Where We Stand

The Strategic Assessment of the St. Louis Region

The Where We Stand (WWS) series produced by East-West Gateway (EWG) has provided comparisons of the St. Louis region with other large metropolitan areas since 1992. WWS ranks St. Louis among the 50 most populous Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) in the United States (the peer regions) on a broad range of topics important to the region.

In November of 2018, EWG published the eighth edition of WWS coupled with an expanded webpage. Explore this webpage to find more on where St. Louis stands among its peer metropolitan regions. Email us at wws@ewgateway.org with feedback, questions, or to subscribe to our email list.

Note: Acrobat Reader is required to view many of the files on this page.

Where We Stand 8th Edition

Where We Stand – 8th Edition

The eighth edition focuses on three topic areas that are strategic priorities for EWG and regional partners. In May of 2018, the EWG Board of Directors along with representative from the business and non-profit sectors affirmed that economic development, workforce development, and public safety are three areas that require a regional collaborative effort. The 130 metrics in this edition pertain to these focus areas. An introductory chapter on demographics is also included to provide an overview of the population of St. Louis and the peer regions.

Where We Stand Updates, White Papers, and Technical Reports

EWG staff produces several types of reports that complement the main publication. Where We Stand Updates, White Papers, and Technical Reports are periodically released to update St. Louis’ standing based on new data, provide further insight on a specific topic, or provide more detail on methodologies used in the calculations for Where We Stand reports.

8th Edition Updates
8th Edition White Papers
8th Edition Technical Reports
7th Edition Updates

Where We Stand Data

WWS tables that appear in the eighth edition of WWS as well as tables included in previous editions are grouped here by topic areas. EWG will update these tables on a periodic basis. If you are interested in updated data for a Where We Stand table that you viewed previously, please contact us at wws@ewgateway.org.

Demographics

Shifts in demographics pose challenges to the St. Louis region as well as opportunities. This section provides data on the region’s slow population growth, an aging population, the growing immigrant population, the proportion of the population with disabilities, and the composition of households. See page 1 of Where We Stand – 8th Edition for further discussion. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

St. Louis has had slow but steady population growth in recent years. Natural change (more births than deaths) accounts for most of the region’s population increases. International migration also contributes a small amount. These factors have produced population growth despite the fact that more people move out of St. Louis to other parts of the country than move in. St. Louis has a relatively high proportion of adults who have served in the military. See Where We Stand 8th Edition Update 4 for further discussion.

