Kansas City 37.7
26 Orlando 37.7
27 Charlotte 37.7
28 Las Vegas 37.7
29 Washington, D.C. 37.4
30 Minneapolis 37.4
31 San Jose 37.4
32 Los Angeles 37.4
33 Raleigh 37.3
34 Phoenix 37.2
35 Seattle 37.1
36 Virginia Beach 36.8
37 Atlanta 36.8
38 Memphis 36.7
39 Denver 36.7
40 Nashville 36.7
41 Indianapolis 36.6
42 San Diego 36.4
43 Columbus 36.4
44 Oklahoma City 35.6
45 Austin 35.2
46 Dallas 35.2
47 Riverside 35.1
48 San Antonio 35.0
49 Houston 34.9
50 Salt Lake City 33.2
Children
Population under age 18 as a percent of total population, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Salt Lake City 27.0
2 Houston 26.3
3 Dallas 25.7
4 Riverside 25.5
5 San Antonio 25.0
6 Memphis 24.6
7 Indianapolis 24.4
8 Oklahoma City 24.4
9 Atlanta 24.1
10 Kansas City 24.0
11 Raleigh 23.8
12 Minneapolis 23.5
13 Charlotte 23.4
14 Phoenix 23.3
15 Columbus 23.3
16 Cincinnati 23.2
17 Las Vegas 23.0
18 Nashville 22.9
19 Washington, D.C. 22.8
20 Milwaukee 22.8
21 Birmingham 22.8
22 Austin 22.7
23 Sacramento 22.6
24 Chicago 22.5
25 Louisville 22.3
26 Jacksonville 22.3
United States 22.2
27 New Orleans 22.1
28 Denver 22.1
29 St. Louis 22.0
30 Virginia Beach 21.9
31 Detroit 21.8
32 Baltimore 21.8
33 Orlando 21.7
34 San Jose 21.7
35 Philadelphia 21.5
36 Los Angeles 21.4
37 San Diego 21.4
38 New York 21.3
39 Richmond 21.3
40 Seattle 21.3
41 Portland 21.0
42 Cleveland 20.9
43 Miami 20.2
44 Buffalo 20.1
45 Hartford 20.0
46 Tampa 19.7
47 Providence 19.7
48 Boston 19.6
49 San Francisco 19.5
50 Pittsburgh 18.8
Young Adults
Population aged 18 - 34 as a percent of total population, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Austin 27.1
2 San Diego 26.5
3 Salt Lake City 25.9
4 Virginia Beach 25.5
5 Seattle 25.3
6 Boston 25.2
7 Los Angeles 25.1
8 Denver 25.0
9 San Antonio 25.0
10 Oklahoma City 24.7
11 San Jose 24.7
12 Nashville 24.7
13 Columbus 24.7
14 Riverside 24.4
15 Orlando 24.4
16 Dallas 24.0
17 San Francisco 23.9
18 Houston 23.8
19 Phoenix 23.7
20 Portland 23.5
21 Providence 23.4
22 Sacramento 23.4
23 Washington, D.C. 23.4
24 Atlanta 23.3
25 Chicago 23.3
26 New York 23.2
27 Richmond 23.2
28 Memphis 23.2
29 Indianapolis 23.2
30 Philadelphia 23.2
United States 23.1
31 Raleigh 23.1
32 Las Vegas 23.0
33 Baltimore 23.0
34 Buffalo 23.0
35 Minneapolis 22.9
36 Milwaukee 22.8
37 Cincinnati 22.8
38 Charlotte 22.8
39 Hartford 22.7
40 Jacksonville 22.4
41 Birmingham 22.4
42 New Orleans 22.3
43 Kansas City 22.2
44 Louisville 22.0
45 Detroit 21.9
46 St. Louis 21.7
47 Pittsburgh 21.7
48 Cleveland 21.4
49 Miami 21.3
50 Tampa 21.0
Working-Age Adults
Population aged 18 - 64 as a percent of total population, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Austin 66.2
2 Seattle 65.0
3 Denver 64.6
4 San Francisco 64.6
5 San Jose 64.5
6 Boston 64.3
7 Los Angeles 64.2
8 San Diego 64.1
9 Raleigh 63.8
10 Washington, D.C. 63.7
11 Nashville 63.6
12 Portland 63.5
13 Atlanta 63.2
14 Orlando 63.2
15 Columbus 63.1
16 Virginia Beach 62.8
17 Providence 62.8
18 Dallas 62.8
19 Charlotte 62.6
20 Richmond 62.6
21 New York 62.5
22 Chicago 62.4
23 Baltimore 62.3
24 Hartford 62.3
25 Houston 62.1
26 Minneapolis 62.1
27 Philadelphia 62.1
28 Las Vegas 61.9
29 Salt Lake City 61.9
30 San Antonio 61.7
31 Sacramento 61.6
32 Jacksonville 61.4
33 New Orleans 61.4
34 Indianapolis 61.4
35 Oklahoma City 61.3
United States 61.3
36 Detroit 61.3
37 Buffalo 61.3
38 Cincinnati 61.2
39 Miami 61.2
40 Memphis 61.1
41 Milwaukee 61.1
42 Riverside 61.1
43 Louisville 61.0
44 St. Louis 61.0
45 Kansas City 60.8
46 Birmingham 60.8
47 Pittsburgh 60.7
48 Phoenix 60.6
49 Tampa 60.3
50 Cleveland 60.1
Seniors
Population aged 65 and older as a percent of total population, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Pittsburgh 20.5
2 Tampa 20.0
3 Cleveland 19.0
4 Miami 18.7
5 Buffalo 18.6
6 Hartford 17.7
7 Providence 17.6
8 St. Louis 17.1
9 Detroit 16.9
10 Louisville 16.7
United States 16.5
11 New Orleans 16.5
12 Philadelphia 16.4
13 Birmingham 16.4
14 Jacksonville 16.3
15 New York 16.2
16 Boston 16.2
17 Richmond 16.1
18 Milwaukee 16.1
19 Phoenix 16.0
20 Baltimore 15.9
21 San Francisco 15.9
22 Sacramento 15.8
23 Cincinnati 15.6
24 Portland 15.4
25 Virginia Beach 15.2
26 Kansas City 15.2
27 Orlando 15.2
28 Las Vegas 15.1
29 Chicago 15.1
30 San Diego 14.5
31 Minneapolis 14.4
32 Los Angeles 14.4
33 Memphis 14.3
34 Oklahoma City 14.3
35 Indianapolis 14.2
36 Charlotte 14.0
37 San Jose 13.9
38 Seattle 13.7
39 Columbus 13.6
40 Nashville 13.6
41 Riverside 13.5
42 Washington, D.C. 13.5
43 San Antonio 13.4
44 Denver 13.3
45 Atlanta 12.7
46 Raleigh 12.4
47 Houston 11.5
48 Dallas 11.5
49 Austin 11.2
50 Salt Lake City 11.1

St. Louis has a slightly larger proportion of the population that is disabled, relative to the peer regions. The percentages of seniors and children with disabilities in the region are lower than the averages for the peer regions, and the proportion of the working-age population with a disability is slightly higher in the St. Louis region.

Disability Rate
Percent of total population, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 New Orleans 15.6
2 Pittsburgh 15.0
3 Birmingham 14.7
4 Louisville 14.4
5 Tampa 14.4
6 San Antonio 14.2
7 Oklahoma City 14.2
8 Detroit 13.8
9 Cleveland 13.8
10 Richmond 13.7
11 St. Louis 13.4
12 Buffalo 13.3
13 Philadelphia 13.2
14 Virginia Beach 13.1
15 Providence 13.1
16 Memphis 12.8
United States 12.7
17 Jacksonville 12.6
18 Orlando 12.5
19 Baltimore 12.3
20 Cincinnati 12.2
21 Kansas City 12.1
22 Columbus 12.1
23 Indianapolis 12.1
24 Las Vegas 12.0
25 Portland 12.0
26 Nashville 11.9
27 Hartford 11.8
28 Phoenix 11.8
29 Sacramento 11.8
30 Riverside 11.7
31 Miami 11.1
32 Seattle 10.9
33 Milwaukee 10.8
34 Boston 10.7
35 Chicago 10.3
36 Atlanta 10.2
37 Minneapolis 10.1
38 Charlotte 10.1
39 New York 10.0
40 San Diego 9.8
41 Los Angeles 9.6
42 Raleigh 9.5
43 Dallas 9.5
44 Austin 9.5
45 Denver 9.4
46 Houston 9.4
47 Salt Lake City 9.3
48 San Francisco 9.3
49 Washington, D.C. 8.8
50 San Jose 8.3
Children with Disabilities
Percent of children under 18, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 Richmond 5.9
2 New Orleans 5.9
3 Pittsburgh 5.7
4 San Antonio 5.5
5 Orlando 5.3
6 Philadelphia 5.2
7 Baltimore 5.0
8 Columbus 4.9
9 Cincinnati 4.9
10 Virginia Beach 4.9
11 Buffalo 4.8
12 Cleveland 4.8
13 St. Louis 4.8
14 Providence 4.7
15 Tampa 4.6
16 Jacksonville 4.5
17 Louisville 4.5
18 Nashville 4.4
United States 4.3
19 Boston 4.2
20 Indianapolis 4.2
21 Oklahoma City 4.1
22 Detroit 4.1
23 Phoenix 4.1
24 Minneapolis 4.0
25 Riverside 4.0
26 Seattle 4.0
27 Milwaukee 4.0
28 Kansas City 4.0
29 Raleigh 3.9
30 Memphis 3.9
31 Austin 3.8
32 Atlanta 3.8
33 Las Vegas 3.8
34 Hartford 3.8
35 Birmingham 3.8
36 Portland 3.8
37 Miami 3.7
38 Houston 3.7
39 Salt Lake City 3.6
40 Sacramento 3.5
41 Denver 3.5
42 San Diego 3.3
43 Dallas 3.3
44 New York 3.2
45 Chicago 3.1
46 Los Angeles 3.0
47 Charlotte 2.9
48 Washington, D.C. 2.9
49 San Francisco 2.9
50 San Jose 2.5
Working-Age Adults with Disabilities
Percent of adults aged 18 - 64, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 New Orleans 13.4
2 Birmingham 12.7
3 Louisville 12.7
4 Oklahoma City 12.4
5 San Antonio 12.3
6 Pittsburgh 11.9
7 Detroit 11.9
8 Cleveland 11.4
9 St. Louis 11.2
10 Richmond 11.2
11 Buffalo 11.1
12 Virginia Beach 11.0
13 Philadelphia 11.0
14 Tampa 10.9
15 Memphis 10.9
16 Providence 10.9
United States 10.3
17 Cincinnati 10.2
18 Kansas City 10.2
19 Columbus 10.1
20 Indianapolis 10.1
21 Nashville 10.0
22 Jacksonville 10.0
23 Baltimore 9.9
24 Portland 9.6
25 Phoenix 9.5
26 Orlando 9.5
27 Las Vegas 9.4
28 Hartford 9.3
29 Riverside 9.3
30 Sacramento 8.8
31 Seattle 8.5
32 Milwaukee 8.4
33 Atlanta 8.3
34 Charlotte 8.3
35 Salt Lake City 8.2
36 Minneapolis 8.1
37 Chicago 8.1
38 Austin 8.0
39 Dallas 7.9
40 Boston 7.7
41 Houston 7.7
42 Raleigh 7.6
43 Miami 7.3
44 Denver 7.3
45 New York 7.2
46 San Diego 7.1
47 Los Angeles 6.7
48 Washington, D.C. 6.7
49 San Francisco 6.1
50 San Jose 5.5
Seniors with Disabilities
Percent of adults aged 65 and older, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 San Antonio 39.8
2 Oklahoma City 39.3
3 Birmingham 37.5
4 Riverside 37.4
5 New Orleans 37.1
6 Memphis 36.5
7 Orlando 35.6
8 Sacramento 35.3
9 Las Vegas 35.1
10 Indianapolis 34.4
11 Tampa 34.4
12 Louisville 34.3
13 Detroit 34.0
14 Columbus 33.7
15 Virginia Beach 33.5
United States 33.5
16 Richmond 33.4
17 Nashville 33.3
18 Jacksonville 33.3
19 Kansas City 33.2
20 Pittsburgh 33.1
21 Portland 33.1
22 Seattle 33.0
23 St. Louis 32.7
24 Los Angeles 32.6
25 Philadelphia 32.3
26 Dallas 32.1
27 Atlanta 31.9
28 Cleveland 31.8
29 Cincinnati 31.5
30 Houston 31.5
31 Baltimore 31.5
32 Miami 31.5
33 Phoenix 31.4
34 San Diego 31.0
35 Boston 30.9
36 San Jose 30.7
37 Chicago 30.6
38 Providence 30.6
39 Charlotte 30.5
40 New York 30.4
41 Buffalo 30.3
42 Raleigh 30.3
43 Milwaukee 30.0
44 San Francisco 29.9
45 Hartford 29.8
46 Austin 29.8
47 Salt Lake City 29.7
48 Denver 29.5
49 Minneapolis 28.9
50 Washington, D.C. 28.7

The composition of households in the United States has changed in the past few decades, including smaller household sizes and an increasing proportion of non-family households, which is in part due to more people over the age of 65 living alone.

Average Household Size
2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11002, B11001)
1 Riverside 3.3
2 San Antonio 3.0
3 Salt Lake City 3.0
4 Los Angeles 3.0
5 San Jose 2.9
6 Orlando 2.9
7 San Diego 2.9
8 Houston 2.9
9 Dallas 2.8
10 Miami 2.8
11 Las Vegas 2.8
12 Phoenix 2.8
13 Washington, D.C. 2.7
14 Sacramento 2.7
15 Atlanta 2.7
16 San Francisco 2.7
17 Austin 2.7
18 New York 2.7
19 Charlotte 2.6
20 Raleigh 2.6
21 Oklahoma City 2.6
22 Chicago 2.6
23 Memphis 2.6
24 Jacksonville 2.6
United States 2.6
25 Nashville 2.6
26 New Orleans 2.6
27 Indianapolis 2.6
28 Baltimore 2.6
29 Minneapolis 2.6
30 Tampa 2.6
31 Richmond 2.6
32 Philadelphia 2.6
33 Denver 2.5
34 Portland 2.5
35 Boston 2.5
36 Seattle 2.5
37 Columbus 2.5
38 Kansas City 2.5
39 Virginia Beach 2.5
40 Louisville 2.5
41 Providence 2.5
42 Birmingham 2.5
43 Detroit 2.5
44 Cincinnati 2.5
45 Milwaukee 2.4
46 Hartford 2.4
47 St. Louis 2.4
48 Cleveland 2.3
49 Buffalo 2.2
50 Pittsburgh 2.2
Family Households
Percent of all households, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Riverside 74.7
2 San Jose 70.6
3 Houston 70.3
4 Salt Lake City 69.6
5 Dallas 68.7
6 Raleigh 68.0
7 San Antonio 67.7
8 Los Angeles 67.5
9 San Diego 67.4
10 Orlando 67.3
11 Atlanta 66.5
12 Sacramento 66.1
13 Phoenix 66.1
14 Charlotte 66.1
15 Jacksonville 65.6
16 Miami 65.5
17 Virginia Beach 65.4
18 Nashville 65.3
19 Birmingham 65.3
20 Washington, D.C. 65.0
21 New York 65.0
United States 64.8
22 Kansas City 64.5
23 Oklahoma City 64.2
24 Philadelphia 64.1
25 Baltimore 64.0
26 Memphis 63.8
27 Cincinnati 63.8
28 Chicago 63.6
29 Columbus 63.4
30 Las Vegas 63.4
31 Louisville 63.1
32 Minneapolis 63.1
33 Providence 63.0
34 Richmond 62.8
35 San Francisco 62.7
36 St. Louis 62.7
37 Hartford 62.6
38 Seattle 62.6
39 Boston 62.5
40 Detroit 62.5
41 Denver 62.4
42 Austin 62.1
43 Portland 62.1
44 Indianapolis 61.6
45 Tampa 60.8
46 Milwaukee 60.7
47 New Orleans 60.0
48 Buffalo 58.6
49 Cleveland 58.0
50 Pittsburgh 57.9
Families with Children
Percent of all households, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11003)
1 Houston 33.8
2 Raleigh 32.9
3 Riverside 32.6
4 Dallas 32.5
5 Salt Lake City 32.0
6 San Jose 30.8
7 Atlanta 29.3
8 Austin 29.3
9 San Antonio 29.2
10 Columbus 29.1
11 Washington, D.C. 29.1
12 San Diego 28.7
13 Charlotte 28.7
14 Sacramento 28.5
15 Kansas City 28.4
16 Oklahoma City 28.4
17 Nashville 28.2
18 Minneapolis 28.0
19 Virginia Beach 27.7
20 Los Angeles 27.4
21 Orlando 27.4
22 Seattle 27.3
23 Phoenix 27.2
24 Chicago 27.2
25 Cincinnati 26.8
26 Indianapolis 26.8
27 Denver 26.6
28 New York 26.6
29 San Francisco 26.5
United States 26.4
30 Memphis 26.4
31 Baltimore 26.2
32 Las Vegas 26.2
33 Philadelphia 26.0
34 Portland 25.9
35 Birmingham 25.9
36 Milwaukee 25.8
37 Jacksonville 25.8
38 Richmond 25.5
39 Boston 25.5
40 St. Louis 25.5
41 Louisville 25.4
42 Detroit 24.9
43 Providence 24.8
44 Miami 24.1
45 Hartford 23.9
46 Buffalo 23.3
47 New Orleans 23.0
48 Cleveland 22.5
49 Tampa 21.9
50 Pittsburgh 20.7
Single Parent Families
Percent of family households with children, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11003)
1 Memphis 43.1
2 New Orleans 40.8
3 Miami 38.9
4 Cleveland 38.9
5 Buffalo 38.4
6 Providence 37.2
7 Las Vegas 37.2
8 Virginia Beach 36.7
9 Louisville 36.0
10 Milwaukee 35.9
11 Tampa 35.8
12 San Antonio 34.7
13 Cincinnati 34.6
14 Jacksonville 34.6
15 Detroit 34.2
16 Philadelphia 33.9
17 St. Louis 33.7
18 Oklahoma City 33.1
19 Columbus 32.4
20 Orlando 32.4
United States 32.1
21 Birmingham 32.0
22 Charlotte 31.8
23 Indianapolis 31.6
24 Phoenix 31.5
25 Richmond 31.3
26 Baltimore 31.3
27 Houston 30.9
28 Hartford 30.9
29 Kansas City 30.7
30 Pittsburgh 30.5
31 Atlanta 30.5
32 Riverside 30.3
33 Chicago 30.1
34 Sacramento 29.9
35 Nashville 29.4
36 Los Angeles 29.1
37 Dallas 28.9
38 New York 28.7
39 Portland 28.2
40 Raleigh 27.8
41 Minneapolis 27.6
42 San Diego 26.4
43 Boston 25.9
44 Washington, D.C. 25.5
45 Denver 25.1
46 Austin 24.8
47 Seattle 24.3
48 Salt Lake City 22.5
49 San Francisco 21.5
50 San Jose 19.3
Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren
Households where a grandparent is responsible for own grandchildren as a percent of households with children, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B10063, B11003)
1 Memphis 6.5
2 New Orleans 6.5
3 Louisville 6.1
4 Birmingham 6.0
5 San Antonio 6.0
6 Oklahoma City 5.8
7 Virginia Beach 5.7
8 Cincinnati 5.5
9 Jacksonville 5.4
10 Phoenix 5.2
11 Las Vegas 5.2
12 Riverside 5.0
13 Atlanta 5.0
14 Dallas 4.8
15 Houston 4.7
16 Nashville 4.6
United States 4.6
17 Philadelphia 4.6
18 Kansas City 4.5
19 St. Louis 4.5
20 Charlotte 4.4
21 Denver 4.3
22 Baltimore 4.3
23 Tampa 4.3
24 Richmond 4.2
25 Orlando 4.2
26 Cleveland 4.1
27 Miami 4.0
28 Columbus 3.9
29 Hartford 3.8
30 Pittsburgh 3.8
31 Los Angeles 3.8
32 Chicago 3.7
33 Indianapolis 3.6
34 Detroit 3.6
35 San Diego 3.5
36 New York 3.5
37 Washington, D.C. 3.5
38 Buffalo 3.5
39 San Francisco 3.4
40 Sacramento 3.3
41 Austin 3.2
42 San Jose 3.2
43 Milwaukee 2.9
44 Providence 2.8
45 Boston 2.5
46 Portland 2.4
47 Salt Lake City 2.3
48 Seattle 2.3
49 Raleigh 2.2
50 Minneapolis 1.7
Persons Aged 65 and Older Living Alone
Percent of all households, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11010, B11001)
1 Pittsburgh 14.5
2 Cleveland 14.2
3 Buffalo 14.0
4 Tampa 13.5
5 Providence 13.1
6 Miami 12.7
7 Detroit 12.5
8 Hartford 12.4
9 Richmond 12.3
10 St. Louis 12.1
11 New York 12.1
12 Milwaukee 12.0
13 New Orleans 12.0
14 Baltimore 11.8
15 Boston 11.7
16 Philadelphia 11.6
17 Chicago 11.4
United States 11.4
18 Louisville 11.4
19 Birmingham 11.4
20 Minneapolis 11.1
21 San Francisco 11.1
22 Cincinnati 11.0
23 Oklahoma City 10.5
24 Indianapolis 10.5
25 Sacramento 10.5
26 Kansas City 10.5
27 Phoenix 10.3
28 Memphis 10.2
29 Virginia Beach 10.2
30 Portland 10.1
31 Las Vegas 10.0
32 Jacksonville 9.9
33 San Diego 9.5
34 Columbus 9.4
35 Los Angeles 9.4
36 Charlotte 9.3
37 Seattle 9.3
38 Riverside 9.1
39 Washington, D.C. 9.1
40 Nashville 9.0
41 San Antonio 9.0
42 Denver 8.9
43 Orlando 8.6
44 Atlanta 8.4
45 Raleigh 8.1
46 San Jose 7.9
47 Salt Lake City 7.6
48 Dallas 7.4
49 Houston 7.1
50 Austin 6.9

Land Use

Land use is important to community planning and economic development. It is also important to the environmental quality of a region. This section highlights St. Louis’ relatively low-population density, dispersed development patterns, and large amount of farmland. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

The St. Louis region has low-population density relative to the peer regions, particularly in the central city, with a relatively large proportion of the population living in rural parts of the region.

Population Density
Population per square mile, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates; Decennial Census
1 Los Angeles 2,726
2 New York 2,399
3 San Francisco 1,915
4 Boston 1,397
5 Philadelphia 1,326
6 Chicago 1,314
7 Tampa 1,271
8 Miami 1,215
9 Detroit 1,111
10 Milwaukee 1,083
11 Baltimore 1,076
12 Cleveland 1,026
13 Providence 1,024
14 Washington, D.C. 1,004
15 Houston 856
16 Dallas 823
17 Hartford 796
18 San Diego 794
19 Orlando 750
20 San Jose 743
21 Buffalo 721
22 Atlanta 693
23 Seattle 678
24 Raleigh 657
Peer Average 650
25 Virginia Beach 644
26 Austin 528
27 Cincinnati 527
28 Charlotte 516
29 Jacksonville 487
30 Indianapolis 482
31 Minneapolis 477
32 Sacramento 464
33 Columbus 442
34 Pittsburgh 439
35 New Orleans 397
36 Portland 373
37 Louisville 360
38 St. Louis 356
39 Denver 356
40 San Antonio 349
41 Phoenix 340
42 Nashville 307
43 Kansas City 297
44 Las Vegas 287
45 Richmond 281
46 Memphis 270
47 Oklahoma City 256
48 Birmingham 219
49 Riverside 171
50 Salt Lake City 160
Urbanized Area Density
Population per square mile, 2010
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census
1 Los Angeles 6,576
2 San Jose 5,328
3 San Francisco 5,109
4 New York 4,986
5 Las Vegas 4,525
6 Miami 4,447
7 San Diego 4,003
8 Sacramento 3,725
9 Salt Lake City 3,686
10 Denver 3,543
11 Portland 3,519
12 Chicago 3,404
13 Washington, D.C. 3,226
14 Riverside 3,162
15 Phoenix 3,079
Peer Average 3,007
16 Seattle 2,942
17 San Antonio 2,942
18 New Orleans 2,882
19 Dallas 2,831
20 Houston 2,808
21 Baltimore 2,744
22 Philadelphia 2,680
23 Virginia Beach 2,652
24 Columbus 2,613
25 Detroit 2,600
26 Minneapolis 2,595
27 Austin 2,577
28 Milwaukee 2,499
29 Buffalo 2,463
30 Tampa 2,382
31 Cleveland 2,352
32 Orlando 2,295
33 St. Louis 2,284
34 Kansas City 2,231
35 Boston 2,153
36 Memphis 2,132
37 Providence 2,128
38 Oklahoma City 2,119
39 Indianapolis 2,046
40 Louisville 2,040
41 Cincinnati 2,018
42 Jacksonville 1,978
43 Richmond 1,937
44 Pittsburgh 1,872
45 Nashville 1,721
46 Raleigh 1,715
47 Atlanta 1,702
48 Hartford 1,665
49 Charlotte 1,508
50 Birmingham 1,414
Largest City Share of MSA Population
Percent of total population, 2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 San Antonio 60.9
2 Jacksonville 58.9
3 San Jose 51.5
4 Memphis 48.2
5 Louisville 47.8
6 Oklahoma City 46.5
7 Austin 44.5
8 San Diego 42.7
9 Columbus 42.4
10 Indianapolis 42.3
11 New York 42.0
12 Milwaukee 37.6
13 Nashville 34.6
14 Raleigh 34.4
15 Phoenix 34.2
16 Charlotte 34.0
17 Houston 33.2
18 New Orleans 30.8
19 Los Angeles 30.0
20 Las Vegas 28.9
21 Chicago 28.5
22 Portland 26.3
Peer Average 26.1
23 Virginia Beach 26.0
24 Philadelphia 26.0
25 Denver 24.4
26 Kansas City 22.9
27 Buffalo 22.7
28 Sacramento 21.7
29 Baltimore 21.5
30 Seattle 18.9
31 San Francisco 18.7
32 Cleveland 18.7
33 Birmingham 18.2
34 Dallas 17.8
35 Richmond 17.5
36 Salt Lake City 16.4
37 Detroit 15.5
38 Boston 14.2
39 Cincinnati 13.8
40 Pittsburgh 12.9
41 Tampa 12.5
42 Minneapolis 11.7
43 Washington, D.C. 11.2
44 Orlando 11.1
45 Providence 11.1
46 St. Louis 10.8
47 Hartford 10.2
48 Atlanta 8.4
49 Miami 7.6
50 Riverside 7.1
Change in Largest City Share of Population
Percentage difference, 2010-2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 New Orleans 1.9
2 Seattle 1.2
3 Columbus 0.9
4 Denver 0.9
5 Charlotte 0.8
6 Boston 0.7
7 Richmond 0.6
8 San Diego 0.6
9 Washington, D.C. 0.6
10 Los Angeles 0.5
11 Tampa 0.4
12 Miami 0.4
13 Philadelphia 0.4
14 Atlanta 0.3
15 Minneapolis 0.3
16 New York 0.3
17 Oklahoma City 0.2
18 Portland 0.1
19 San Francisco 0.1
20 Kansas City 0.1
21 Chicago -0.0
22 Pittsburgh -0.0
23 Sacramento -0.0
24 Providence -0.0
25 Riverside -0.1
26 Virginia Beach -0.1
27 Orlando -0.1
Peer Average -0.1
28 Hartford -0.1
29 Cincinnati -0.2
30 San Jose -0.3
31 Phoenix -0.3
32 Buffalo -0.3
33 Louisville -0.4
34 Cleveland -0.4
35 Birmingham -0.6
36 Milwaukee -0.6
37 St. Louis -0.7
38 Salt Lake City -0.7
39 Dallas -0.8
40 Memphis -1.0
41 Detroit -1.1
42 Las Vegas -1.1
43 San Antonio -1.1
44 Indianapolis -1.1
45 Raleigh -1.3
46 Baltimore -1.4
47 Nashville -1.5
48 Houston -2.1
49 Jacksonville -2.2
50 Austin -2.3
Rural Population
Percent of total population, 2010
Source: Missouri Census Data Center
1 Birmingham 28.8
2 Nashville 24.1
3 Richmond 20.3
United States 19.3
4 Charlotte 18.5
5 Oklahoma City 18.3
6 Pittsburgh 17.8
7 Raleigh 17.2
8 Louisville 17.1
9 Columbus 16.5
10 Memphis 15.3
11 Cincinnati 14.1
12 San Antonio 13.8
13 St. Louis 13.2
14 Austin 12.8
15 Indianapolis 12.4
16 Minneapolis 12.4
17 Kansas City 12.3
18 Hartford 12.2
19 Buffalo 11.9
20 Jacksonville 11.2
21 Atlanta 11.1
22 Portland 9.9
23 Providence 9.5
24 Baltimore 9.0
25 Virginia Beach 8.7
26 Cleveland 8.1
27 Washington, D.C. 7.8
28 Dallas 7.4
29 New Orleans 7.2
30 Sacramento 7.2
31 Detroit 6.8
32 Milwaukee 6.6
33 Houston 6.5
34 Denver 5.7
35 Seattle 5.6
36 Boston 5.5
37 Orlando 5.4
38 Philadelphia 5.1
39 Riverside 4.7
40 Tampa 4.4
41 Phoenix 4.1
42 San Diego 3.3
43 New York 2.7
44 Chicago 2.6
45 Salt Lake City 1.8
46 San Jose 1.8
47 Las Vegas 1.3
48 San Francisco 1.0
49 Los Angeles 0.5
50 Miami 0.4

Development in the St. Louis region is dispersed throughout the region. The large amount of developed land per capita is an indication of low density. This development pattern has led to lower housing costs but can increase transportation costs for families and make access to amenities more challenging. For further discussion, see the Developed Land per Capita performance indicator on OneSTL.

Land Area
In square miles, 2014
Source: Missouri Census Data Center, MABLE/GeoCORR
1 Riverside 27,263
2 Phoenix 14,566
3 Dallas 9,278
4 Atlanta 8,686
5 Denver 8,346
6 New York 8,294
7 Houston 8,258
8 Las Vegas 7,891
9 St. Louis 7,863
10 Salt Lake City 7,684
11 Minneapolis 7,637
12 San Antonio 7,313
13 Kansas City 7,256
14 Chicago 7,197
15 Portland 6,684
16 Nashville 6,302
17 Washington, D.C. 6,244
18 Seattle 5,872
Peer Average 5,574
19 Oklahoma City 5,512
20 Pittsburgh 5,281
21 Birmingham 5,280
22 Sacramento 5,094
23 Miami 5,077
24 Charlotte 5,067
25 Memphis 4,984
26 Los Angeles 4,848
27 Columbus 4,796
28 Philadelphia 4,602
29 Richmond 4,576
30 Indianapolis 4,306
31 Austin 4,220
32 San Diego 4,207
33 Cincinnati 4,169
34 Detroit 3,888
35 Louisville 3,578
36 Boston 3,487
37 Orlando 3,478
38 New Orleans 3,202
39 Jacksonville 3,201
40 Virginia Beach 2,691
41 San Jose 2,679
42 Baltimore 2,601
43 Tampa 2,513
44 San Francisco 2,471
45 Raleigh 2,118
46 Cleveland 1,997
47 Providence 1,587
48 Buffalo 1,565
49 Hartford 1,515
50 Milwaukee 1,455
Developed Land per Capita
Developed acres per capita, 2016
Source: MRLS Consortium, National Land Cover Database; U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Birmingham 0.34
United States 0.33
2 Kansas City 0.32
3 Oklahoma City 0.30
4 Charlotte 0.29
5 Memphis 0.29
6 St. Louis 0.29
7 Pittsburgh 0.28
8 Nashville 0.28
9 Indianapolis 0.27
10 Jacksonville 0.27
11 Richmond 0.27
12 Cincinnati 0.24
13 Minneapolis 0.23
14 Columbus 0.23
15 Cleveland 0.23
16 Louisville 0.23
17 Atlanta 0.23
18 Hartford 0.22
19 Raleigh 0.22
20 Detroit 0.22
21 San Antonio 0.22
22 Virginia Beach 0.22
23 New Orleans 0.22
24 Orlando 0.21
25 Portland 0.21
26 Tampa 0.21
27 Milwaukee 0.21
28 Riverside 0.20
29 Houston 0.20
30 Providence 0.19
31 Austin 0.19
32 Buffalo 0.19
33 Dallas 0.19
34 Denver 0.18
35 Seattle 0.18
36 Salt Lake City 0.18
37 Phoenix 0.17
38 Chicago 0.17
39 Sacramento 0.17
40 Baltimore 0.17
41 Philadelphia 0.17
42 Boston 0.16
43 Washington 0.15
44 San Diego 0.15
45 Las Vegas 0.13
46 Miami 0.13
47 San Jose 0.11
48 San Francisco 0.10
49 New York 0.09
50 Los Angeles 0.09
Change in Developed Land per Capita
Percent change in developed acres per capita, 2011-2016
Source: MRLS Consortium, National Land Cover Database; U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Pittsburgh 2.1
2 Hartford 1.2
3 Buffalo 1.1
4 Cleveland 0.7
5 Memphis 0.4
6 St. Louis 0.3
7 Chicago 0.3
8 Providence 0.0
9 Philadelphia -0.1
10 Milwaukee -0.2
11 Birmingham -0.2
12 Detroit -0.4
13 Cincinnati -1.0
14 New York -1.0
15 Baltimore -1.1
16 Virginia Beach -1.2
17 Louisville -1.7
United States -2.1
18 Los Angeles -2.2
19 Riverside -2.4
20 New Orleans -2.8
21 Kansas City -2.8
22 Indianapolis -3.1
23 Richmond -3.3
24 Boston -3.3
25 Minneapolis -3.4
26 Las Vegas -3.6
27 Sacramento -4.0
28 Salt Lake City -4.2
29 Washington -4.4
30 Oklahoma City -4.4
31 San Diego -4.7
32 Tampa -4.7
33 Columbus -4.8
34 San Antonio -5.1
35 Jacksonville -5.5
36 Miami -5.5
37 San Jose -5.7
38 San Francisco -5.7
39 Dallas -5.7
40 Phoenix -6.2
41 Portland -6.3
42 Atlanta -6.3
43 Charlotte -6.4
44 Denver -6.6
45 Houston -6.7
46 Nashville -7.0
47 Seattle -7.7
48 Raleigh -7.8
49 Orlando -8.2
50 Austin -8.2
Rural Land Area
Percent of total land area in square miles, 2010
Source: Missouri Census Data Center
United States 97.0
1 Salt Lake City 96.1
2 Riverside 95.1
3 Las Vegas 94.4
4 Denver 91.8
5 Portland 91.1
6 Oklahoma City 91.0
7 Phoenix 91.0
8 San Antonio 91.0
9 Richmond 89.1
10 Memphis 89.0
11 Kansas City 88.9
12 Birmingham 88.7
13 Sacramento 88.3
14 Nashville 87.6
15 New Orleans 87.3
16 San Jose 87.2
17 Columbus 86.9
18 St. Louis 86.0
19 Louisville 85.8
20 Austin 85.6
21 Minneapolis 84.4
22 San Diego 81.9
23 Indianapolis 81.2
24 Seattle 81.0
25 Jacksonville 80.1
26 Pittsburgh 80.1
27 Cincinnati 78.2
28 Virginia Beach 78.2
29 Dallas 76.1
30 Charlotte 75.8
31 Houston 75.5
32 Miami 75.2
33 Orlando 74.4
34 Raleigh 73.1
35 Washington, D.C. 73.1
36 Buffalo 73.0
37 Atlanta 67.4
38 San Francisco 65.8
39 Baltimore 64.8
40 Chicago 61.9
41 Detroit 60.0
42 Los Angeles 59.8
43 Milwaukee 59.2
44 Cleveland 58.7
45 Providence 56.9
46 Hartford 56.8
47 Tampa 55.5
48 Philadelphia 53.7
49 New York 52.4
50 Boston 42.6

The St. Louis region has a relatively large amount of farmland compared to the peer regions. A majority of this land is used for crops while the remainder is woodland, pasture, and other land. Farmland is an important piece of the region’s environmental health as well as the economy.

Farmland
Acres of land in farms in thousands, 2017
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture
1 Dallas 4,082
2 San Antonio 3,657
3 Kansas City 3,126
4 St. Louis 2,780
5 Oklahoma City 2,509
6 Minneapolis 2,492
7 Denver 2,489
8 Houston 2,218
9 Chicago 2,147
10 Nashville 1,831
11 Austin 1,669
12 Columbus 1,666
13 Memphis 1,623
14 Indianapolis 1,603
15 Phoenix 1,595
16 Cincinnati 1,198
17 Washington, D.C. 1,147
Peer Average 1,136
18 Louisville 1,127
19 Sacramento 929
20 Charlotte 885
21 Atlanta 872
22 Orlando 853
23 San Jose 808
24 Pittsburgh 790
25 Richmond 669
26 Philadelphia 656
27 Portland 597
28 Miami 573
29 Detroit 550
30 San Francisco 525
31 Baltimore 520
32 Birmingham 510
33 Tampa 425
34 Salt Lake City 411
35 Raleigh 368
36 Virginia Beach 363
37 Riverside 332
38 Cleveland 310
39 Buffalo 283
40 New Orleans 263
41 San Diego 222
42 Boston 171
43 Seattle 151
44 Hartford 100
45 Los Angeles 90
46 Providence 89
Change in Farmland
Percent change in acres, 2012-2017
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture
1 Providence 20.6
2 New Orleans 14.5
3 Baltimore 5.8
4 Louisville 5.5
5 Virginia Beach 4.2
Peer Average 3.9
6 Memphis 3.1
7 Richmond 3.1
8 Cleveland 2.0
9 Atlanta 1.9
10 Oklahoma City 1.7
11 San Antonio 0.4
12 Philadelphia 0.4
13 San Diego 0.3
14 Sacramento 0.2
15 Dallas 0.2
16 San Francisco 0.1
17 Kansas City 0.1
18 Orlando -0.0
19 Denver -0.1
20 Birmingham -0.7
21 Buffalo -0.8
22 Detroit -1.4
23 Cincinnati -1.5
24 Nashville -2.0
25 San Jose -3.1
26 Pittsburgh -3.3
27 Salt Lake City -3.4
28 Phoenix -3.4
29 Washington, D.C. -3.8
30 Chicago -3.8
31 Minneapolis -4.1
32 St. Louis -4.6
33 Columbus -4.6
34 Austin -4.8
35 Indianapolis -5.1
36 Tampa -5.6
37 Charlotte -5.7
38 Miami -6.0
39 Raleigh -7.0
40 Portland -7.3
41 Seattle -9.4
42 Boston -10.3
43 Houston -17.2
44 Hartford -20.6
45 Riverside -21.2
46 Los Angeles -40.7
Organic Farms
Number of farms using organic practices, 2017
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture
1 San Diego 358
2 Riverside 228
3 Minneapolis 164
4 Sacramento 156
5 Portland 137
6 New York 123
7 San Francisco 99
8 Boston 93
9 San Jose 92
10 Columbus 86
11 Philadelphia 85
12 Seattle 81
13 Washington, D.C. 68
Peer Average 51
14 Cleveland 49
15 Chicago 49
16 Miami 45
17 Los Angeles 40
18 Pittsburgh 39
19 Providence 38
20 Buffalo 38
21 Detroit 35
22 Kansas City 30
23 Baltimore 29
24 Tampa 28
25 Cincinnati 26
26 Atlanta 25
27 Milwaukee 24
28 Denver 24
29 Nashville 23
30 Orlando 23
31 Phoenix 22
32 St. Louis 22
33 Indianapolis 22
34 Raleigh 21
35 Hartford 21
36 Austin 20
37 Houston 20
38 Dallas 15
39 Salt Lake City 11
40 Richmond 10
41 Charlotte 10
42 Virginia Beach 9
43 San Antonio 8
44 Louisville 8
45 Jacksonville 6
46 Memphis 4
47 Birmingham 3
48 Oklahoma City 2
49 Las Vegas 1
50 New Orleans 1

Housing

When it comes to housing, St. Louis is one of the most affordable large metropolitan regions in the country. However, black families are less likely than white families to own a home, more likely to be housing cost-burdened, and much more likely to live in areas of concentrated poverty. The region is also one of the most racially segregated among the peers. Where one lives is an important factor in many aspects of life including access to jobs and amenities, quality of schools, and exposure to crime. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

The St. Louis region continues to have some of the lowest priced housing among the peer regions, even with an increase in prices that was similar to the national average over the past five years. The rate of homeownership in the region is one of the highest among the peers. However, black households are twice as likely to rent as white households. Relative to the peers, the region has a moderately high vacancy rate and a low rate of new housing starts.