Population
2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
United States 331,893,745
1 New York 19,768,458
2 Los Angeles 12,997,353
3 Chicago 9,509,934
4 Dallas 7,759,615
5 Houston 7,206,841
6 Washington, D.C. 6,356,434
7 Philadelphia 6,228,601
8 Atlanta 6,144,050
9 Miami 6,091,747
10 Phoenix 4,946,145
11 Boston 4,899,932
12 Riverside 4,653,105
13 San Francisco 4,623,264
14 Detroit 4,365,205
15 Seattle 4,011,553
16 Minneapolis 3,690,512
17 San Diego 3,286,069
18 Tampa 3,219,514
19 Denver 2,972,566
20 Baltimore 2,838,327
21 St. Louis 2,809,299
22 Charlotte 2,701,046
23 Orlando 2,691,925
24 San Antonio 2,601,788
25 Portland 2,511,612
26 Sacramento 2,411,428
27 Pittsburgh 2,353,538
28 Austin 2,352,426
29 Las Vegas 2,292,476
30 Cincinnati 2,259,935
31 Kansas City 2,199,490
32 Columbus 2,151,017
33 Indianapolis 2,126,804
34 Cleveland 2,075,662
35 Nashville 2,012,476
36 San Jose 1,952,185
37 Virginia Beach 1,803,328
38 Providence 1,675,774
39 Jacksonville 1,637,666
40 Milwaukee 1,566,487
41 Raleigh 1,448,411
42 Oklahoma City 1,441,647
43 Memphis 1,336,103
44 Richmond 1,324,062
45 Louisville 1,284,566
46 Salt Lake City 1,263,061
47 New Orleans 1,261,726
48 Hartford 1,211,906
49 Buffalo 1,162,336
50 Birmingham 1,114,262
Population Change
Percent change, 2010-2020
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census
1 Austin 33.0
2 Orlando 25.3
3 Raleigh 25.1
4 Nashville 20.9
5 Houston 20.3
6 Dallas 20.0
7 San Antonio 19.4
8 Jacksonville 19.3
9 Charlotte 18.6
10 Seattle 16.8
11 Denver 16.5
12 Las Vegas 16.1
13 Salt Lake City 15.6
14 Phoenix 15.6
15 Atlanta 15.2
16 Tampa 14.1
17 Oklahoma City 13.8
18 Washington, D.C. 13.0
19 Portland 12.9
20 Columbus 12.5
21 Indianapolis 11.8
22 Sacramento 11.6
23 Richmond 10.8
24 Minneapolis 10.7
25 Miami 10.3
26 San Francisco 9.5
27 Kansas City 9.1
28 San Jose 8.9
29 Riverside 8.9
30 Boston 8.5
United States 7.4
31 New Orleans 6.9
32 Louisville 6.9
33 New York 6.6
34 San Diego 6.6
35 Cincinnati 5.6
36 Birmingham 5.1
37 Virginia Beach 5.0
38 Baltimore 4.9
39 Providence 4.7
40 Philadelphia 4.7
41 Los Angeles 2.9
42 Buffalo 2.8
43 Detroit 2.2
44 Chicago 1.7
45 Memphis 1.6
46 Milwaukee 1.2
47 St. Louis 1.2
48 Pittsburgh 0.6
49 Cleveland 0.5
50 Hartford 0.1
Population Change
Percent change, 2020-2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Austin 2.3
2 Raleigh 2.0
3 Jacksonville 1.6
4 Phoenix 1.6
5 San Antonio 1.4
6 Dallas 1.3
7 Charlotte 1.2
8 Tampa 1.1
9 Riverside 1.0
10 Houston 1.0
11 Oklahoma City 0.9
12 Nashville 0.9
13 Las Vegas 0.8
14 Atlanta 0.7
15 Richmond 0.6
16 Indianapolis 0.6
17 Orlando 0.5
18 Sacramento 0.5
19 Columbus 0.5
20 Salt Lake City 0.3
21 Kansas City 0.3
22 Virginia Beach 0.2
United States 0.1
23 Denver 0.1
24 Cincinnati 0.1
25 Hartford 0.0
26 Providence 0.0
27 Louisville -0.0
28 Birmingham -0.0
29 Minneapolis -0.1
30 Memphis -0.1
31 Baltimore -0.1
32 Portland -0.2
33 Philadelphia -0.2
34 Buffalo -0.3
35 St. Louis -0.3
36 Seattle -0.3
37 San Diego -0.3
38 Milwaukee -0.5
39 Washington, D.C. -0.5
40 Cleveland -0.5
41 Detroit -0.5
42 Miami -0.6
43 Pittsburgh -0.6
44 New Orleans -0.7