Homeownership
Owner-occupied units as a percent of all occupied housing units, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25003)
1 Minneapolis 70.2
2 Detroit 69.6
3 St. Louis 69.2
4 Pittsburgh 68.2
5 Salt Lake City 68.2
6 Birmingham 67.7
7 Louisville 67.2
8 Cincinnati 66.9
9 Tampa 66.7
10 Philadelphia 66.7
11 Baltimore 66.4
12 Richmond 66.3
13 Jacksonville 66.0
14 Hartford 65.9
15 Nashville 65.8
16 Buffalo 65.7
17 Raleigh 65.6
18 Charlotte 65.4
19 Indianapolis 65.2
20 Kansas City 65.1
21 Phoenix 64.6
22 Chicago 64.4
23 Atlanta 64.3
24 Denver 64.3
25 Cleveland 64.2
United States 64.1
26 Riverside 63.9
27 Washington, D.C. 63.5
28 New Orleans 63.4
29 Oklahoma City 63.3
30 San Antonio 62.7
31 Providence 62.0
32 Orlando 61.9
33 Portland 61.8
34 Boston 61.5
35 Virginia Beach 61.1
36 Columbus 60.9
37 Sacramento 60.4
38 Houston 60.1
39 Milwaukee 59.9
40 Seattle 59.7
41 Dallas 59.5
42 Miami 59.2
43 Memphis 58.8
44 Austin 57.6
45 San Jose 55.2
46 Las Vegas 54.3
47 San Francisco 54.0
48 San Diego 53.8
49 New York 50.8
50 Los Angeles 48.2
Racial Disparity in Homeownership
Ratio of non-Hispanic black to non-Hispanic white, owner-occupied units as a percent of all occupied units, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 Minneapolis 2.97
2 Milwaukee 2.63
3 Pittsburgh 2.32
4 Columbus 2.31
5 Cincinnati 2.21
6 Las Vegas 2.21
7 Seattle 2.20
8 San Diego 2.15
9 Phoenix 2.06
10 Louisville 2.05
11 Buffalo 2.00
12 St. Louis 2.00
13 Sacramento 1.98
14 Cleveland 1.98
15 Indianapolis 1.96
16 New York 1.96
17 Oklahoma City 1.93
18 Kansas City 1.90
19 Boston 1.89
20 Dallas 1.89
21 Chicago 1.87
22 Detroit 1.82
23 Houston 1.80
24 Providence 1.80
25 Nashville 1.79
26 Hartford 1.73
27 Jacksonville 1.73
28 Memphis 1.72
29 San Francisco 1.72
30 Virginia Beach 1.72
31 Raleigh 1.71
United States 1.70
32 Portland 1.70
33 Charlotte 1.69
34 Birmingham 1.66
35 Baltimore 1.66
36 Tampa 1.66
37 San Antonio 1.61
38 Los Angeles 1.61
39 Austin 1.59
40 Riverside 1.59
41 Atlanta 1.58
42 Denver 1.57
43 Philadelphia 1.56
44 Miami 1.55
45 Richmond 1.53
46 New Orleans 1.51
47 Orlando 1.46
48 Washington, D.C. 1.43
Median Sales Price of Existing Single-Family Homes
In thousands of dollars, 2018
Source: National Association of Realtors
1 San Jose 1,340.0
2 San Francisco 987.5
3 San Diego 634.0
4 Seattle 501.4
5 Boston 477.4
6 Denver 449.9
7 Washington, D.C. 424.0
8 New York 410.0
9 Portland 395.7
10 Sacramento 365.0
11 Riverside 360.0
12 Miami 350.0
13 Salt Lake City 331.7
14 Austin 315.9
15 Providence 292.5
16 Las Vegas 288.8
17 Baltimore 285.6
18 Raleigh 283.6
19 Minneapolis 273.4
20 Phoenix 269.8
21 Orlando 265.0
United States 261.6
22 Nashville 260.5
23 Dallas 260.0
24 Chicago 259.4
25 Richmond 258.8
26 Milwaukee 250.3
27 Jacksonville 247.0
28 Charlotte 241.5
29 Houston 238.8
30 Tampa 235.0
31 Hartford 235.0
32 Philadelphia 229.0
33 San Antonio 228.1
34 Atlanta 219.9
35 Virginia Beach 219.0
36 New Orleans 210.1
37 Birmingham 207.3
38 Kansas City 206.5
39 Columbus 201.8
40 Indianapolis 187.1
41 Louisville 180.1
42 Memphis 177.9
43 St. Louis 177.5
44 Cincinnati 174.3
45 Oklahoma City 159.5
46 Cleveland 153.3
47 Buffalo 152.8
Change in Median Sales Price of Existing Single-Family Homes
Percent change, 2013-2018, adjusted to 2018 dollars
Source: National Association of Realtors; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 San Jose 59.4
2 Las Vegas 54.2
3 Orlando 53.3
4 Tampa 52.7
5 Denver 48.7
6 Atlanta 46.2
7 Jacksonville 42.5
8 Sacramento 41.4
9 Riverside 38.3
10 Seattle 38.3
11 Portland 38.3
12 Dallas 37.4
13 Nashville 37.0
14 San Francisco 36.8
15 Phoenix 36.3
16 Raleigh 33.6
17 Salt Lake City 33.4
18 Miami 32.0
19 Austin 31.5
20 Columbus 31.1
21 Minneapolis 29.3
22 Charlotte 28.6
23 Memphis 27.5
24 Indianapolis 27.0
25 San Diego 26.7
26 Chicago 25.8
27 Kansas City 23.8
28 San Antonio 23.8
United States 22.9
29 St. Louis 22.6
30 Houston 22.2
31 Cleveland 20.8
32 Louisville 19.8
33 Cincinnati 19.3
34 New Orleans 18.3
35 Boston 17.8
36 Providence 17.6
37 Birmingham 16.5
38 Richmond 15.7
39 Milwaukee 15.7
40 Buffalo 8.2
41 Virginia Beach 5.3
42 Baltimore 5.2
43 Washington, D.C. 3.0
44 New York -2.9
45 Oklahoma City -3.3
46 Philadelphia -3.6
47 Hartford -4.0
Vacancy Rate
Vacant units as a percent of all housing units, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25002)
1 Orlando 17.4
2 Tampa 15.3
3 Miami 14.6
4 New Orleans 13.6
5 Riverside 13.2
6 Jacksonville 12.8
7 Birmingham 12.5
United States 12.1
8 Las Vegas 12.0
9 Memphis 12.0
10 Providence 11.2
11 Phoenix 10.4
12 Louisville 10.3
13 Detroit 10.2
14 Oklahoma City 10.1
15 St. Louis 9.6
16 Cleveland 9.5
17 Houston 9.4
18 Charlotte 9.4
19 Indianapolis 9.3
20 Pittsburgh 9.3
21 San Antonio 9.2
22 Baltimore 9.1
23 Virginia Beach 9.0
24 Nashville 9.0
25 New York 8.9
26 Kansas City 8.8
27 Chicago 8.5
28 Dallas 8.5
29 San Diego 8.2
30 Hartford 8.0
31 Buffalo 8.0
32 Richmond 7.8
33 Raleigh 7.7
34 Cincinnati 7.6
35 Atlanta 7.4
36 Philadelphia 7.3
37 Austin 7.3
38 Milwaukee 7.1
39 Sacramento 7.0
40 Los Angeles 6.9
41 Columbus 6.9
42 Salt Lake City 6.6
43 Boston 6.5
44 San Francisco 6.5
45 Seattle 6.3
46 Washington, D.C. 6.3
47 San Jose 6.2
48 Portland 5.6
49 Denver 5.3
50 Minneapolis 5.0
Housing Starts
New permitted units per 1,000 units, 2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Building Permits Survey and American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25001)
1 Austin 36.2
2 Raleigh 29.8
3 Orlando 28.0
4 Charlotte 25.5
5 Nashville 24.6
6 Jacksonville 24.0
7 Dallas 22.9
8 Houston 22.0
9 Salt Lake City 20.9
10 Denver 18.5
11 Seattle 17.7
12 Atlanta 17.2
13 Phoenix 16.4
14 Portland 14.3
15 Las Vegas 13.4
16 San Antonio 12.9
17 San Jose 12.7
18 Minneapolis 12.6
19 Tampa 12.3
20 Richmond 11.5
21 Kansas City 11.3
22 Columbus 11.0
23 Washington, D.C. 10.9
24 Indianapolis 10.3
25 Oklahoma City 10.0
26 Louisville 9.9
United States 9.7
27 San Francisco 9.6
28 Riverside 9.5
29 Sacramento 8.7
30 San Diego 8.1
31 Baltimore 8.0
32 Memphis 7.9
33 Virginia Beach 7.8
34 Miami 7.7
35 Boston 7.3
36 New Orleans 6.9
37 Cincinnati 6.5
38 Los Angeles 6.4
39 New York 6.2
40 Birmingham 5.9
41 St. Louis 5.8
42 Milwaukee 5.6
43 Philadelphia 5.3
44 Chicago 4.6
45 Detroit 3.8
46 Pittsburgh 3.6
47 Cleveland 3.1
48 Hartford 3.1
49 Providence 2.8
50 Buffalo 2.7
Change in Housing Starts
Percent change in new permitted units, 2013-2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Building Permits Survey
1 Jacksonville 110.0
2 Milwaukee 89.6
3 Sacramento 87.9
4 San Antonio 87.6
5 Orlando 85.6
6 Dallas 67.9
7 Phoenix 67.3
8 Nashville 65.5
9 Salt Lake City 65.0
10 Atlanta 62.1
11 San Francisco 59.5
12 Riverside 58.4
13 Charlotte 55.6
14 Chicago 52.1
15 Minneapolis 50.1
16 New Orleans 44.8
17 Louisville 44.4
18 Seattle 44.4
19 Austin 44.0
20 Tampa 43.6
21 Cincinnati 41.3
22 Las Vegas 40.5
23 Denver 40.4
24 Raleigh 39.5
25 Kansas City 36.8
United States 34.1
26 St. Louis 32.3
27 Richmond 25.7
28 Memphis 23.0
29 New York 21.3
30 Portland 20.9
31 San Diego 19.0
32 Boston 18.0
33 Philadelphia 17.3
34 Los Angeles 17.2
35 Baltimore 15.1
36 Detroit 12.8
37 San Jose 12.6
38 Columbus 12.4
39 Houston 11.6
40 Birmingham 9.0
41 Cleveland 8.8
42 Indianapolis 7.9
43 Hartford 7.3
44 Washington, D.C. 6.2
45 Providence -0.6
46 Miami -1.8
47 Pittsburgh -11.5
48 Oklahoma City -23.7
49 Virginia Beach -24.1
50 Buffalo -24.9

Despite relatively affordable housing, St. Louis has a substantial number of homeowners as well as renters paying more than 30 percent of their income on housing. A larger proportion of black owners and renters are cost-burdened compared to their white counterparts.

Housing Cost-Burdened Owners
Owners paying at least 30% of income on housing as a percent of all homeowners, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25091)
1 Los Angeles 33.3
2 Miami 32.2
3 San Diego 31.6
4 New York 31.1
5 Riverside 31.0
6 San Francisco 28.6
7 San Jose 26.1
8 Boston 25.8
9 Sacramento 25.7
10 Providence 25.4
11 Hartford 24.9
12 Virginia Beach 24.2
13 Seattle 24.2
14 Chicago 23.9
15 Orlando 23.7
16 Las Vegas 23.5
17 Portland 23.5
18 Philadelphia 23.4
19 Tampa 23.2
20 Denver 22.9
21 Washington, D.C. 22.4
22 Dallas 22.2
23 New Orleans 22.0
24 Austin 21.3
United States 21.3
25 Baltimore 21.0
26 San Antonio 20.7
27 Phoenix 20.3
28 Jacksonville 20.1
29 Houston 20.0
30 Salt Lake City 20.0
31 Detroit 19.5
32 Richmond 19.5
33 Atlanta 19.4
34 Memphis 18.8
35 Birmingham 18.7
36 Cleveland 18.6
37 Milwaukee 18.5
38 Nashville 18.4
39 Minneapolis 17.4
40 Louisville 17.3
41 Charlotte 17.2
42 St. Louis 17.1
43 Columbus 17.1
44 Buffalo 17.1
45 Indianapolis 16.4
46 Raleigh 16.4
47 Kansas City 16.3
48 Cincinnati 15.9
49 Pittsburgh 15.6
50 Oklahoma City 15.4
Racial Disparity in Housing Cost-Burdened Owners
Ratio of non-Hispanic black to non-Hispanic white, owners paying at least 30% of income on housing as a percent of all homeowners, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 Cincinnati 2.08
2 Milwaukee 2.06
3 Indianapolis 2.00
4 Raleigh 1.91
5 Memphis 1.78
6 Richmond 1.77
7 Charlotte 1.73
8 Austin 1.71
9 St. Louis 1.70
10 Portland 1.67
11 Seattle 1.67
12 Kansas City 1.64
13 Washington, D.C. 1.64
14 Dallas 1.63
15 New Orleans 1.63
16 Denver 1.61
17 Hartford 1.59
18 Orlando 1.56
19 Cleveland 1.54
20 Oklahoma City 1.53
21 Chicago 1.52
22 Detroit 1.51
United States 1.48
23 Columbus 1.45
24 New York 1.43
25 Miami 1.43
26 Houston 1.43
27 Atlanta 1.43
28 Nashville 1.42
29 Philadelphia 1.41
30 Pittsburgh 1.41
31 Tampa 1.40
32 Birmingham 1.40
33 Minneapolis 1.39
34 San Diego 1.38
35 Phoenix 1.37
36 Baltimore 1.33
37 Las Vegas 1.33
38 San Antonio 1.33
39 San Francisco 1.33
40 Los Angeles 1.32
41 Boston 1.29
42 Providence 1.24
43 Virginia Beach 1.19
44 Sacramento 1.19
45 Louisville 1.17
46 Riverside 1.15
47 Buffalo 1.12
48 Jacksonville 1.05
Housing Cost-Burdened Renters
Renters paying at least 30% of income on housing as a percent of all renters, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25070)
1 Miami 61.6
2 Orlando 56.3
3 Los Angeles 56.0
4 Riverside 55.8
5 San Diego 55.7
6 Sacramento 54.3
7 Las Vegas 52.7
8 Richmond 52.6
9 Tampa 52.6
10 New Orleans 52.1
11 Memphis 50.8
12 Philadelphia 50.6
13 Houston 50.2
14 New York 50.0
15 Portland 49.8
16 Atlanta 49.4
17 Detroit 49.1
18 Jacksonville 48.9
19 Baltimore 48.8
20 Denver 48.8
21 Boston 48.6
United States 48.4
22 Buffalo 48.2
23 Birmingham 48.2
24 Providence 48.1
25 Virginia Beach 47.9
26 San Antonio 47.7
27 Seattle 47.3
28 Hartford 47.1
29 Dallas 46.9
30 Austin 46.9
31 Phoenix 46.6
32 Chicago 46.5
33 Indianapolis 46.3
34 Washington, D.C. 45.9
35 Cleveland 45.6
36 Nashville 45.3
37 Milwaukee 45.2
38 San Jose 45.0
39 Charlotte 45.0
40 Oklahoma City 44.9
41 Minneapolis 44.8
42 Raleigh 44.6
43 Salt Lake City 44.5
44 San Francisco 43.9
45 St. Louis 43.8
46 Cincinnati 43.5
47 Kansas City 43.4
48 Louisville 42.6
49 Pittsburgh 41.9
50 Columbus 41.0
Racial Disparity in Housing Cost-Burdened Renters
Ratio of non-Hispanic black to non-Hispanic white, renters paying at least 30% of income on housing as a percent of all renters, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 San Francisco 1.50
2 Washington, D.C. 1.44
3 New Orleans 1.43
4 Austin 1.42
5 Oklahoma City 1.42
6 Las Vegas 1.41
7 Milwaukee 1.41
8 Charlotte 1.37
9 Atlanta 1.36
10 Houston 1.36
11 Portland 1.35
12 Memphis 1.35
13 Kansas City 1.34
14 Chicago 1.34
15 Cincinnati 1.32
16 Hartford 1.32
17 Boston 1.31
18 St. Louis 1.30
19 Buffalo 1.30
20 Denver 1.29
21 Sacramento 1.29
22 Columbus 1.28
23 Birmingham 1.27
24 Indianapolis 1.26
25 Cleveland 1.25
26 Raleigh 1.25
27 Los Angeles 1.25
28 Minneapolis 1.24
United States 1.24
29 Riverside 1.22
30 New York 1.22
31 Baltimore 1.21
32 Tampa 1.21
33 Dallas 1.20
34 Seattle 1.20
35 Miami 1.20
36 Richmond 1.19
37 San Diego 1.19
38 Virginia Beach 1.19
39 Nashville 1.18
40 Detroit 1.18
41 Orlando 1.18
42 Pittsburgh 1.17
43 San Antonio 1.16
44 Philadelphia 1.15
45 Jacksonville 1.14
46 Phoenix 1.14
47 Louisville 1.07
48 Providence 0.97
Median Monthly Housing Costs
In dollars, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25105)
1 San Jose 2,459
2 San Francisco 2,219
3 San Diego 1,871
4 Washington, D.C. 1,862
5 Boston 1,790
6 Los Angeles 1,774
7 Seattle 1,747
8 New York 1,691
9 Denver 1,573
10 Sacramento 1,511
11 Riverside 1,489
12 Portland 1,474
13 Austin 1,445
14 Baltimore 1,429
15 Miami 1,383
16 Hartford 1,348
17 Minneapolis 1,311
18 Salt Lake City 1,309
19 Chicago 1,300
20 Philadelphia 1,289
21 Dallas 1,285
22 Virginia Beach 1,270
23 Atlanta 1,246
24 Raleigh 1,237
25 Orlando 1,232
26 Providence 1,231
27 Las Vegas 1,209
28 Houston 1,203
29 Richmond 1,197
30 Phoenix 1,181
31 Nashville 1,164
32 Jacksonville 1,141
United States 1,112
33 Charlotte 1,101
34 Tampa 1,086
35 Kansas City 1,083
36 Columbus 1,074
37 San Antonio 1,072
38 Milwaukee 1,042
39 Detroit 995
40 Indianapolis 985
41 St. Louis 983
42 Cincinnati 981
43 New Orleans 972
44 Memphis 960
45 Louisville 950
46 Birmingham 933
47 Oklahoma City 925
48 Cleveland 902
49 Buffalo 889
50 Pittsburgh 874
Median Monthly Rent
In dollars, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25064)
1 San Jose 2,374
2 San Francisco 2,057
3 San Diego 1,758
4 Washington, D.C. 1,708
5 Los Angeles 1,655
6 Seattle 1,621
7 Boston 1,579
8 New York 1,482
9 Denver 1,468
10 Miami 1,438
11 Riverside 1,413
12 Sacramento 1,390
13 Portland 1,356
14 Austin 1,327
15 Baltimore 1,316
16 Orlando 1,303
17 Atlanta 1,224
18 Dallas 1,202
19 Phoenix 1,188
20 Las Vegas 1,187
21 Salt Lake City 1,181
22 Virginia Beach 1,178
23 Philadelphia 1,162
24 Tampa 1,160
25 Richmond 1,155
26 Nashville 1,146
27 Raleigh 1,146
28 Minneapolis 1,144
29 Chicago 1,139
30 Houston 1,139
31 Jacksonville 1,121
32 Hartford 1,113
United States 1,097
33 Charlotte 1,077
34 San Antonio 1,057
35 Providence 1,003
36 Kansas City 989
37 New Orleans 983
38 Columbus 965
39 Detroit 962
40 Memphis 949
41 Indianapolis 932
42 Milwaukee 914
43 Birmingham 913
44 St. Louis 883
45 Louisville 880
46 Oklahoma City 876
47 Cincinnati 854
48 Pittsburgh 847
49 Buffalo 828
50 Cleveland 813
Housing Affordability
Median housing costs as a percent of median household income, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25105, B19013)
1 Miami 27.6
2 Los Angeles 27.4
3 San Diego 26.7
4 Riverside 25.2
5 New York 24.4
6 Orlando 23.9
7 Sacramento 23.6
8 Las Vegas 23.4
9 San Francisco 23.2
10 Boston 22.7
11 Portland 22.6
12 San Jose 22.5
13 Tampa 22.5
14 Seattle 22.3
15 Denver 22.0
16 Virginia Beach 22.0
17 Austin 21.4
18 Dallas 21.3
19 Washington, D.C. 21.1
20 Richmond 21.0
21 Hartford 21.0
22 Memphis 21.0
23 New Orleans 20.9
24 Phoenix 20.9
25 Houston 20.9
26 Atlanta 20.8
27 Providence 20.8
28 Jacksonville 20.8
29 Philadelphia 20.8
30 Chicago 20.7
31 San Antonio 20.6
32 Baltimore 20.6
United States 20.3
33 Charlotte 19.9
34 Nashville 19.9
35 Salt Lake City 19.6
36 Birmingham 19.2
37 Columbus 19.2
38 Milwaukee 19.0
39 Cleveland 18.9
40 Indianapolis 18.9
41 Detroit 18.8
42 Minneapolis 18.8
43 Louisville 18.6
44 Raleigh 18.5
45 Kansas City 18.5
46 Oklahoma City 18.3
47 St. Louis 17.8
48 Buffalo 17.7
49 Cincinnati 17.6
50 Pittsburgh 16.7
Housing Plus Transportation Affordability
Transportation and housing costs as a percent of median household income, 2011-2015
Source: Center for Neighborhood Technology
1 Miami 63
2 Riverside 61
3 Los Angeles 59
4 Orlando 58
5 Tampa 57
6 San Diego 57
7 New Orleans 57
8 Memphis 56
9 Sacramento 55
10 Las Vegas 54
11 Birmingham 54
12 Jacksonville 54
13 Providence 53
14 Phoenix 53
15 Cleveland 53
16 Oklahoma City 52
17 Portland 52
18 San Antonio 52
19 Atlanta 52
20 Nashville 52
21 Detroit 52
22 Charlotte 52
Peer Average 52
23 Louisville 51
24 Milwaukee 51
25 Virginia Beach 51
26 Philadelphia 51
27 Chicago 51
28 Indianapolis 50
29 Austin 50
30 St. Louis 50
31 New York 50
32 Buffalo 50
33 Cincinnati 49
34 Seattle 49
35 Salt Lake City 49
36 Columbus 49
37 Richmond 49
38 Kansas City 49
39 Dallas 49
40 Pittsburgh 49
41 Houston 49
42 San Francisco 48
43 Hartford 48
44 Raleigh 47
45 Denver 47
46 Boston 47
47 Baltimore 47
48 San Jose 46
49 Minneapolis 45
50 Washington, D.C. 41

St. Louis is one of the most racially segregated regions among the peers. The dissimilarity index is a standard measure of segregation. A score of 0 would mean a region is completely integrated and a score of 100 would mean a community is completely segregated. Black residents are much more likely to live in areas of concentrated poverty—where 40 percent or more of the residents live in poverty. See Where We Stand 7th Edition, Update 3 and Update 4 for further discussion.

Racial Segregation
Black-white segregation scores based on the dissimilarity index, 2014-2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Milwaukee 79.4
2 New York 75.8
3 Chicago 75.0
4 Detroit 73.3
5 Cleveland 72.8
6 St. Louis 71.8
7 Buffalo 70.7
8 Cincinnati 67.5
9 Philadelphia 66.7
10 Pittsburgh 66.4
11 Los Angeles 66.3
12 Hartford 65.7
United States 65.2
13 Boston 64.6
14 Indianapolis 64.3
15 Birmingham 64.1
16 Miami 64.0
17 Baltimore 63.2
18 New Orleans 62.7
19 Columbus 62.1
20 Denver 61.7
21 Washington, D.C. 61.0
22 Memphis 60.5
23 San Francisco 60.3
24 Houston 59.8
25 Kansas City 59.1
26 Atlanta 58.8
27 Providence 58.1
28 Louisville 57.1
29 Sacramento 57.0
30 Dallas 56.5
31 Minneapolis 55.6
32 Tampa 54.9
33 Jacksonville 54.1
34 Nashville 53.7
35 Charlotte 53.0
36 Richmond 52.6
37 Seattle 52.3
38 San Diego 51.6
39 Oklahoma City 51.3
40 Salt Lake City 51.3
41 San Antonio 50.4
42 Orlando 50.1
43 Portland 49.7
44 Phoenix 48.4
45 Austin 47.9
46 Virginia Beach 47.3
47 Riverside 46.6
48 San Jose 44.4
49 Raleigh 42.2
50 Las Vegas 40.6
Concentrated Poverty
Percent of poor residents living in census tracts with a poverty rate of 40% or more, 2014-2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (B17001)
1 Detroit 27.8
2 Memphis 26.5
3 Cleveland 24.3
4 Buffalo 24.2
5 Milwaukee 22.1
6 Philadelphia 21.5
7 Columbus 19.5
8 Cincinnati 18.4
9 New York 15.2
10 Phoenix 14.5
11 Oklahoma City 13.6
12 Louisville 13.5
13 Richmond 12.8
14 New Orleans 12.4
15 St. Louis 11.0
16 Birmingham 11.0
17 Indianapolis 11.0
18 Minneapolis 10.9
United States 10.9
19 Pittsburgh 10.4
20 Houston 10.0
21 Hartford 9.5
22 Chicago 9.4
23 Kansas City 8.9
24 Miami 8.9
25 San Antonio 8.5
26 Virginia Beach 8.2
27 Austin 8.2
28 Baltimore 8.2
29 Sacramento 7.3
30 Riverside 7.0
31 Boston 6.9
32 Los Angeles 6.8
33 Raleigh 6.6
34 Nashville 6.5
35 Atlanta 6.4
36 Jacksonville 6.4
37 Tampa 6.3
38 Dallas 5.9
39 Las Vegas 5.1
40 San Diego 4.8
41 Providence 4.2
42 Charlotte 3.9
43 Seattle 3.9
44 San Francisco 3.2
45 Washington, D.C. 2.9
46 Portland 2.5
47 Orlando 2.0
48 Denver 1.0
49 Salt Lake City 0.8
50 San Jose 0.5
Racial Disparity in Concentrated Poverty
Ratio of black to non-Hispanic white residents, 2014-2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (B17001, B17001B, B17001H)
1 Nashville 15.30
2 Miami 15.10
3 St. Louis 11.72
4 Jacksonville 10.59
5 Chicago 8.91
6 Denver 8.66
7 Birmingham 8.34
8 Kansas City 7.91
9 Baltimore 7.77
10 Tampa 7.15
11 New Orleans 7.08
12 San Jose 6.99
13 Charlotte 6.91
14 Washington, D.C. 5.57
15 Memphis 5.43
16 Pittsburgh 5.06
17 Virginia Beach 4.98
18 Houston 4.88
19 Hartford 4.74
20 Louisville 4.73
21 Atlanta 4.73
22 Providence 4.24
23 Dallas 4.17
24 Cleveland 4.16
25 Raleigh 3.96
26 Indianapolis 3.94
27 Philadelphia 3.88
28 Richmond 3.54
29 Buffalo 3.33
30 Riverside 3.28
31 San Antonio 3.25
32 Cincinnati 3.24
United States 3.19
33 Milwaukee 3.06
34 Orlando 2.97
35 Las Vegas 2.97
36 Boston 2.96
37 Oklahoma City 2.86
38 Los Angeles 2.84
39 Detroit 2.78
40 Phoenix 2.70
41 Portland 2.59
42 Minneapolis 2.32
43 Seattle 2.28
44 Columbus 2.06
45 New York 1.79
46 Sacramento 1.67
47 San Diego 1.23
48 San Francisco 1.13
49 Austin 0.63
50 Salt Lake City 0.00

Transportation

The region’s transportation network provides assets important to the growth of St. Louis, including an extensive road network—serving residents, businesses, and freight—and low congestion relative to the peer regions. The region’s challenges in this section include relatively high crash fatalities and lack of access for non-auto commuters. For further discussion, see the performance indicators in the Connected Theme on OneSTL. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

St. Louis has an extensive road network with a larger number of lane miles per square mile than the average for the peer regions. Residents in St. Louis drive more miles, on average, than their counterparts in most of the peer regions. The average vehicle miles traveled in St. Louis has increased more over the last two decades than in many of the peer regions. The fourth table indicates St. Louis has a relatively large percentage of bridge deck area that is in poor or worse condition.

Road Network
Freeway lane miles per urbanized area square mile, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Salt Lake City 3.8
2 Los Angeles 2.6
3 San Jose 2.5
4 San Antonio 2.4
5 Dallas 2.2
6 Baltimore 2.2
7 San Diego 2.1
8 Austin 2.0
9 Houston 2.0
10 Sacramento 1.9
11 Washington, D.C. 1.9
12 San Francisco 1.9
13 St. Louis 1.8
14 Cleveland 1.8
15 Kansas City 1.8
16 Miami 1.7
17 Louisville 1.7
18 Riverside 1.6
19 Denver 1.6
20 Richmond 1.6
21 Las Vegas 1.5
22 Milwaukee 1.5
23 New York 1.5
24 Seattle 1.4
25 Columbus 1.4
Peer Average 1.4
26 Cincinnati 1.3
27 Minneapolis 1.3
28 New Orleans 1.3
29 Oklahoma City 1.3
30 Hartford 1.3
31 Portland 1.2
32 Detroit 1.2
33 Phoenix 1.2
34 Nashville 1.1
35 Providence 1.1
36 Philadelphia 1.1
37 Jacksonville 1.1
38 Buffalo 1.1
39 Boston 1.1
40 Pittsburgh 1.0
41 Orlando 1.0
42 Indianapolis 1.0
43 Charlotte 1.0
44 Memphis 0.9
45 Birmingham 0.9
46 Raleigh 0.8
47 Chicago 0.8
48 Atlanta 0.8
49 Tampa 0.7
50 Virginia Beach 0.6
Vehicle Miles Traveled
Average daily VMT per capita on freeways and arterials, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Nashville 29.4
2 Birmingham 26.8
3 Kansas City 23.8
4 St. Louis 23.4
5 Richmond 23.2
6 Charlotte 23.2
7 Oklahoma City 22.5
8 Atlanta 22.4
9 Raleigh 22.4
10 Memphis 22.3
11 Dallas 21.2
12 Detroit 21.1
13 Hartford 21.0
14 Orlando 20.9
15 San Antonio 20.8
16 Houston 20.8
17 Minneapolis 20.7
18 Milwaukee 20.3
19 Columbus 20.3
20 Jacksonville 20.1
21 Cincinnati 20.1
22 Indianapolis 20.1
23 Los Angeles 19.7
24 San Diego 19.5
Peer Average 19.4
25 Baltimore 19.2
26 Riverside 19.2
27 Boston 19.1
28 Providence 19.1
29 Virginia Beach 18.9
30 Denver 18.8
31 Tampa 18.4
32 Cleveland 18.3
33 Phoenix 18.3
34 Austin 18.3
35 Washington, D.C. 17.9
36 Buffalo 17.8
37 Salt Lake City 17.3
38 Seattle 17.1
39 San Francisco 17.1
40 New Orleans 16.6
41 Sacramento 16.6
42 Miami 16.6
43 San Jose 16.5
44 Louisville 16.4
45 Philadelphia 15.5
46 Chicago 15.5
47 Pittsburgh 14.8
48 Portland 14.4
49 Las Vegas 14.2
50 New York 12.0
Change in Vehicle Miles Traveled
Percent change in average daily VMT per capita, 2000-2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Raleigh 64.6
2 Buffalo 38.8
3 Charlotte 31.5
4 New Orleans 31.2
5 Nashville 22.9
6 Milwaukee 19.4
7 Tampa 16.8
8 Cleveland 16.5
9 Memphis 15.1
10 Providence 13.7
11 Philadelphia 13.6
12 San Francisco 13.3
13 Boston 12.9
14 Cincinnati 12.9
15 San Antonio 12.6
16 Birmingham 12.5
17 New York 11.2
18 St. Louis 10.3
19 Las Vegas 10.0
20 Hartford 10.0
21 Detroit 9.1
22 Riverside 8.6
23 Baltimore 8.0
24 Salt Lake City 6.9
25 Phoenix 6.5
26 Miami 6.4
27 Columbus 5.7
28 Kansas City 5.7
Peer Average 5.5
29 Richmond 4.0
30 Chicago 2.8
31 Austin 2.4
32 Virginia Beach 2.2
33 Minneapolis 1.0
34 Sacramento -0.0
35 Washington, D.C. -0.2
36 San Diego -0.6
37 Atlanta -1.1
38 Orlando -2.0
39 Denver -3.0
40 Houston -3.6
41 Los Angeles -3.7
42 Jacksonville -5.3
43 Pittsburgh -7.5
44 Portland -7.8
45 Oklahoma City -8.3
46 Dallas -8.4
47 Seattle -12.8
48 Indianapolis -13.2
49 San Jose -17.1
50 Louisville -25.2
Deficient Bridges
Percent of total bridge deck area, 2019
Source: FHWA, National Bridge Inventory
1 Providence 19.0
2 San Francisco 14.7
3 New York 12.6
4 Boston 12.4
5 Chicago 12.2
6 San Jose 11.4
7 New Orleans 10.9
8 Hartford 10.6
9 Birmingham 9.0
10 Detroit 8.9
11 St. Louis 8.8
12 Louisville 8.5
13 Philadelphia 7.5
14 Buffalo 7.5
15 Charlotte 6.4
16 Cleveland 6.4
17 Oklahoma City 6.3
18 Pittsburgh 6.0
19 Kansas City 6.0
20 Virginia Beach 6.0
United States 5.9
21 Seattle 5.6
22 Denver 5.5
23 Riverside 5.3
24 Nashville 5.0
25 Richmond 4.8
26 Raleigh 4.7
27 Milwaukee 4.6
28 Baltimore 4.6
29 Memphis 4.5
30 Los Angeles 4.3
31 Indianapolis 3.7
32 Minneapolis 3.7
33 Portland 3.6
34 San Diego 3.4
35 Cincinnati 3.4
36 Washington, D.C. 3.2
37 Columbus 3.0
38 Sacramento 3.0
39 Dallas 2.0
40 Miami 1.5
41 Atlanta 1.4
42 Jacksonville 0.9
43 Houston 0.9
44 Orlando 0.7
45 Salt Lake City 0.7
46 Las Vegas 0.5
47 Tampa 0.5
48 Phoenix 0.4
49 San Antonio 0.4
50 Austin 0.1

The metrics in this section reflect traffic congestion, the efficiency of the system and freight movement, and protecting the environment. All of the measures indicate St. Louis has relatively little congestion compared to the peer regions. The last four tables in this section are measures the state departments of transportation, metropolitan planning organizations, and transit agencies are required to track, according to the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act. The truck travel time reliability is a metric that lacks an intuitive interpretation, but it indicates the region’s highway system is more reliable for moving freight than many of the peers. See Where We Stand 8th Edition, Update 7 for further discussion.