45 Boston -0.7
46 Chicago -1.0
47 Los Angeles -1.3
48 New York -1.6
49 San Jose -2.2
50 San Francisco -2.5
Natural Change
Births minus deaths as a percent of 2020 population, 2020-2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Salt Lake City 0.6
2 Houston 0.5
3 Austin 0.5
4 Dallas 0.5
5 Washington, D.C. 0.4
6 San Jose 0.4
7 Raleigh 0.3
8 San Antonio 0.3
9 San Diego 0.3
10 Minneapolis 0.3
11 Atlanta 0.3
12 Denver 0.3
13 Riverside 0.3
14 Seattle 0.3
15 Columbus 0.2
16 Nashville 0.2
17 Indianapolis 0.2
18 San Francisco 0.2
19 New York 0.2
20 Los Angeles 0.2
21 Charlotte 0.2
22 Phoenix 0.2
23 Orlando 0.2
24 Kansas City 0.2
25 Oklahoma City 0.1
26 Las Vegas 0.1
27 Sacramento 0.1
28 Virginia Beach 0.1
29 Chicago 0.1
30 Memphis 0.1
31 Portland 0.1
32 Milwaukee 0.0
United States 0.0
33 Jacksonville 0.0
34 Cincinnati 0.0
35 Boston 0.0
36 Richmond 0.0
37 New Orleans 0.0
38 Baltimore -0.0
39 Miami -0.0
40 Philadelphia -0.1
41 Louisville -0.1
42 Birmingham -0.1
43 Detroit -0.1
44 St. Louis -0.1
45 Hartford -0.2
46 Providence -0.2
47 Cleveland -0.2
48 Buffalo -0.3
49 Tampa -0.3
50 Pittsburgh -0.5
Net Migration
Percent of 2020 population, 2020-2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Austin 1.9
2 Raleigh 1.6
3 Jacksonville 1.6
4 Phoenix 1.4
5 Tampa 1.4
6 San Antonio 1.0
7 Charlotte 1.0
8 Dallas 0.8
9 Oklahoma City 0.8
10 Riverside 0.7
11 Las Vegas 0.7
12 Nashville 0.7
13 Richmond 0.6
14 Houston 0.4
15 Indianapolis 0.4
16 Atlanta 0.4
17 Orlando 0.4
18 Sacramento 0.3
19 Columbus 0.2
20 Providence 0.2
21 Hartford 0.2
22 Kansas City 0.1
United States 0.1
23 Cincinnati 0.1
24 Virginia Beach 0.0
25 Birmingham 0.0
26 Louisville 0.0
27 Buffalo -0.0
28 Baltimore -0.1
29 Pittsburgh -0.1
30 Philadelphia -0.2
31 Denver -0.2
32 St. Louis -0.2
33 Memphis -0.2
34 Cleveland -0.2
35 Portland -0.3
36 Salt Lake City -0.3
37 Minneapolis -0.3
38 Detroit -0.4
39 Milwaukee -0.5
40 Miami -0.5
41 Seattle -0.6
42 San Diego -0.7
43 New Orleans -0.7
44 Boston -0.8
45 Washington, D.C. -0.8
46 Chicago -1.1
47 Los Angeles -1.5
48 New York -1.8
49 San Jose -2.5
50 San Francisco -2.6
Net International Migration
Percent of 2020 population, 2020-2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Miami 0.4
2 Orlando 0.2
3 Boston 0.2
4 Washington, D.C. 0.2
5 Seattle 0.2
6 San Jose 0.2
7 Houston 0.2
8 Hartford 0.1
9 New York 0.1
10 Columbus 0.1
11 Dallas 0.1
12 Tampa 0.1
13 Raleigh 0.1
14 San Francisco 0.1
15 Richmond 0.1
16 Charlotte 0.1
17 Indianapolis 0.1
18 Austin 0.1
19 New Orleans 0.1
20 Atlanta 0.1
21 Las Vegas 0.1
22 Minneapolis 0.1
United States 0.1
23 Baltimore 0.1
24 Virginia Beach 0.1
25 Cincinnati 0.1
26 Phoenix 0.1
27 Philadelphia 0.1
28 Jacksonville 0.1
29 Providence 0.1
30 Milwaukee 0.1
31 Buffalo 0.1
32 Sacramento 0.1
33 Cleveland 0.1
34 Salt Lake City 0.1
35 Kansas City 0.1
36 St. Louis 0.1
37 Detroit 0.0
38 Louisville 0.0
39 Nashville 0.0
40 Portland 0.0
41 Chicago 0.0
42 Los Angeles 0.0
43 San Antonio 0.0
44 Pittsburgh 0.0
45 Denver 0.0
46 Oklahoma City 0.0
47 Birmingham 0.0
48 San Diego 0.0
49 Memphis 0.0
50 Riverside -0.0
Net Domestic Migration