Annual Delay per Auto Traveler
Average hours lost due to congestion per auto traveler, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 119
2 San Francisco 103
3 Washington, D.C. 102
4 New York 92
5 San Jose 81
6 Boston 80
7 Seattle 78
8 Atlanta 77
9 Houston 75
10 Chicago 73
11 Riverside 70
12 Miami 69
13 Dallas 67
14 Austin 66
15 Portland 66
16 San Diego 64
17 Philadelphia 62
18 Phoenix 62
19 Denver 61
20 Detroit 61
Peer Average 60
21 Sacramento 59
22 Baltimore 59
23 New Orleans 58
24 Nashville 58
25 Charlotte 57
26 Orlando 57
27 Minneapolis 56
28 Cincinnati 52
29 San Antonio 51
30 Las Vegas 51
31 Oklahoma City 50
32 Columbus 50
33 Hartford 50
34 Tampa 50
35 Memphis 48
36 Buffalo 48
37 Providence 48
38 Indianapolis 48
39 Kansas City 47
40 Jacksonville 46
41 Pittsburgh 46
42 St. Louis 46
43 Louisville 46
44 Milwaukee 46
45 Virginia Beach 46
46 Cleveland 46
47 Salt Lake City 45
48 Raleigh 42
49 Birmingham 40
50 Richmond 35
Change in Annual Delay per Auto Traveler
Change in average hours lost due to congestion per auto traveler, 2010-2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 22.0
2 Houston 20.0
3 San Jose 18.0
4 Atlanta 17.0
5 Austin 17.0
6 Dallas 17.0
7 Portland 15.0
8 Boston 15.0
9 New York 14.0
10 Miami 14.0
11 Seattle 14.0
12 Chicago 14.0
13 Sacramento 13.0
14 San Francisco 13.0
15 New Orleans 13.0
16 Phoenix 12.0
17 Philadelphia 12.0
18 Riverside 12.0
19 Nashville 12.0
20 Washington, D.C. 12.0
21 Charlotte 12.0
22 Baltimore 12.0
23 Denver 11.0
24 Cincinnati 11.0
Peer Average 10.7
25 Detroit 10.0
26 San Diego 10.0
27 Orlando 9.0
28 Minneapolis 9.0
29 San Antonio 9.0
30 Columbus 9.0
31 Louisville 9.0
32 Salt Lake City 9.0
33 Tampa 8.0
34 Virginia Beach 8.0
35 Memphis 8.0
36 Raleigh 8.0
37 Buffalo 7.0
38 Las Vegas 7.0
39 Cleveland 7.0
40 Richmond 7.0
41 Pittsburgh 7.0
42 Oklahoma City 7.0
43 Kansas City 7.0
44 Providence 7.0
45 Indianapolis 6.0
46 Milwaukee 6.0
47 Birmingham 5.0
48 Jacksonville 5.0
49 Hartford 4.0
50 St. Louis 3.0
Rush Hours
Average daily hours when system is congested, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 San Francisco 6.5
2 San Diego 6.5
3 Riverside 6.5
4 Los Angeles 6.1
5 San Jose 5.9
6 Sacramento 5.2
7 New York 5.1
8 Houston 5.1
9 Washington, D.C. 5.0
10 Seattle 5.0
11 Austin 4.9
12 Portland 4.8
13 New Orleans 4.8
14 Baltimore 4.7
15 Denver 4.7
16 Atlanta 4.6
17 Miami 4.5
18 Dallas 4.5
19 Boston 4.4
20 Buffalo 4.2
21 San Antonio 4.1
22 Phoenix 4.1
23 Detroit 3.8
24 Minneapolis 3.7
Peer Average 3.6
25 Chicago 3.6
26 Nashville 3.5
27 Columbus 3.4
28 Philadelphia 3.4
29 Jacksonville 3.3
30 Salt Lake City 3.2
31 Las Vegas 3.0
32 Charlotte 3.0
33 Cincinnati 2.8
34 Orlando 2.8
35 Milwaukee 2.8
36 Raleigh 2.7
37 Oklahoma City 2.7
38 Hartford 2.7
39 St. Louis 2.5
40 Tampa 2.4
41 Kansas City 2.3
42 Providence 2.1
43 Louisville 1.9
44 Virginia Beach 1.9
45 Cleveland 1.5
46 Indianapolis 1.3
47 Memphis 1.2
48 Birmingham 1.2
49 Pittsburgh 1.2
50 Richmond 0.8
Congested System
Percent of lane miles congested during peak travel time, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 San Francisco 35.8
2 Los Angeles 34.6
3 San Diego 28.4
4 Washington, D.C. 26.4
5 Riverside 24.8
6 Houston 24.6
7 Austin 24.0
8 Seattle 23.3
9 New York 23.3
10 Sacramento 22.7
11 Portland 22.1
12 Baltimore 21.4
13 Atlanta 19.6
14 Denver 19.3
15 Boston 18.9
16 New Orleans 18.9
17 San Antonio 18.3
18 Charlotte 18.0
19 Dallas 18.0
20 Orlando 17.3
21 Nashville 16.6
22 Jacksonville 16.4
23 Columbus 16.0
Peer Average 15.6
24 Philadelphia 15.3
25 Tampa 14.9
26 Salt Lake City 14.8
27 Phoenix 14.8
28 Chicago 13.4
29 Louisville 13.2
30 Minneapolis 12.9
31 Detroit 12.8
32 Cincinnati 12.6
33 Hartford 12.5
34 St. Louis 12.3
35 Las Vegas 12.1
36 Providence 12.1
37 Raleigh 11.5
38 Kansas City 11.1
39 Birmingham 9.9
40 Cleveland 9.7
41 Oklahoma City 9.5
42 Virginia Beach 9.3
43 Indianapolis 8.2
44 Milwaukee 7.8
45 Richmond 7.3
46 Memphis 6.6
47 San Jose 3.2
48 Buffalo 2.4
49 Pittsburgh 1.7
50 Miami 1.3
Congested Travel
Percent of peak vehicle miles traveled, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 56.7
2 San Francisco 52.3
3 San Jose 45.6
4 Riverside 43.2
5 San Diego 41.3
6 Washington, D.C. 38.4
7 Houston 38.4
8 Sacramento 37.6
9 Seattle 37.1
10 Portland 36.7
11 New York 36.3
12 New Orleans 36.1
13 Austin 34.2
14 Denver 33.7
15 Baltimore 32.3
16 Dallas 31.8
17 Boston 29.5
18 San Antonio 29.0
19 Phoenix 27.9
Peer Average 26.1
20 Buffalo 25.9
21 Detroit 25.4
22 Nashville 24.8
23 Minneapolis 24.6
24 Columbus 24.6
25 Charlotte 24.2
26 Salt Lake City 24.2
27 Philadelphia 24.1
28 Jacksonville 24.1
29 Chicago 24.0
30 Orlando 23.8
31 Las Vegas 22.7
32 Tampa 22.3
33 Cincinnati 21.2
34 Hartford 19.7
35 Oklahoma City 19.3
36 Raleigh 19.2
37 St. Louis 18.8
38 Providence 18.5
39 Louisville 18.4
40 Milwaukee 18.0
41 Kansas City 17.6
42 Virginia Beach 15.9
43 Birmingham 15.8
44 Pittsburgh 15.7
45 Cleveland 15.7
46 Indianapolis 12.8
47 Memphis 12.3
48 Richmond 11.0
49 Atlanta 3.0
50 Miami 1.6
Travel Time Index
Ratio of peak period travel time to free-flow travel time, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 1.51
2 San Francisco 1.50
3 San Jose 1.45
4 Seattle 1.37
5 New Orleans 1.36
6 Washington, D.C. 1.35
7 San Diego 1.35
8 Portland 1.35
9 New York 1.35
10 Riverside 1.34
11 Austin 1.34
12 Houston 1.34
13 Chicago 1.32
14 Denver 1.31
15 Miami 1.31
16 Atlanta 1.30
17 Boston 1.30
18 Sacramento 1.28
19 Phoenix 1.27
20 Las Vegas 1.26
21 Dallas 1.26
Peer Average 1.25
22 Philadelphia 1.25
23 Baltimore 1.25
24 Minneapolis 1.25
25 Detroit 1.24
26 Orlando 1.24
27 San Antonio 1.23
28 Nashville 1.22
29 Tampa 1.22
30 Charlotte 1.22
31 Jacksonville 1.19
32 Oklahoma City 1.19
33 Columbus 1.19
34 Pittsburgh 1.19
35 Salt Lake City 1.18
36 Memphis 1.18
37 Louisville 1.18
38 Indianapolis 1.18
39 Providence 1.17
40 Raleigh 1.17
41 Cincinnati 1.17
42 Hartford 1.17
43 Virginia Beach 1.17
44 Milwaukee 1.17
45 Buffalo 1.16
46 Cleveland 1.15
47 Kansas City 1.15
48 St. Louis 1.15
49 Birmingham 1.13
50 Richmond 1.12
Planning Time Index
Ratio of worst travel time to free-flow travel time, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 2.87
2 San Francisco 2.69
3 San Jose 2.60
4 Portland 2.37
5 Seattle 2.28
6 San Diego 2.28
7 Washington, D.C. 2.27
8 New Orleans 2.18
9 Austin 2.15
10 Riverside 2.10
11 Atlanta 2.10
12 New York 2.05
13 Miami 2.02
14 Sacramento 1.97
15 Phoenix 1.97
16 Houston 1.92
17 Boston 1.89
18 Chicago 1.85
19 Denver 1.83
20 Tampa 1.83
21 Dallas 1.79
Peer Average 1.78
22 San Antonio 1.74
23 Baltimore 1.73
24 Detroit 1.72
25 Nashville 1.70
26 Jacksonville 1.68
27 Charlotte 1.66
28 Philadelphia 1.65
29 Las Vegas 1.63
30 Orlando 1.61
31 Minneapolis 1.61
32 Columbus 1.59
33 Raleigh 1.58
34 Salt Lake City 1.57
35 Cincinnati 1.53
36 Milwaukee 1.52
37 Hartford 1.48
38 Virginia Beach 1.46
39 Oklahoma City 1.45
40 Pittsburgh 1.44
41 Buffalo 1.44
42 St. Louis 1.40
43 Birmingham 1.38
44 Providence 1.37
45 Kansas City 1.37
46 Louisville 1.36
47 Cleveland 1.35
48 Indianapolis 1.30
49 Memphis 1.27
50 Richmond 1.20
Commuter Stress Index
Congestion experienced by travelers in peak direction at peak times, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 1.73
2 San Francisco 1.62
3 San Jose 1.57
4 San Diego 1.48
5 Austin 1.45
6 Seattle 1.44
7 Riverside 1.44
8 Portland 1.43
9 Washington, D.C. 1.41
10 Houston 1.39
11 Miami 1.39
12 New York 1.38
13 New Orleans 1.37
14 Atlanta 1.36
15 Sacramento 1.34
16 Chicago 1.33
17 Denver 1.32
18 Boston 1.31
19 Dallas 1.31
20 Nashville 1.30
21 San Antonio 1.30
22 Phoenix 1.30
Peer Average 1.29
23 Las Vegas 1.27
24 Tampa 1.27
25 Philadelphia 1.26
26 Minneapolis 1.26
27 Baltimore 1.25
28 Detroit 1.25
29 Orlando 1.24
30 Jacksonville 1.24
31 Charlotte 1.24
32 Columbus 1.21
33 Salt Lake City 1.21
34 Oklahoma City 1.20
35 Pittsburgh 1.20
36 Louisville 1.19
37 Indianapolis 1.19
38 Memphis 1.19
39 Virginia Beach 1.18
40 Hartford 1.18
41 Providence 1.18
42 Milwaukee 1.18
43 Cincinnati 1.18
44 Buffalo 1.17
45 Raleigh 1.17
46 Kansas City 1.16
47 Birmingham 1.15
48 St. Louis 1.15
49 Cleveland 1.15
50 Richmond 1.13
Congestion Costs
Average annual costs per auto traveler, in dollars, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 2,676
2 San Francisco 2,619
3 Washington, D.C. 2,015
4 New York 1,947
5 Atlanta 1,653
6 San Jose 1,643
7 San Diego 1,584
8 Boston 1,580
9 Seattle 1,541
10 Houston 1,508
11 Chicago 1,431
12 Miami 1,412
13 Austin 1,391
14 Portland 1,305
15 Riverside 1,288
16 Dallas 1,272
17 Charlotte 1,269
18 Nashville 1,217
19 New Orleans 1,208
20 Philadelphia 1,203
Peer Average 1,187
21 Denver 1,163
22 Detroit 1,129
23 Sacramento 1,118
24 Cincinnati 1,110
25 Orlando 1,103
26 Phoenix 1,089
27 Columbus 1,054
28 Baltimore 1,046
29 Tampa 987
30 Minneapolis 980
31 Cleveland 970
32 Buffalo 965
33 San Antonio 964
34 Las Vegas 932
35 Pittsburgh 908
36 St. Louis 898
37 Jacksonville 893
38 Hartford 881
39 Milwaukee 864
40 Oklahoma City 842
41 Kansas City 837
42 Salt Lake City 833
43 Providence 828
44 Birmingham 819
45 Indianapolis 813
46 Raleigh 794
47 Virginia Beach 758
48 Louisville 726
49 Memphis 651
50 Richmond 641
Truck Congestion Costs
Average annual costs per 1,000 vehicle miles traveled, in dollars, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 San Francisco 9.0
2 San Jose 8.4
3 Los Angeles 8.1
4 New York 7.6
5 New Orleans 7.3
6 Portland 6.5
7 Seattle 6.2
8 Washington, D.C. 5.9
9 Miami 5.6
10 Riverside 5.6
11 Chicago 5.6
12 Sacramento 5.3
13 Las Vegas 4.9
14 San Diego 4.9
15 Philadelphia 4.9
16 Houston 4.8
17 Austin 4.8
18 Phoenix 4.8
19 Boston 4.7
20 Denver 4.5
21 Atlanta 4.5
Peer Average 4.4
22 Detroit 4.4
23 Pittsburgh 4.3
24 Buffalo 4.1
25 Cincinnati 4.1
26 Oklahoma City 4.0
27 Baltimore 4.0
28 Dallas 3.9
29 Orlando 3.8
30 Cleveland 3.8
31 Tampa 3.7
32 Minneapolis 3.7
33 Columbus 3.6
34 San Antonio 3.5
35 Louisville 3.4
36 Salt Lake City 3.4
37 Providence 3.4
38 Charlotte 3.4
39 Milwaukee 3.2
40 Jacksonville 3.2
41 Nashville 3.1
42 Hartford 3.1
43 Virginia Beach 3.1
44 St. Louis 2.9
45 Indianapolis 2.9
46 Kansas City 2.7
47 Raleigh 2.5
48 Memphis 2.5
49 Birmingham 2.3
50 Richmond 2.2
Peak Hour Excessive Delay
Hours per capita spent on roads with more than normal delay during evening rush hour (3-7 p.m.), 2019
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 41.5
2 San Francisco 28.1
3 San Jose 25.2
4 Seattle 22.5
5 Washington, D.C. 22.1
6 Austin 22.0
7 New York 20.8
8 Baltimore 19.4
9 Atlanta 18.6
10 Denver 16.7
11 Chicago 15.6
12 San Diego 15.4
13 Philadelphia 14.8
14 Riverside 14.5
15 Sacramento 14.5
16 Charlotte 14.4
Peer Average 13.6
17 Houston 13.5
18 Dallas 12.2
19 Detroit 11.4
20 Miami 10.7
21 San Antonio 10.5
22 Orlando 10.3
23 Pittsburgh 9.9
24 Tampa 8.9
25 St. Louis 8.8
26 Cincinnati 8.6
27 Minneapolis 8.1
28 Las Vegas 7.4
29 Columbus 7.0
30 Phoenix 7.0
31 Memphis 6.7
32 Jacksonville 6.5
33 Cleveland 6.2
34 Virginia Beach 5.5
35 Kansas City 3.6
Interstate Travel Time Reliability
Percent of person-miles traveled on interstates that are reliable, 2019
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Richmond 93.9
2 Memphis 92.6
3 Virginia Beach 88.4
4 Cleveland 88.1
5 Louisville 88.0
6 Pittsburgh 86.3
7 Kansas City 85.2
8 Indianapolis 83.9
9 Providence 83.0
10 St. Louis 82.1
11 Milwaukee 81.6
12 Jacksonville 78.3
13 Salt Lake City 77.2
14 Columbus 76.9
15 Tampa 75.7
16 Detroit 74.0
17 Dallas 74.0
18 Charlotte 74.0
19 Cincinnati 72.6
20 Philadelphia 71.6
21 San Antonio 71.0
22 Las Vegas 70.7
Peer Average 70.2
23 Miami 69.4
24 Minneapolis 68.3
25 New York 67.1
26 Houston 65.7
27 Riverside 65.4
28 Chicago 65.2
29 Atlanta 65.0
30 Nashville 64.8
31 Baltimore 64.5
32 Sacramento 63.7
33 San Diego 61.7
34 Austin 58.3
35 San Jose 57.4
36 Washington, D.C. 56.2
37 Portland 55.9
38 Phoenix 55.5
39 Boston 54.6
40 San Francisco 54.3
41 Denver 54.3
42 Seattle 53.7
43 Orlando 53.0
44 Los Angeles 46.9
Non-Interstate Travel Time Reliability
Percent of person-miles traveled on non-interstates that are reliable, 2019
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Richmond 92.6
2 Virginia Beach 89.7
3 Milwaukee 89.6
4 Cincinnati 89.2
5 Indianapolis 88.9
6 Memphis 88.2
7 Providence 88.1
8 Kansas City 88.1
9 Cleveland 86.7
10 Chicago 86.4
11 Orlando 85.5
12 Pittsburgh 85.5
13 Philadelphia 85.1
14 St. Louis 84.9
15 Tampa 83.9
16 Jacksonville 83.5
17 Las Vegas 82.6
18 Detroit 81.8
19 Denver 81.0
Peer Average 78.9
20 Portland 78.8
21 Nashville 78.4
22 Columbus 78.1
23 Boston 77.8
24 Miami 77.4
25 Houston 77.3
26 Salt Lake City 77.2
27 Minneapolis 76.5
28 Baltimore 76.3
29 New York 76.2
30 Phoenix 75.0
31 Atlanta 74.5
32 Washington, D.C. 74.1
33 San Diego 73.0
34 Charlotte 72.6
35 Riverside 71.9
36 Louisville 71.6
37 San Antonio 70.8
38 Sacramento 70.4
39 Austin 69.6
40 Seattle 69.6
41 Los Angeles 69.6
42 Dallas 68.4
43 San Francisco 65.8
44 San Jose 60.9
Truck Travel Time Reliability Index
2019
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Seattle 2.80
2 Washington, D.C. 2.78
3 Orlando 2.70
4 San Francisco 2.65
5 Portland 2.61
6 Los Angeles 2.55
Peer Average 2.44
7 San Jose 2.43
8 Houston 2.41
9 San Diego 2.40
10 Minneapolis 2.37
11 Sacramento 2.35
12 Phoenix 2.35
13 New York 2.34
14 Miami 2.30
15 Austin 2.27
16 Boston 2.23
17 Denver 2.21
18 Baltimore 2.20
19 Nashville 2.13
20 Riverside 2.12
21 Virginia Beach 2.10
22 Dallas 2.09
23 Chicago 2.09
24 Atlanta 2.09
25 Detroit 2.07
26 Cincinnati 2.04
27 Charlotte 2.00
28 Columbus 1.94
29 Philadelphia 1.92
30 Salt Lake City 1.91
31 Tampa 1.90
32 Jacksonville 1.90
33 San Antonio 1.88
34 Indianapolis 1.84
35 Louisville 1.84
36 Providence 1.81
37 St. Louis 1.77
38 Milwaukee 1.76
39 Las Vegas 1.75
40 Pittsburgh 1.68
41 Kansas City 1.64
42 Cleveland 1.61
43 Memphis 1.48
44 Richmond 1.40

Each year, thousands of people die in motor vehicle crashes in the United States. Based on data for urbanized areas, St. Louis has one of the higher overall crash fatality rates among the peers. The region’s fatality rate due to speed is particularly high relative to the peers. The region is below the national average on crash fatalities associated with distracted driving as well as those that involve drugs and alcohol. See Where We Stand 7th Edition Update, 9 for further discussion.

Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Las Vegas 1.88
2 Memphis 1.43
3 Tampa 1.38
4 Miami 1.34
5 Louisville 1.20
6 Riverside 1.10
7 Phoenix 1.06
8 Orlando 1.06
9 Jacksonville 1.04
10 New Orleans 1.02
11 Philadelphia 0.96
12 San Antonio 0.87
13 Dallas 0.86
14 Atlanta 0.82
15 St. Louis 0.81
16 Charlotte 0.80
17 Sacramento 0.80
18 Houston 0.79
19 Birmingham 0.79
20 Virginia Beach 0.79
United States 0.79
21 Oklahoma City 0.78
22 Hartford 0.76
23 Portland 0.76
24 Indianapolis 0.76
25 Kansas City 0.74
26 Baltimore 0.74
27 Denver 0.74
28 Pittsburgh 0.74
29 San Diego 0.72
30 Los Angeles 0.72
31 Milwaukee 0.70
32 Chicago 0.69
33 Columbus 0.68
34 San Jose 0.68
35 Detroit 0.68
36 Cincinnati 0.67
37 Austin 0.64
38 New York 0.63
39 Richmond 0.62
40 Seattle 0.61
41 Washington, D.C. 0.60
42 Providence 0.59
43 Salt Lake City 0.58
44 Cleveland 0.52
45 San Francisco 0.48
46 Nashville 0.45
47 Raleigh 0.42
48 Minneapolis 0.40
49 Buffalo 0.35
50 Boston 0.35
Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Associated with Speed
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Las Vegas 0.39
2 Milwaukee 0.28
3 St. Louis 0.26
4 Riverside 0.24
5 Oklahoma City 0.23
6 Providence 0.23
7 Kansas City 0.23
8 Virginia Beach 0.22
9 Phoenix 0.21
10 Charlotte 0.21
11 Memphis 0.21
12 Seattle 0.20
13 Philadelphia 0.20
14 Denver 0.20
15 Dallas 0.20
16 Chicago 0.18
17 Pittsburgh 0.18
18 Cleveland 0.17
19 Portland 0.17
20 Hartford 0.16
21 Birmingham 0.16
22 Los Angeles 0.15
United States 0.15
23 Baltimore 0.15
24 San Diego 0.15
25 San Antonio 0.15
26 Atlanta 0.15
27 Salt Lake City 0.15
28 Cincinnati 0.14
29 Austin 0.14
30 Columbus 0.14
31 Washington, D.C. 0.13
32 Detroit 0.13
33 Sacramento 0.12
34 Indianapolis 0.12
35 Minneapolis 0.12
36 San Jose 0.11
37 Miami 0.11
38 Raleigh 0.11
39 Houston 0.10
40 Richmond 0.10
41 San Francisco 0.10
42 New York 0.10
43 Buffalo 0.09
44 Tampa 0.08
45 New Orleans 0.08
46 Boston 0.08
47 Louisville 0.07
48 Jacksonville 0.06
49 Orlando 0.06
50 Nashville 0.03
Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Associated with Distracted Drivers
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Louisville 0.22
2 San Antonio 0.18
3 Orlando 0.14
4 New Orleans 0.12
5 Oklahoma City 0.12
6 Seattle 0.12
7 Austin 0.12
8 Tampa 0.12
9 Charlotte 0.10
10 Dallas 0.10
11 Phoenix 0.09
12 New York 0.08
13 Philadelphia 0.08
14 San Jose 0.07
United States 0.07
15 Cincinnati 0.07
16 Miami 0.07
17 Washington, D.C. 0.07
18 Virginia Beach 0.07
19 Kansas City 0.06
20 Riverside 0.06
21 Las Vegas 0.06
22 St. Louis 0.06
23 Houston 0.06
24 Baltimore 0.06
25 Salt Lake City 0.05
26 Columbus 0.05
27 Atlanta 0.05
28 Richmond 0.05
29 Boston 0.05
30 San Diego 0.04
31 Sacramento 0.04
32 Portland 0.04
33 Birmingham 0.04
34 Milwaukee 0.04
35 Detroit 0.04
36 Buffalo 0.04
37 Pittsburgh 0.04
38 Jacksonville 0.04
39 Providence 0.04
40 Memphis 0.03
41 Minneapolis 0.03
42 Los Angeles 0.03
43 Chicago 0.03
44 Raleigh 0.02
45 Hartford 0.02
46 San Francisco 0.02
47 Denver 0.02
48 Nashville 0.02
49 Indianapolis 0.01
50 Cleveland 0.01
Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Associated with Drugs or Alcohol
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Las Vegas 0.60
2 Jacksonville 0.54
3 Riverside 0.44
4 New Orleans 0.40
5 San Antonio 0.35
6 Denver 0.34
7 Houston 0.34
8 Tampa 0.34
9 Philadelphia 0.33
10 Charlotte 0.32
11 Dallas 0.29
12 Orlando 0.29
13 Cincinnati 0.27
14 Oklahoma City 0.26
15 Phoenix 0.25
United States 0.25
16 Sacramento 0.25
17 Miami 0.25
18 Baltimore 0.24
19 Detroit 0.23
20 Milwaukee 0.23
21 San Diego 0.22
22 Nashville 0.21
23 Los Angeles 0.20
24 Pittsburgh 0.19
25 St. Louis 0.19
26 San Jose 0.19
27 Richmond 0.18
28 Virginia Beach 0.17
29 Kansas City 0.17
30 New York 0.17
31 Washington, D.C. 0.16
32 Indianapolis 0.16
33 Columbus 0.16
34 Cleveland 0.16
35 San Francisco 0.16
36 Austin 0.16
37 Birmingham 0.15
38 Salt Lake City 0.15
39 Portland 0.14
40 Seattle 0.13
41 Memphis 0.13
42 Hartford 0.13
43 Chicago 0.13
44 Louisville 0.12
45 Providence 0.12
46 Raleigh 0.10
47 Minneapolis 0.09
48 Atlanta 0.09
49 Boston 0.07
50 Buffalo 0.04

The St. Louis transit system ranks about in the middle among the peers for total ridership, the utility of the system, and the amount of funding spent on the system. Regions with more extensive transit systems tend to be more densely populated. The range among the peer regions is considerable on these metrics. For further discussion, see the Transit Ridership performance indicator on OneSTL.

Transit Ridership
Annual transit boardings per capita, 2018
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 New York 229.8
2 San Francisco 137.6
3 Boston 91.1
4 Washington, D.C. 88.9
5 Seattle 76.1
6 Chicago 67.0
Peer Average 63.4
7 Philadelphia 62.5
8 Portland 59.9
9 Baltimore 46.3
10 Los Angeles 46.3
11 Denver 44.8
12 Salt Lake City 43.3
13 Pittsburgh 37.8
14 Minneapolis 35.5
15 Las Vegas 34.9
16 San Diego 34.0
17 Atlanta 29.2
18 Buffalo 26.9
19 New Orleans 23.9
20 Milwaukee 23.7
21 Miami 23.4
22 San Jose 23.2
23 San Antonio 22.8
24 Austin 22.6
25 Hartford 20.7
26 Phoenix 20.3
27 Cleveland 20.2
28 Houston 18.9
29 St. Louis 18.6
30 Charlotte 18.5
31 Orlando 17.2
32 Providence 15.0
33 Sacramento 14.5
34 Columbus 14.1
35 Dallas 13.9
36 Louisville 13.0
37 Jacksonville 11.4
38 Cincinnati 11.3
39 Nashville 10.9
40 Raleigh 10.7
41 Kansas City 10.6
42 Riverside 10.4
43 Tampa 10.3
44 Virginia Beach 9.8
45 Detroit 9.8
46 Richmond 8.9
47 Indianapolis 6.4
48 Memphis 6.3
49 Birmingham 4.6
50 Oklahoma City 3.8
Transit Utility
Ratio of annual passenger miles traveled per square mile of urbanized land area, 2018
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 New York 6,663,730
2 San Francisco 5,839,563
3 Los Angeles 1,787,089
4 Washington, D.C. 1,638,611
5 Chicago 1,599,631
6 Seattle 1,557,276
7 Salt Lake City 1,288,297
Peer Average 1,113,339
8 Baltimore 1,054,934
9 Denver 946,630
10 Boston 939,820
11 Portland 898,589
12 Philadelphia 809,764
13 San Diego 789,849
14 Miami 687,531
15 San Jose 647,051
16 Las Vegas 620,904
17 Minneapolis 469,987
18 Houston 352,224
19 Phoenix 335,661
20 Pittsburgh 328,981
21 Austin 323,699
22 Atlanta 323,174
23 San Antonio 309,159
24 Sacramento 302,416
25 Orlando 277,342
26 Hartford 273,157
27 Dallas 266,971
28 New Orleans 264,914
29 St. Louis 264,377
30 Riverside 246,951
31 Buffalo 229,840
32 Milwaukee 225,393
33 Cleveland 224,346
34 Detroit 164,700
35 Charlotte 161,381
36 Columbus 157,263
37 Providence 153,758
38 Tampa 149,897
39 Virginia Beach 143,483
40 Cincinnati 139,496
41 Jacksonville 131,376
42 Richmond 127,398
43 Louisville 122,882
44 Nashville 122,413
45 Kansas City 89,756
46 Memphis 71,076
47 Indianapolis 69,019
48 Raleigh 57,243
49 Birmingham 45,685
50 Oklahoma City 37,594
Transit Expenditures
Annual operating expenses per capita, in dollars, 2018
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 New York 852
2 San Francisco 734
3 Seattle 518
4 Washington, D.C. 503
5 Boston 374
6 Baltimore 360
7 Chicago 308
8 Portland 307
Peer Average 296
9 Salt Lake City 295
10 Philadelphia 278
11 Pittsburgh 254
12 San Jose 253
13 Denver 249
14 Los Angeles 246
15 Minneapolis 208
16 Hartford 176
17 Austin 174
18 Miami 164
19 Buffalo 150
20 Cleveland 148
21 New Orleans 138
22 St. Louis 137
23 San Diego 134
24 Sacramento 130
25 Charlotte 125
26 Atlanta 124
27 Las Vegas 122
28 Milwaukee 121
29 Dallas 120
30 San Antonio 120
31 Columbus 115
32 Houston 114
33 Orlando 111
34 Providence 106
35 Phoenix 106
36 Nashville 98
37 Jacksonville 96
38 Louisville 88
39 Riverside 87
40 Cincinnati 82
41 Kansas City 77
42 Virginia Beach 68
43 Tampa 67
44 Detroit 63
45 Indianapolis 61
46 Richmond 57
47 Memphis 53
48 Raleigh 51
49 Birmingham 44
50 Oklahoma City 30

The measures in this section indicate that St. Louis is about average with respect to how efficiently people can reach destinations when considering time, distance, and cost. The region has shorter than average commute times, a higher Walk Score for the city of St. Louis than is average among the largest cities of the peer regions, and below average number of flight departures. Residents in St. Louis who do not have access to a vehicle are limited in the destinations they can reach. Black households are far more likely to have this barrier. For further discussion see the Employment Transit Access and the Residential Transit Access performance indicators on OneSTL.

No-Vehicle Households
Households without access to a vehicle as a percent of all households, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25045)
1 New York 31.1
2 Boston 13.2
3 Chicago 12.5
4 Philadelphia 12.5
5 San Francisco 12.2
6 Buffalo 12.1
7 Pittsburgh 11.1
8 Baltimore 10.7
9 Providence 10.0
10 Cleveland 9.9
11 Washington, D.C. 9.9
12 Milwaukee 9.4
13 New Orleans 9.2
14 Seattle 8.7
United States 8.6
15 Portland 8.4
16 Detroit 8.4
17 Miami 8.3
18 Hartford 8.1
19 Memphis 7.9
20 Las Vegas 7.8
21 Los Angeles 7.6
22 St. Louis 7.6
23 Cincinnati 7.4
24 Louisville 7.4
25 Virginia Beach 7.0
26 Minneapolis 6.7
27 San Antonio 6.4
28 Richmond 6.3
29 Tampa 6.3
30 Columbus 6.1
31 Atlanta 6.0
32 Denver 5.8
33 Kansas City 5.8
34 Indianapolis 5.8
35 San Diego 5.7
36 Birmingham 5.7
37 Jacksonville 5.7
38 Sacramento 5.6
39 San Jose 5.6
40 Phoenix 5.5
41 Oklahoma City 5.4
42 Houston 5.4
43 Charlotte 5.1
44 Salt Lake City 5.1
45 Dallas 4.9
46 Austin 4.8
47 Orlando 4.7
48 Riverside 4.3
49 Nashville 4.3
50 Raleigh 4.3
Racial Disparity in No-Vehicle Households
Ratio of non-Hispanic black to non-Hispanic white, percent of households without access to a vehicle, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 Baltimore 4.67
2 Cincinnati 4.55
3 Minneapolis 4.31
4 Buffalo 4.28
5 St. Louis 4.06
6 Louisville 3.86
7 Pittsburgh 3.85
8 Virginia Beach 3.78
9 Oklahoma City 3.78
10 New Orleans 3.74
11 Milwaukee 3.68
12 Detroit 3.65
13 Kansas City 3.62
14 Philadelphia 3.62
15 Austin 3.61
16 Cleveland 3.53
17 Birmingham 3.50
18 Portland 3.48
19 San Antonio 3.45
20 Memphis 3.43
21 Indianapolis 3.38
22 Denver 3.29
23 Nashville 3.28
24 Raleigh 3.21
25 Richmond 3.21
26 Atlanta 3.16
27 Jacksonville 3.05
28 Houston 2.97
29 Hartford 2.94
30 Las Vegas 2.90
31 Dallas 2.86
32 Chicago 2.86
United States 2.85
33 Columbus 2.85
34 Providence 2.69
35 Phoenix 2.52
36 Boston 2.52
37 Charlotte 2.50
38 Los Angeles 2.41
39 Sacramento 2.38
40 Washington, D.C. 2.23
41 Riverside 2.14
42 New York 2.04
43 Tampa 2.02
44 Orlando 2.00
45 San Francisco 1.87
46 Seattle 1.86
47 San Diego 1.76
48 Miami 1.68
Average Commute Time
In minutes, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08013, B08302)
1 New York 37.7
2 Washington, D.C. 35.6
3 San Francisco 35.2
4 Riverside 33.9
5 Boston 32.6
6 Atlanta 32.5
7 Chicago 32.4
8 Los Angeles 31.7
9 Baltimore 31.7
10 Seattle 31.6
11 Philadelphia 30.8
12 Houston 30.7
13 Miami 30.3
14 San Jose 30.3
15 Orlando 30.2
16 Denver 28.8
17 Dallas 28.6
18 Nashville 28.5
19 Tampa 28.3
20 Sacramento 28.2
21 Birmingham 28.1
22 Phoenix 27.9
23 Austin 27.7
24 Charlotte 27.7
25 Pittsburgh 27.7
United States 27.6
26 Detroit 27.5
27 Raleigh 27.4
28 San Antonio 27.4
29 Jacksonville 27.3
30 Providence 27.2
31 San Diego 27.2
32 Portland 26.8
33 New Orleans 26.5
34 Minneapolis 26.1
35 St. Louis 26.0
36 Las Vegas 25.9
37 Richmond 25.9
38 Cincinnati 25.8
39 Indianapolis 25.6
40 Columbus 25.0
41 Cleveland 24.9
42 Memphis 24.8
43 Virginia Beach 24.6
44 Louisville 24.2
45 Hartford 24.2
46 Kansas City 23.9
47 Oklahoma City 23.7
48 Milwaukee 23.5
49 Salt Lake City 23.3
50 Buffalo 21.7
Transportation Expenses
As a percent of median household income, 2011-2015
Source: Center for Neighborhood Technology
1 Memphis 27
2 Riverside 27
3 Birmingham 26
4 Oklahoma City 26
5 Orlando 26
6 Louisville 25
7 New Orleans 25
8 Indianapolis 25
9 Nashville 25
10 Charlotte 25
11 San Antonio 25
12 Tampa 25
13 Miami 24
14 Cleveland 24
15 Phoenix 24
16 Jacksonville 24
17 Las Vegas 24
18 Buffalo 24
19 Sacramento 24
20 Salt Lake City 23
21 Pittsburgh 23
22 St. Louis 23
23 Atlanta 23
24 Cincinnati 23
25 Kansas City 23
26 Columbus 23
27 Detroit 23
28 Milwaukee 22
29 Raleigh 22
30 Los Angeles 22
31 San Diego 22
32 Houston 22
33 Portland 22
34 Dallas 22
Peer Average 21
35 Virginia Beach 21
36 Richmond 21
37 Austin 21
38 Providence 21
39 Minneapolis 20
40 Denver 20
41 Philadelphia 20
42 Chicago 20
43 Hartford 19
44 Seattle 19
45 Baltimore 18
46 Boston 17
47 San Francisco 16
48 San Jose 16
49 New York 15
50 Washington, D.C. 14
Walk Score of Largest City
2018
Source: Walk Score
1 New York 89.2
2 San Francisco 86.0
3 Boston 80.9
4 Miami 79.2
5 Philadelphia 79.0
6 Providence 79.0
7 Chicago 77.8
8 Washington, D.C. 77.3
9 Seattle 73.1
10 Hartford 71.0
11 Baltimore 69.4
12 Minneapolis 69.2
13 Buffalo 67.8
14 Los Angeles 67.4
15 Portland 64.7
16 St. Louis 64.5
17 Milwaukee 62.1
18 Pittsburgh 61.9
Peer Average 61.6
19 Denver 60.5
20 Cleveland 59.5
21 New Orleans 57.6
22 Salt Lake City 57.0
23 Detroit 55.4
24 Richmond 51.4
25 San Diego 50.9
26 San Jose 50.5
27 Cincinnati 50.4
28 Tampa 50.0
29 Atlanta 49.2
30 Houston 48.7
31 Sacramento 47.1
32 Dallas 46.2
33 Orlando 42.1
34 Riverside 41.3
35 Las Vegas 41.1
36 Phoenix 40.8
37 Columbus 40.7
38 Austin 40.3
39 San Antonio 37.6
40 Memphis 36.8
41 Birmingham 35.4
42 Kansas City 34.2
43 Louisville 33.3
44 Oklahoma City 33.1
45 Virginia Beach 32.9
46 Raleigh 30.1
47 Indianapolis 29.8
48 Nashville 28.3
49 Jacksonville 26.8
50 Charlotte 25.9
Daily Flight Departures
Average number of scheduled passenger departures from area airports, 2018
Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Air Carrier Statistics
1 New York 1,572
2 Chicago 1,403
3 Atlanta 1,175
4 Dallas 1,081
5 Los Angeles 1,034
6 Miami 836
7 Denver 777
8 Houston 751
9 San Francisco 721
10 Charlotte 713
11 Washington, D.C. 684
12 Seattle 599
13 Phoenix 537
14 Boston 532
15 Detroit 515
16 Minneapolis 512
17 Philadelphia 481
18 Las Vegas 469
19 Orlando 440
Peer Average 401
20 Salt Lake City 350
21 Baltimore 324
22 San Diego 274
23 Portland 268
24 Memphis 264
25 St. Louis 252
26 Tampa 248
27 Nashville 216
28 Raleigh 190
29 Indianapolis 190
30 Louisville 185
31 Austin 185
32 San Jose 181
33 Pittsburgh 170
34 Kansas City 162
35 Cincinnati 156
36 New Orleans 156
37 Sacramento 153
38 Cleveland 147
39 Columbus 141
40 Riverside 124
41 San Antonio 122
42 Milwaukee 110
43 Jacksonville 96
44 Hartford 92
45 Providence 92
46 Buffalo 88
47 Virginia Beach 84
48 Richmond 84
49 Oklahoma City 71
50 Birmingham 58
Change in Daily Flight Departures
Percent change, 2013-2018
Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Air Carrier Statistics
1 San Jose 49.4
2 Seattle 44.1
3 Boston 27.4
4 Austin 26.1
5 Orlando 22.5
6 Sacramento 21.3
7 Miami 19.2
8 Tampa 17.2
9 San Diego 17.1
10 Nashville 16.6
11 Portland 14.4
12 New Orleans 14.3
13 Los Angeles 12.7
14 Pittsburgh 12.1
15 Raleigh 11.8
16 Louisville 10.7
17 San Francisco 10.6
18 Jacksonville 9.2
19 Las Vegas 9.1
20 St. Louis 9.0
21 Indianapolis 8.4
22 Richmond 7.6
23 Providence 7.1
24 Riverside 7.1
25 Baltimore 5.7
26 Columbus 5.6
27 Salt Lake City 5.3
Peer Average 4.3
28 New York 4.0
29 Birmingham 3.5
30 Dallas 3.4
31 Chicago 0.1
32 Denver -0.4
33 Charlotte -1.1
34 Phoenix -1.5
35 San Antonio -1.8
36 Cincinnati -2.0
37 Hartford -2.0
38 Atlanta -3.0
39 Kansas City -3.5
40 Oklahoma City -3.9
41 Washington, D.C. -5.8
42 Houston -6.4
43 Memphis -6.6
44 Minneapolis -6.9
45 Detroit -8.5
46 Milwaukee -11.3
47 Virginia Beach -11.7
48 Buffalo -13.0
49 Philadelphia -14.6
50 Cleveland -34.2

The most popular mode of commuting to work in all of the peer regions is by car. Providing more transportation choices can have environmental benefits, increase physical activity, and reduce traffic congestion. The St. Louis region’s long-range transportation plan includes a goal to increase non-single occupancy travel (SOV); St. Louis has one of lowest rates on this metric. See the Transportation Choice performance indicator on OneSTL for further discussion.

Workers Who Commute by Driving Alone
Percent of workers, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 Birmingham 84.6
2 Memphis 84.6
3 Oklahoma City 83.9
4 Kansas City 83.6
5 St. Louis 83.2
6 Detroit 82.4
7 Hartford 82.1
8 Buffalo 81.9
9 Cincinnati 81.8
10 Indianapolis 81.6
11 Columbus 81.6
12 Louisville 81.6
13 Virginia Beach 81.3
14 Milwaukee 80.8
15 Houston 80.8
16 Cleveland 80.7
17 Providence 80.7
18 Dallas 80.4
19 Richmond 80.3
20 Jacksonville 80.1
21 Riverside 79.5
22 Raleigh 79.5
23 Charlotte 78.9
24 Nashville 78.9
25 San Antonio 78.5
26 Las Vegas 78.2
27 Tampa 77.6
28 Orlando 77.4
29 Minneapolis 77.2
30 Miami 77.2
31 Salt Lake City 77.0
32 New Orleans 76.9
33 Baltimore 76.7
34 Sacramento 76.3
35 Atlanta 76.3
United States 75.9
36 San Diego 75.7
37 Phoenix 75.4
38 Pittsburgh 74.9
39 Los Angeles 74.7
40 San Jose 74.7
41 Austin 74.5
42 Denver 74.1
43 Philadelphia 71.4
44 Portland 69.7
45 Chicago 69.4
46 Seattle 66.7
47 Boston 66.0
48 Washington, D.C. 65.5
49 San Francisco 56.5
50 New York 49.2
Workers Who Commute by Carpool
Percent of workers, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 San Antonio 11.3
2 Orlando 10.8
3 Phoenix 10.7
4 San Jose 10.5
5 Riverside 10.5
6 New Orleans 10.2
7 Salt Lake City 10.0
8 Seattle 9.9
9 Las Vegas 9.7
10 Indianapolis 9.5
11 Dallas 9.4
12 Sacramento 9.3
13 Houston 9.3
14 Los Angeles 9.3
15 Nashville 9.3
16 Washington, D.C. 9.2
17 Detroit 9.2
18 Austin 9.1
19 Memphis 9.0
20 Miami 8.9
21 Atlanta 8.9
United States 8.9
22 Portland 8.7
23 San Diego 8.6
24 San Francisco 8.6
25 Richmond 8.6
26 Tampa 8.5
27 Charlotte 8.5
28 Providence 8.5
29 Oklahoma City 8.5
30 Cincinnati 8.4
31 Pittsburgh 8.3
32 Birmingham 8.2
33 Denver 8.1
34 Philadelphia 8.0
35 Baltimore 7.8
36 Louisville 7.8
37 Cleveland 7.8
38 Virginia Beach 7.8
39 Milwaukee 7.8
40 Columbus 7.8
41 Minneapolis 7.7
42 Jacksonville 7.5
43 Buffalo 7.4
44 Chicago 7.4
45 Raleigh 7.3
46 Kansas City 7.2
47 St. Louis 7.1
48 Boston 6.9
49 Hartford 6.2
50 New York 6.0
Workers Who Commute by Public Transportation
Percent of workers, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 New York 31.6
2 San Francisco 18.9
3 Boston 13.4
4 Washington, D.C. 13.1
5 Chicago 12.4
6 Seattle 10.7
7 Philadelphia 9.4
8 Portland 6.7
9 Pittsburgh 6.0
10 Baltimore 5.9
United States 5.0
11 Los Angeles 4.8
12 San Jose 4.7
13 Denver 4.5
14 Minneapolis 4.5
15 Salt Lake City 3.5
16 Milwaukee 3.0
17 Cleveland 2.9
18 Miami 2.9
19 Buffalo 2.9
20 Las Vegas 2.9
21 Providence 2.9
22 San Diego 2.8
23 Atlanta 2.8
24 Hartford 2.4
25 Sacramento 2.2
26 New Orleans 2.2
27 Houston 2.0
28 San Antonio 1.9
29 Austin 1.9
30 Louisville 1.9
31 Phoenix 1.8
32 St. Louis 1.8
33 Richmond 1.7
34 Columbus 1.7
35 Virginia Beach 1.6
36 Charlotte 1.6
37 Cincinnati 1.5
38 Orlando 1.4
39 Detroit 1.4
40 Dallas 1.3
41 Jacksonville 1.2
42 Riverside 1.1
43 Tampa 1.1
44 Nashville 1.1
45 Kansas City 0.8
46 Raleigh 0.8
47 Indianapolis 0.7
48 Oklahoma City 0.5
49 Birmingham 0.5
50 Memphis 0.3
Workers Who Work at Home
Percent of workers, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 Austin 10.5
2 Raleigh 10.2
3 Denver 9.1
4 Atlanta 8.8
5 Tampa 8.6
6 Charlotte 8.0
7 Portland 8.0
8 Phoenix 7.9
9 Nashville 7.8
10 Sacramento 7.8
11 Jacksonville 7.5
12 San Diego 7.5
13 San Francisco 7.2
14 Orlando 7.0
15 Dallas 6.6
16 Salt Lake City 6.5
17 Seattle 6.5
18 Minneapolis 6.5
19 Kansas City 6.4
20 Washington, D.C. 6.3
21 Miami 6.3
22 Los Angeles 6.3
23 Philadelphia 5.9
24 Riverside 5.9
25 Richmond 5.8
26 Pittsburgh 5.8
27 Chicago 5.7
United States 5.7
28 Indianapolis 5.7
29 Boston 5.6
30 Baltimore 5.5
31 Columbus 5.4
32 New Orleans 5.4
33 Cincinnati 5.4
34 Hartford 5.3
35 Houston 5.1
36 St. Louis 5.1
37 Louisville 5.1
38 Cleveland 4.8
39 New York 4.8
40 San Jose 4.8
41 San Antonio 4.8
42 Las Vegas 4.7
43 Milwaukee 4.7
44 Virginia Beach 4.5
45 Detroit 4.4
46 Oklahoma City 4.4
47 Providence 4.0
48 Birmingham 4.0
49 Memphis 3.6
50 Buffalo 3.5
Workers Who Commute by Walking or Biking
Percent of workers, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 Boston 6.7
2 New York 6.6
3 San Francisco 6.5
4 Portland 5.5
5 Seattle 5.0
6 Philadelphia 4.2
7 Washington, D.C. 4.1
8 San Jose 4.0
9 Pittsburgh 3.8
10 New Orleans 3.8
11 Chicago 3.6
12 San Diego 3.6
13 Virginia Beach 3.3
14 Hartford 3.3
15 Denver 3.2
United States 3.2
16 Los Angeles 3.2
17 Minneapolis 3.1
18 Sacramento 3.1
19 Providence 3.0
20 Buffalo 3.0
21 Milwaukee 3.0
22 Baltimore 2.8
23 Austin 2.7
24 Columbus 2.6
25 Cleveland 2.6
26 Louisville 2.2
27 Miami 2.2
28 Phoenix 2.2
29 Tampa 2.2
30 Cincinnati 2.2
31 San Antonio 2.1
32 Salt Lake City 2.1
33 Richmond 2.1
34 St. Louis 1.8
35 Indianapolis 1.8
36 Orlando 1.8
37 Nashville 1.6
38 Charlotte 1.6
39 Houston 1.5
40 Detroit 1.5
41 Oklahoma City 1.5
42 Atlanta 1.5
43 Birmingham 1.5
44 Riverside 1.4
45 Jacksonville 1.4
46 Las Vegas 1.4
47 Memphis 1.3
48 Dallas 1.3
49 Kansas City 1.3
50 Raleigh 1.2
Non-Single Occupancy Vehicle Travel
Percent of workers commuting by all modes except driving alone by car, van, or truck, 2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (DP03)
1 New York 49.8
2 San Francisco 41.9
3 Washington, D.C. 34.0
4 Boston 33.3
5 Seattle 32.0
6 Chicago 29.8
7 Portland 29.6
8 Philadelphia 27.1
9 Salt Lake City 25.1
10 Los Angeles 24.9
11 San Jose 24.9
12 Denver 24.3
13 San Diego 23.7
14 Phoenix 23.6
United States 23.6
15 Baltimore 23.4
16 Sacramento 23.2
17 Pittsburgh 22.9
18 Atlanta 22.4
19 Minneapolis 22.4
20 Austin 21.9
21 Miami 21.8
22 Riverside 21.5
23 New Orleans 21.4
24 Las Vegas 21.3
25 Tampa 20.5
26 San Antonio 20.2
27 Raleigh 20.2
28 Orlando 19.8
29 Providence 19.5
30 Houston 19.4
31 Charlotte 19.3
32 Milwaukee 19.2
33 Jacksonville 19.2
34 Dallas 19.2
35 Hartford 19.0
36 Nashville 18.7
37 Virginia Beach 18.6
38 Richmond 18.6
39 Cleveland 18.1
40 Louisville 17.9
41 Cincinnati 17.6
42 Buffalo 17.5
43 Columbus 17.5
44 Oklahoma City 17.1
45 St. Louis 17.0
46 Kansas City 16.5
47 Indianapolis 16.1
48 Detroit 15.9
49 Birmingham 15.4
50 Memphis 15.3

Education

A quality workforce begins with an excellent education system. This section documents that the region is about average on measures related to the competitiveness of the region’s primary and secondary school system. Regarding the adult population, the region is relatively well educated. See page 60 of Where We Stand – 8th Edition for further discussion. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

The St. Louis region is about average among the peer regions regarding the amount of education spending per pupil in primary schools. Nationwide, less than 10 percent of funding for schools is from federal sources. There is a wide range in the amount of funding from state and local sources among the peer regions. St. Louis is just below the national average on state funding per pupil and just above average on local funding per pupil. See Where We Stand 8th Edition White Paper 2 for further discussion.

Education Spending
Total spending per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 New York 26,857
2 Philadelphia 23,498
3 Buffalo 22,387
4 Hartford 22,071
5 Pittsburgh 20,346
6 Boston 19,888
7 Providence 18,315
8 Chicago 18,041
9 Cleveland 17,791
10 Washington, D.C. 17,183
11 Minneapolis 16,772
12 Baltimore 16,350
13 San Jose 16,182
14 San Francisco 15,659
15 New Orleans 15,514
16 Seattle 15,143
17 Columbus 14,958
18 Detroit 14,758
19 Los Angeles 14,586
United States 14,551
20 Portland 14,466
21 Austin 14,396
22 Cincinnati 14,331
23 San Diego 14,254
24 Milwaukee 14,230
25 Riverside 13,970
26 St. Louis 13,906
27 Sacramento 13,802
28 Houston 12,902
29 Louisville 12,555
30 Kansas City 12,299
31 Dallas 12,297
32 Virginia Beach 12,126
33 Indianapolis 12,052
34 Denver 11,975
35 San Antonio 11,897
36 Atlanta 11,715
37 Nashville 11,329
38 Richmond 11,305
39 Birmingham 11,221
40 Memphis 10,877
41 Raleigh 10,840
42 Charlotte 10,680
43 Orlando 10,664
44 Las Vegas 10,528
45 Miami 10,461
46 Tampa 10,132
47 Jacksonville 9,731
48 Phoenix 8,851
49 Salt Lake City 8,753
50 Oklahoma City 8,649
Change in Education Spending
Percent change in dollars per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Chicago 28.1
2 Portland 23.9
3 Hartford 22.1
4 Pittsburgh 20.9
5 Philadelphia 18.4
6 Seattle 16.9
7 Cleveland 16.7
8 Buffalo 16.2
9 New York 15.4
10 Nashville 14.3
11 San Jose 11.2
12 Minneapolis 10.7
13 Salt Lake City 10.7
14 Houston 10.6
15 Boston 10.4
16 St. Louis 8.8
17 Riverside 8.6
18 Providence 8.5
19 Memphis 7.7
20 Los Angeles 5.7
United States 4.3
21 San Francisco 4.3
22 Austin 2.9
23 Milwaukee 2.6
24 Baltimore 2.4
25 Louisville 2.4
26 Dallas 1.9
27 Cincinnati 1.9
28 Sacramento 1.5
29 Columbus 1.3
30 San Diego 0.6
31 Denver 0.5
32 Washington, D.C. -0.6
33 Detroit -2.7
34 Kansas City -3.3
35 San Antonio -3.8
36 Charlotte -4.8
37 Raleigh -5.6
38 Virginia Beach -6.2
39 New Orleans -8.3
40 Atlanta -9.5
41 Richmond -10.7
42 Birmingham -11.5
43 Oklahoma City -12.0
44 Indianapolis -12.3
45 Orlando -15.0
46 Jacksonville -15.1
47 Las Vegas -15.1
48 Tampa -16.2
49 Phoenix -17.4
50 Miami -28.2
Education Curriculum Spending
Dollars per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 New York 23,648
2 Hartford 19,274
3 Buffalo 19,184
4 Philadelphia 18,537
5 Boston 17,302
6 Pittsburgh 16,376
7 Providence 15,871
8 Chicago 15,582
9 Cleveland 14,751
10 Washington, D.C. 14,264
11 Baltimore 14,234
12 Columbus 12,814
13 Minneapolis 12,140
14 San Jose 12,135
15 Milwaukee 11,947
16 St. Louis 11,916
United States 11,910
17 San Francisco 11,883
18 Los Angeles 11,850
19 Seattle 11,657
20 New Orleans 11,589
21 Riverside 11,555
22 Cincinnati 11,441
23 Detroit 11,416
24 Portland 11,392
25 San Diego 11,122
26 Sacramento 10,910
27 Virginia Beach 10,611
28 Louisville 10,470
29 Richmond 10,004
30 Kansas City 9,974
31 Atlanta 9,881
32 Indianapolis 9,688
33 Denver 9,567
34 Birmingham 9,217
35 Nashville 8,976
36 Memphis 8,956
37 Miami 8,864
38 Austin 8,844
39 Houston 8,780
40 San Antonio 8,745
41 Dallas 8,652
42 Las Vegas 8,585
43 Charlotte 8,493
44 Tampa 8,420
45 Orlando 8,376
46 Jacksonville 8,303
47 Raleigh 8,280
48 Phoenix 7,447
49 Oklahoma City 6,933
50 Salt Lake City 6,812
Change in Education Curriculum Spending
Percent change in dollars per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Chicago 36.0
2 Hartford 27.6
3 Philadelphia 24.1
4 Pittsburgh 23.4
5 Seattle 23.3
6 Riverside 22.7
7 Buffalo 20.3
8 New York 18.9
9 Portland 16.0
10 Cleveland 15.3
11 St. Louis 13.9
12 San Jose 12.3
13 San Francisco 11.7
14 Minneapolis 11.7
15 Salt Lake City 11.1
16 Boston 11.0
17 Los Angeles 10.8
18 Nashville 9.6
19 Baltimore 9.2
20 Columbus 9.0
21 Sacramento 8.7
22 Providence 8.2
United States 7.5
23 Memphis 6.8
24 Houston 4.4
25 San Diego 3.7
26 Cincinnati 3.4
27 Louisville 3.2
28 Washington, D.C. 2.1
29 Denver 1.9
30 Dallas 1.7
31 Austin 0.1
32 San Antonio -0.2
33 Charlotte -1.2
34 Kansas City -1.4
35 Milwaukee -2.0
36 Richmond -3.0
37 Detroit -3.3
38 Las Vegas -3.4
39 Virginia Beach -4.0
40 Birmingham -4.7
41 Indianapolis -4.9
42 Atlanta -5.0
43 Raleigh -5.2
44 Phoenix -5.6
45 Tampa -6.6
46 Orlando -6.8
47 Oklahoma City -9.4
48 Jacksonville -9.6
49 New Orleans -11.3
50 Miami -13.5
State Funding per Pupil
Dollars per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 Buffalo 13,019
2 Hartford 9,779
3 Minneapolis 9,756
4 New York 9,524
5 Riverside 9,522
6 Los Angeles 8,840
7 Detroit 8,555
8 Seattle 8,546
9 Philadelphia 8,415
10 Sacramento 8,257
11 Providence 8,018
12 Pittsburgh 7,968
13 Indianapolis 7,950
14 Baltimore 7,363
15 Chicago 7,117
16 Portland 7,055
17 Milwaukee 6,823
18 Boston 6,737
United States 6,726
19 San Diego 6,445
20 Las Vegas 6,391
21 Kansas City 6,374
22 San Francisco 6,011
23 Louisville 6,007
24 St. Louis 5,833
25 Birmingham 5,712
26 Cincinnati 5,645
27 Charlotte 5,621
28 Cleveland 5,595
29 Virginia Beach 5,592
30 Raleigh 5,578
31 Richmond 5,347
32 Washington, D.C. 5,166
33 Atlanta 5,087
34 Denver 4,933
35 Memphis 4,864
36 New Orleans 4,850
37 Jacksonville 4,750
38 Tampa 4,702
39 Columbus 4,658
40 Orlando 4,367
41 Nashville 4,357
42 San Jose 4,253
43 Salt Lake City 4,234
44 San Antonio 3,992
45 Oklahoma City 3,888
46 Dallas 3,688
47 Phoenix 3,658
48 Houston 3,323
49 Miami 3,271
50 Austin 2,446
Change in State Funding per Pupil
Percent change in state funding per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Chicago 67.9
2 Indianapolis 36.1
3 Pittsburgh 33.1
4 Hartford 31.6
5 Buffalo 23.2
6 Seattle 21.9
7 Philadelphia 20.5
8 St. Louis 17.8
9 Nashville 17.2
10 Portland 15.5
11 Dallas 15.3
12 Kansas City 14.2
13 Memphis 11.1
14 Sacramento 10.8
15 Riverside 10.6
16 Washington, D.C. 10.2
17 Baltimore 9.8
18 Minneapolis 7.7
19 Las Vegas 7.1
20 Louisville 6.4
21 Cincinnati 5.4
22 Providence 4.3
23 New York 4.3
24 Detroit 4.0
United States 3.9
25 Milwaukee 3.7
26 Denver 1.6
27 Los Angeles 1.5
28 New Orleans 1.0
29 Charlotte -1.6
30 Atlanta -2.5
31 Salt Lake City -2.7
32 Raleigh -4.3
33 Cleveland -4.6
34 Houston -5.6
35 Boston -5.7
36 San Diego -6.6
37 Richmond -8.3
38 Birmingham -8.5
39 San Francisco -10.3
40 Virginia Beach -12.0
41 Austin -12.4
42 San Jose -12.5
43 San Antonio -14.2
44 Columbus -15.7
45 Oklahoma City -15.8
46 Jacksonville -20.7
47 Orlando -21.8
48 Tampa -23.0
49 Miami -24.2
50 Phoenix -27.5
Local Funding per Pupil
Dollars per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 New York 15,884
2 Philadelphia 13,357
3 Hartford 12,723
4 Boston 12,605
5 Pittsburgh 11,293
6 Washington, D.C. 10,880
7 San Jose 10,720
8 Cleveland 10,420
9 Chicago 10,328
10 Austin 10,083
11 Columbus 9,489
12 Providence 9,136
13 San Francisco 8,678
14 New Orleans 8,666
15 Buffalo 8,397
16 Baltimore 7,970
17 St. Louis 7,704
18 Cincinnati 7,510
19 Dallas 7,066
20 Houston 6,836
United States 6,656
21 San Diego 6,517
22 Milwaukee 6,515
23 Denver 6,216
24 San Antonio 6,024
25 Miami 6,016
26 Atlanta 6,002
27 Portland 5,751
28 Kansas City 5,750
29 Seattle 5,489
30 Louisville 5,439
31 Richmond 5,380
32 Orlando 5,368
33 Detroit 5,338
34 Virginia Beach 5,287
35 Nashville 5,215
36 Minneapolis 5,103
37 Los Angeles 4,874
38 Birmingham 4,593
39 Sacramento 4,541
40 Phoenix 4,509
41 Indianapolis 4,330
42 Oklahoma City 4,136
43 Memphis 4,107
44 Tampa 4,015
45 Jacksonville 3,938
46 Salt Lake City 3,704
47 Charlotte 3,535
48 Riverside 3,448
49 Las Vegas 2,936
50 Raleigh 2,666
Change in Local Funding per Pupil
Percent change in local funding per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Los Angeles 42.4
2 San Jose 31.7
3 San Francisco 31.2
4 New York 27.4
5 Portland 24.6
6 Boston 22.2
7 Hartford 21.9
8 Buffalo 21.7
9 Philadelphia 20.4
10 Seattle 18.4
11 Providence 15.2
12 San Diego 15.2
13 Cleveland 14.3
14 Chicago 14.0
15 St. Louis 12.3
16 Columbus 10.5
17 Pittsburgh 10.5
18 Salt Lake City 10.4
19 San Antonio 8.7
20 Austin 8.1
21 Minneapolis 7.5
22 Nashville 7.4
United States 6.8
23 Riverside 5.5
24 Denver 5.0
25 Houston 4.5
26 Louisville 3.7
27 Cincinnati 0.8
28 Milwaukee -0.9
29 Sacramento -1.1
30 New Orleans -1.4
31 Virginia Beach -1.7
32 Baltimore -2.5
33 Memphis -3.7
34 Washington, D.C. -3.8
35 Phoenix -4.1
36 Oklahoma City -4.9
37 Dallas -5.8
38 Detroit -6.1
39 Richmond -7.9
40 Kansas City -9.1
41 Birmingham -9.3
42 Orlando -11.3
43 Atlanta -16.1
44 Indianapolis -17.9
45 Miami -18.3
46 Jacksonville -21.6
47 Charlotte -23.9
48 Tampa -26.0
49 Las Vegas -32.1
50 Raleigh -57.8

Assessing and comparing the quality of schools is challenging due to the many factors that can affect student success, as well as the multitude of ways states assess the quality of their schools. This section provides rankings for metrics that are associated with the quality of school instruction. St. Louis ranks competitively on these measures collectively, but the learning experiences of schools vary considerably within the region. See Where We Stand 8th Edition White Paper 3 for further discussion.

Pupil-Teacher Ratio
2018-2019
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
1 San Diego 24.4
2 Phoenix 24.0
3 Los Angeles 23.8
4 Riverside 23.7
5 San Jose 22.9
6 Sacramento 22.9
7 Salt Lake City 22.8
8 Las Vegas 22.5
9 San Francisco 22.5
10 Portland 19.4
11 Seattle 18.8
12 Columbus 18.7
13 New Orleans 18.6
14 Miami 18.4
15 Indianapolis 18.2
16 Detroit 18.1
17 Denver 17.8
18 Oklahoma City 17.8
19 Jacksonville 17.7
20 Cincinnati 17.7
21 Cleveland 17.4
22 Birmingham 17.3
23 Orlando 17.0
24 Louisville 16.7
25 Tampa 16.7
26 Memphis 16.7
27 Minneapolis 16.4
28 Milwaukee 16.3
29 Charlotte 16.3
30 Houston 16.0
United States 16.0
31 Raleigh 16.0
32 San Antonio 15.9
33 Richmond 15.8
34 Nashville 15.7
35 Atlanta 15.5
36 Chicago 15.4
37 Dallas 15.2
38 Baltimore 15.2
39 Virginia Beach 15.1
40 Austin 15.0
41 St. Louis 14.7
42 Kansas City 14.6
43 Washington, D.C. 14.6
44 Pittsburgh 14.1
45 Philadelphia 14.0
46 Providence 13.5
47 Buffalo 13.1
48 New York 12.9
49 Boston 12.8
50 Hartford 12.8
New Teachers
Teachers in their first or second year of teaching as a percent of all teachers, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Memphis 51.7
2 Indianapolis 21.4
3 Orlando 20.9
4 San Antonio 20.1
5 Denver 19.0
6 Phoenix 18.8
7 Jacksonville 18.6
8 Dallas 16.2
9 Oklahoma City 15.6
10 Washington, D.C. 15.6
11 New Orleans 15.5
12 Houston 15.4
13 Salt Lake City 15.3
14 Baltimore 15.0
15 Nashville 14.5
16 Columbus 14.3
17 San Francisco 14.0
18 Milwaukee 13.7
19 Minneapolis 13.6
20 Tampa 13.5
21 Kansas City 13.1
Peer Average 13.1
22 Chicago 13.0
23 Austin 12.8
24 San Jose 12.4
25 Boston 12.3
26 Virginia Beach 12.2
27 Richmond 12.2
28 Cincinnati 12.2
29 Cleveland 12.0
30 Philadelphia 11.8
31 Las Vegas 11.3
32 New York 11.3
33 Riverside 11.3
34 St. Louis 11.0
35 San Diego 10.9
36 Atlanta 10.9
37 Louisville 10.8
38 Seattle 10.7
39 Hartford 10.7
40 Buffalo 10.0
41 Birmingham 9.9
42 Sacramento 9.6
43 Portland 9.4
44 Los Angeles 9.1
45 Detroit 9.0
46 Providence 9.0
47 Pittsburgh 7.4
48 Charlotte 7.1
49 Miami 6.3
50 Raleigh 6.2
Relative Wages for Elementary, Middle, and High School Teachers
Ratio of average teacher wage to the average wage of all occupations, 2019
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics
1 Riverside 1.74
2 Virginia Beach 1.44
3 Los Angeles 1.43
4 Buffalo 1.41
5 Pittsburgh 1.37
6 Cleveland 1.35
7 Providence 1.35
8 Detroit 1.32
9 Sacramento 1.32
10 Portland 1.30
11 New York 1.29
12 Jacksonville 1.29
13 San Diego 1.27
14 Columbus 1.26
15 Tampa 1.25
16 Philadelphia 1.25
17 Chicago 1.24
18 Las Vegas 1.24
19 Cincinnati 1.24
20 Memphis 1.23
21 Hartford 1.22
22 NA 1.21
Peer Average 1.21
23 San Antonio 1.20
24 Baltimore 1.20
25 Orlando 1.19
26 Boston 1.18
27 Salt Lake City 1.16
28 Louisville 1.16
29 Milwaukee 1.16
30 San Francisco 1.14
31 Minneapolis 1.13
32 Washington, D.C. 1.12
33 Atlanta 1.11
34 St. Louis 1.11
35 Richmond 1.11
36 Indianapolis 1.10
37 New Orleans 1.10
38 Houston 1.09
39 Dallas 1.09
40 Birmingham 1.09
41 Miami 1.09
42 Kansas City 1.09
43 Nashville 1.08
44 Austin 1.06
45 Seattle 1.04
46 San Jose 1.03
47 Oklahoma City 0.98
48 Charlotte 0.97
49 Raleigh 0.96
50 Denver 0.96
51 Phoenix 0.93
Absent Teachers
Teachers who were absent more than 10 school days during the school year as a percent of all teachers, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Las Vegas 58.6
2 Baltimore 38.5
3 Providence 38.0
4 Virginia Beach 37.3
5 Columbus 36.8
6 Cleveland 35.5
7 Buffalo 35.2
8 Louisville 35.1
9 Hartford 34.1
10 Pittsburgh 34.1
11 Richmond 33.8
12 Raleigh 33.7
13 Birmingham 33.6
14 Seattle 33.2
15 Charlotte 31.6
16 Minneapolis 31.6
17 Oklahoma City 31.3
18 Riverside 30.5
19 Philadelphia 29.4
20 Cincinnati 29.3
21 Portland 29.3
22 Memphis 29.2
23 Atlanta 29.1
24 Kansas City 29.0
25 Houston 28.5
26 Nashville 28.5
27 Miami 27.8
28 Washington, D.C. 27.7
Peer Average 27.4
29 Chicago 27.1
30 New Orleans 26.8
31 Denver 25.7
32 San Diego 25.2
33 New York 25.2
34 San Jose 25.0
35 St. Louis 25.0
36 Boston 24.5
37 Dallas 24.2
38 San Francisco 24.1
39 Indianapolis 24.0
40 Detroit 23.6
41 Tampa 23.5
42 Phoenix 23.5
43 Jacksonville 23.1
44 San Antonio 21.9
45 Milwaukee 21.1
46 Austin 20.4
47 Los Angeles 19.7
48 Salt Lake City 19.5
49 Sacramento 17.5
50 Orlando 11.1

School districts in the St. Louis region are highly segregated, and as a result learning experiences vary considerably by race. The region has a high rate of out of school suspension, and low rate of students enrolled in Advanced Placement courses. The region has fewer students who are chronically absent than most of the peer regions, but there is a wide disparity between races on this metric as well. For a further discussion of learning environments in the St. Louis region, see Where We Stand 8th Edition White Paper 3.

Segregation of School Districts
Black-white student segregation, based on the dissimilarity index, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Cleveland 78.8
2 Milwaukee 77.9
3 Chicago 73.2
4 Buffalo 72.4
5 Detroit 71.2
6 St. Louis 70.6
7 Cincinnati 70.4
8 Indianapolis 69.8
9 Pittsburgh 69.4
10 Boston 68.0
11 New York 67.3
12 Philadelphia 65.1
13 Memphis 61.5
14 Hartford 61.3
15 Columbus 61.2
16 San Francisco 60.9
17 Denver 60.5
18 Birmingham 59.7
Peer Average 59.5
19 Kansas City 58.5
20 Los Angeles 58.3
21 Providence 55.9
22 Oklahoma City 55.6
23 Minneapolis 55.3
24 Nashville 54.4
25 Washington, D.C. 54.3
26 Dallas 52.8
27 Sacramento 51.6
28 New Orleans 50.7
29 Louisville 50.7
30 Houston 49.8
31 Seattle 46.7
32 Baltimore 44.7
33 Jacksonville 43.4
34 Portland 43.0
35 Atlanta 42.9
36 Phoenix 42.6
37 San Diego 42.1
38 Riverside 40.5
39 Virginia Beach 40.0
40 Charlotte 39.4
41 San Antonio 38.0
42 Austin 37.7
43 Richmond 37.2
44 San Jose 35.3
45 Salt Lake City 30.5
46 Orlando 27.7
47 Tampa 25.4
48 Miami 19.8
49 Raleigh 12.1
50 Las Vegas 0.0
Days of School Missed due to Out-of-School Suspension
Days missed per student, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Memphis 0.80
2 Virginia Beach 0.61
3 Buffalo 0.59
4 Richmond 0.57
5 St. Louis 0.50
6 Cleveland 0.50
7 Oklahoma City 0.43
8 Columbus 0.39
9 Charlotte 0.39
10 Raleigh 0.39
11 Detroit 0.38
12 New Orleans 0.38
13 Kansas City 0.36
14 Atlanta 0.35
15 Louisville 0.35
16 Las Vegas 0.32
17 Orlando 0.30
18 Birmingham 0.28
19 Milwaukee 0.28
20 Indianapolis 0.25
21 Philadelphia 0.25
22 Phoenix 0.25
23 Cincinnati 0.25
24 Nashville 0.23
25 Seattle 0.23
26 Jacksonville 0.22
Peer Average 0.22
27 Tampa 0.21
28 Pittsburgh 0.21
29 Baltimore 0.20
30 Washington, D.C. 0.20
31 Hartford 0.18
32 Sacramento 0.18
33 Houston 0.17
34 New York 0.17
35 Dallas 0.17
36 Providence 0.16
37 Riverside 0.16
38 San Antonio 0.16
39 Denver 0.14
40 Chicago 0.14
41 Minneapolis 0.14
42 Portland 0.13
43 San Diego 0.13
44 Austin 0.12
45 Boston 0.11
46 San Francisco 0.10
47 Miami 0.07
48 San Jose 0.07
49 Salt Lake City 0.07
50 Los Angeles 0.06
Chronic Absenteeism
Students who have missed 15 days of school or more as a percent of all students, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Washington, D.C. 25.6
2 Seattle 24.9
3 Portland 24.0
4 Buffalo 22.7
5 Milwaukee 21.5
6 Las Vegas 21.1
7 Louisville 20.9
8 Baltimore 20.9
9 Denver 20.6
10 Cleveland 20.6
11 Detroit 20.4
12 Jacksonville 19.8
13 Tampa 19.8
14 Orlando 19.8
15 Columbus 19.2
16 New York 18.9
17 Providence 18.7
18 Philadelphia 17.8
19 Pittsburgh 17.1
20 Phoenix 16.8
21 Chicago 16.4
22 New Orleans 16.4
23 Cincinnati 15.9
Peer Average 15.8
24 Miami 15.2
25 Salt Lake City 15.0
26 Virginia Beach 14.9
27 Birmingham 14.1
28 Sacramento 14.1
29 Nashville 14.1
30 St. Louis 13.7
31 Minneapolis 13.4
32 Riverside 13.1
33 Boston 13.0
34 Austin 12.9
35 Atlanta 12.7
36 Hartford 12.6
37 San Antonio 12.6
38 Kansas City 12.3
39 Oklahoma City 12.1
40 Indianapolis 11.9
41 Raleigh 11.8
42 Charlotte 11.8
43 San Francisco 11.7
44 Los Angeles 11.5
45 Dallas 11.4
46 San Diego 11.3
47 Houston 10.9
48 San Jose 10.2
49 Memphis 9.6
50 Richmond 9.6
Advanced Placement Enrollment
Percent of high-school students enrolled in advanced placement courses, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Orlando 31.4
2 San Jose 29.6
3 Washington, D.C. 28.3
4 San Diego 27.0
5 Austin 26.8
6 Baltimore 25.7
7 Atlanta 25.5
8 Dallas 25.5
9 Tampa 25.5
10 San Francisco 25.0
11 Houston 24.7
12 Milwaukee 24.5
13 Virginia Beach 23.7
14 Los Angeles 23.6
15 Louisville 23.6
16 Chicago 23.2
17 Miami 22.9
18 Jacksonville 22.5
19 San Antonio 22.0
20 Raleigh 21.7
21 Seattle 21.1
22 Richmond 20.5
Peer Average 20.4
23 Minneapolis 19.8
24 Sacramento 19.7
25 Riverside 19.2
26 Denver 19.1
27 Portland 18.3
28 Oklahoma City 18.3
29 Las Vegas 17.4
30 Boston 17.3
31 Indianapolis 17.1
32 Charlotte 17.0
33 Birmingham 16.9
34 Nashville 16.8
35 Cincinnati 16.5
36 Detroit 16.4
37 Buffalo 16.1
38 Kansas City 16.1
39 Hartford 16.0
40 St. Louis 16.0
41 New York 15.8
42 Pittsburgh 15.4
43 Philadelphia 14.9
44 Salt Lake City 14.2
45 Phoenix 13.7
46 New Orleans 13.5
47 Providence 13.2
48 Columbus 12.9
49 Cleveland 11.6
50 Memphis 7.8

Relative to the peer regions, St. Louis has a large proportion of children enrolled in preschool, a small (and shrinking) adult population that does not have a high school diploma, and is about average on adults with a high school diploma or equivalent as the highest level of education.

Children Enrolled in Preschool
Percent of 3- and 4-year olds, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B14003)
1 San Jose 66.3
2 New York 65.4
3 New Orleans 65.0
4 Hartford 64.8
5 Miami 63.4
6 San Francisco 62.7
7 Boston 62.7
8 St. Louis 60.8
9 Raleigh 58.2
10 Denver 56.7
11 Virginia Beach 56.7
12 Buffalo 56.0
13 Cleveland 55.5
14 Atlanta 54.7
15 Philadelphia 54.7
16 Los Angeles 54.6
17 Chicago 54.5
18 Washington, D.C. 54.2
19 Orlando 53.9
20 Tampa 53.4
21 Baltimore 51.9
22 Seattle 51.7
23 Columbus 51.1
24 Detroit 50.9
25 Charlotte 50.5
26 Richmond 49.5
27 Austin 49.4
United States 48.9
28 Cincinnati 48.9
29 San Diego 48.9
30 Pittsburgh 48.2
31 Sacramento 48.2
32 Memphis 47.9
33 Minneapolis 47.7
34 Providence 46.7
35 Milwaukee 46.5
36 Portland 45.7
37 Dallas 45.2
38 Salt Lake City 45.1
39 Houston 45.0
40 Kansas City 44.9
41 Louisville 44.7
42 Birmingham 44.6
43 San Antonio 44.4
44 Nashville 44.3
45 Indianapolis 40.9
46 Oklahoma City 39.6
47 Jacksonville 39.5
48 Phoenix 39.0
49 Las Vegas 37.9
50 Riverside 37.0
No High School Diploma or Equivalent
Percent of adults aged 25 and older, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B15002)
1 Los Angeles 18.6
2 Riverside 18.0
3 Houston 15.4
4 Miami 14.7
5 San Antonio 14.4
6 Las Vegas 13.7
7 Dallas 13.4
8 New York 12.7
9 Phoenix 12.0
10 New Orleans 11.9
11 San Diego 11.9
12 Providence 11.8
13 Memphis 11.8
United States 11.4
14 San Jose 11.4
15 Orlando 10.9
16 Oklahoma City 10.9
17 Chicago 10.6
18 San Francisco 10.5
19 Tampa 10.3
20 Charlotte 10.2
21 Birmingham 10.2
22 Atlanta 10.0
23 Richmond 9.9
24 Sacramento 9.8
25 Indianapolis 9.6
26 Austin 9.6
27 Nashville 9.5
28 Cleveland 9.2
29 Louisville 9.2
30 Detroit 9.0
31 Washington, D.C. 9.0
32 Hartford 8.9
33 Philadelphia 8.8
34 Jacksonville 8.4
35 Cincinnati 8.4
36 Baltimore 8.4
37 Columbus 8.4
38 Virginia Beach 8.3
39 Salt Lake City 8.3
40 Milwaukee 7.9
41 Denver 7.8
42 Boston 7.8
43 Raleigh 7.7
44 St. Louis 7.5
45 Portland 7.3
46 Kansas City 7.2
47 Seattle 7.2
48 Buffalo 7.2
49 Minneapolis 5.9
50 Pittsburgh 5.8
Change in No High School Diploma or Equivalent
Percentage point difference, 2009-2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B15002)
1 Washington, D.C. -1.0
2 Seattle -1.5
3 Boston -1.6
4 Orlando -1.7
5 Minneapolis -1.7
6 Columbus -1.8
7 Oklahoma City -2.0
8 Hartford -2.2
9 Virginia Beach -2.2
10 Portland -2.6
11 San Francisco -2.6
12 San Diego -2.6
13 Salt Lake City -2.8
14 Miami -2.8
15 Kansas City -2.8
16 Indianapolis -2.8
17 Raleigh -2.9
18 New York -3.0
19 Philadelphia -3.0
20 Atlanta -3.0
21 Cleveland -3.1
22 Charlotte -3.1
23 Sacramento -3.2
24 Pittsburgh -3.2
25 Tampa -3.3
26 San Jose -3.3
27 Milwaukee -3.3
28 New Orleans -3.3
29 Phoenix -3.3
United States -3.4
30 Riverside -3.4
31 Jacksonville -3.4
32 Las Vegas -3.4
33 Denver -3.4
34 Chicago -3.5
35 Baltimore -3.5
36 Nashville -3.6
37 Los Angeles -3.7
38 St. Louis -3.8
39 Austin -3.8
40 Louisville -4.0
41 Cincinnati -4.0
42 Buffalo -4.0
43 Birmingham -4.1
44 Detroit -4.1
45 San Antonio -4.1
46 Memphis -4.5
47 Houston -4.6
48 Richmond -4.7
49 Dallas -4.7
50 Providence -4.9
Racial Disparity in Education
Ratio of non-Hispanic black to non-Hispanic white, adults aged 25 and older, with less than a high-school diploma, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 Minneapolis 5.33
2 Milwaukee 4.05
3 Boston 3.72
4 Miami 3.30
5 Raleigh 3.03
6 Orlando 2.76
7 Chicago 2.76
8 Denver 2.68
9 San Francisco 2.68
10 Seattle 2.63
11 Virginia Beach 2.60
12 Richmond 2.53
13 Portland 2.45
14 Buffalo 2.41
15 New York 2.40
16 Washington, D.C. 2.36
17 Los Angeles 2.32
18 San Diego 2.26
19 Kansas City 2.26
20 Cleveland 2.12
21 Philadelphia 2.12
22 St. Louis 2.12
23 Hartford 2.11
24 Austin 2.11
25 New Orleans 2.08
26 Baltimore 2.03
United States 1.91
27 Memphis 1.85
28 Cincinnati 1.84
29 Pittsburgh 1.82
30 Jacksonville 1.82
31 Columbus 1.81
32 Phoenix 1.68
33 Dallas 1.65
34 Houston 1.64
35 Las Vegas 1.63
36 Tampa 1.59
37 San Antonio 1.59
38 Louisville 1.59
39 Detroit 1.59
40 Charlotte 1.58
41 Riverside 1.58
42 Indianapolis 1.55
43 Sacramento 1.55
44 Oklahoma City 1.52
45 Nashville 1.45
46 Birmingham 1.39
47 Atlanta 1.39
48 Providence 1.03
High School Diploma or Equivalent as Highest Educational Attainment
Percent of adults aged 25 and older, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B15002)
1 Pittsburgh 31.4
2 Louisville 29.7
3 Cincinnati 29.6
4 Memphis 29.2
5 Providence 29.0
6 Buffalo 28.6
7 Tampa 28.5
8 Philadelphia 28.5
9 Indianapolis 28.4
10 Cleveland 28.4
11 Las Vegas 28.2
12 New Orleans 27.8
13 Jacksonville 27.8
14 Oklahoma City 27.7
15 Detroit 27.3
16 Birmingham 27.3
United States 26.9
17 Columbus 26.9
18 Milwaukee 26.7
19 Kansas City 26.6
20 Miami 26.2
21 San Antonio 26.1
22 Riverside 26.0
23 St. Louis 26.0
24 Hartford 26.0
25 Orlando 25.7
26 Richmond 25.5
27 Nashville 25.4
28 Virginia Beach 24.7
29 New York 24.6
30 Baltimore 24.5
31 Chicago 24.0
32 Houston 23.5
33 Atlanta 23.4
34 Salt Lake City 23.2
35 Phoenix 23.0
36 Dallas 22.9
37 Charlotte 22.8
38 Boston 22.0
39 Sacramento 22.0
40 Minneapolis 21.4
41 Portland 20.8
42 Los Angeles 20.0
43 Denver 19.8
44 Austin 19.2
45 Seattle 19.1
46 San Diego 18.2
47 Washington, D.C. 18.0
48 Raleigh 17.5
49 San Francisco 15.7
50 San Jose 14.1

The region is relatively well educated and is experiencing above average increases in the college education levels of adults. A larger proportion of the St. Louis adult population has an associate degree, bachelor’s degree, or advanced degree than those in many of the peer regions. The region is below the national average on percentage of adults enrolled in college, which is in part due to the large senior population in the region. See the College Attainment performance indicator on OneSTL for further discussion.

Enrollment in College or Graduate School
Percent of adults aged 18 and older, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B14004)
1 San Diego 11.1
2 Boston 10.6
3 Los Angeles 10.6
4 Sacramento 10.4
5 Hartford 10.2
6 San Jose 10.2
7 Riverside 10.1
8 Virginia Beach 10.0
9 Austin 9.8
10 Raleigh 9.7
11 Orlando 9.7
12 Washington, D.C. 9.5
13 Salt Lake City 9.4
14 Providence 9.4
15 Baltimore 9.3
16 Oklahoma City 9.3
17 San Francisco 9.1
18 Columbus 9.1
19 San Antonio 8.9
20 Atlanta 8.8
21 Philadelphia 8.7
22 Miami 8.6
23 New York 8.5
United States 8.5
24 Dallas 8.4
25 Richmond 8.4
26 Chicago 8.4
27 Houston 8.3
28 Buffalo 8.2
29 Cincinnati 8.2
30 Minneapolis 7.9
31 New Orleans 7.9
32 Seattle 7.9
33 Phoenix 7.8
34 Memphis 7.8
35 Milwaukee 7.8
36 Cleveland 7.8
37 Charlotte 7.5
38 Detroit 7.4
39 Nashville 7.4
40 Portland 7.4
41 Birmingham 7.4
42 St. Louis 7.3
43 Tampa 7.3
44 Denver 7.2
45 Pittsburgh 7.2
46 Jacksonville 7.2
47 Louisville 7.1
48 Las Vegas 6.7
49 Indianapolis 6.7
50 Kansas City 6.4
Some College, No Degree as Highest Educational Attainment
Percent of adults aged 25 and older, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B15002)
1 Riverside 24.8
2 Phoenix 24.1
3 Las Vegas 24.0
4 Sacramento 23.9
5 Virginia Beach 23.6
6 Memphis 23.3
7 Salt Lake City 23.1
8 Portland 22.8
9 Oklahoma City 22.5
10 Detroit 22.4
11 San Antonio 22.3
12 New Orleans 22.2
13 St. Louis 21.9
14 San Diego 21.8
15 Cleveland 21.6
16 Louisville 21.4
17 Charlotte 21.2
18 Birmingham 21.2
19 Jacksonville 21.1
20 Kansas City 20.8
21 Seattle 20.4
22 Dallas 20.4
23 Houston 20.3
United States 20.0
24 Richmond 19.9
25 Milwaukee 19.9
26 Tampa 19.6
27 Columbus 19.5
28 Nashville 19.4
29 Minneapolis 19.3
30 Denver 19.0
31 Orlando 19.0
32 Atlanta 19.0
33 Chicago 18.9
34 Los Angeles 18.8
35 Indianapolis 18.8
36 Buffalo 18.7
37 Austin 18.5
38 Cincinnati 18.4
39 Baltimore 18.3
40 Raleigh 17.5
41 Providence 17.4
42 Hartford 16.9
43 Miami 16.7
44 Pittsburgh 16.5
45 Philadelphia 16.4
46 San Francisco 16.0
47 Washington, D.C. 15.5
48 San Jose 14.9
49 New York 14.3
50 Boston 14.0
Racial Disparity in College Attendance
Ratio of non-Hispanic white to black adults, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, A