Percent of 2020 population, 2020-2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Austin 1.8
2 Jacksonville 1.5
3 Raleigh 1.5
4 Phoenix 1.4
5 Tampa 1.3
6 San Antonio 1.0
7 Charlotte 0.9
8 Riverside 0.8
9 Oklahoma City 0.7
10 Dallas 0.7
11 Nashville 0.6
12 Las Vegas 0.6
13 Richmond 0.5
14 Indianapolis 0.3
15 Atlanta 0.3
16 Sacramento 0.3
17 Houston 0.3
18 Orlando 0.2
19 Providence 0.1
20 Columbus 0.1
21 Hartford 0.1
22 Kansas City 0.0
23 Birmingham -0.0
24 Cincinnati -0.0
25 Virginia Beach -0.0
26 Louisville -0.0
27 Buffalo -0.1
28 Pittsburgh -0.2
29 Baltimore -0.2
30 Denver -0.2
31 Memphis -0.2
32 Philadelphia -0.2
33 St. Louis -0.3
34 Cleveland -0.3
35 Portland -0.3
36 Salt Lake City -0.4
37 Minneapolis -0.4
Peer Average -0.4
38 Detroit -0.4
39 Milwaukee -0.6
40 San Diego -0.7
41 New Orleans -0.8
42 Seattle -0.8
43 Miami -0.9
44 Boston -1.0
45 Washington, D.C. -1.0
46 Chicago -1.1
47 Los Angeles -1.6
48 New York -1.9
49 San Jose -2.7
50 San Francisco -2.7
Veterans
Percent of adults aged 18 and older who served in the military, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B21001)
1 Virginia Beach 15.1
2 Jacksonville 11.6
3 San Antonio 10.5
4 Tampa 8.8
5 Oklahoma City 7.9
6 Richmond 7.7
7 Las Vegas 7.5
8 Washington, D.C. 7.4
9 San Diego 7.4
10 St. Louis 7.2
11 Phoenix 7.1
12 Baltimore 7.1
13 Kansas City 6.9
14 Louisville 6.9
15 Orlando 6.8
16 Seattle 6.7
17 Portland 6.7
18 Memphis 6.6
19 Atlanta 6.5
United States 6.4
20 Pittsburgh 6.4
21 Charlotte 6.4
22 Denver 6.3
23 Cincinnati 6.3
24 Raleigh 6.3
25 Cleveland 6.3
26 Birmingham 6.2
27 Austin 6.2
28 Columbus 6.2
29 Buffalo 6.1
30 Sacramento 5.9
31 Indianapolis 5.9
32 New Orleans 5.9
33 Nashville 5.8
34 Dallas 5.5
35 Minneapolis 5.5
36 Riverside 5.4
37 Providence 5.3
38 Milwaukee 5.3
39 Detroit 5.2
40 Hartford 5.2
41 Houston 5.0
42 Philadelphia 4.9
43 Salt Lake City 4.1
44 Chicago 4.1
45 Boston 3.9
46 Miami 3.5
47 San Francisco 3.5
48 San Jose 3.1
49 Los Angeles 3.0
50 New York 2.8

The not Hispanic or Latino population groups use the race alone categories for each race to show the proportion of the population that identifies solely with that race. The “other races” population includes three Census categories, all not Hispanic or Latino: Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, American Indian and Alaska Native, and the “some other race” group. Multiracial, not Hispanic or Latino, includes those who selected two or more races on the Census survey. The Hispanic and Latino table includes all races and people who identify with Hispanic or Latino origin. EWG recognizes that these six tables do not fully capture the diversity of the U.S. population. These broad tables provide an indication of the racial and ethnic makeup of the most populous U.S. metropolitan regions. WWS publications will provide more detail on the racial and ethnic composition of the populations and how they have changed over time.

White Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of total population, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Pittsburgh 82.9
2 Cincinnati 77.2
3 Buffalo 74.9
4 Louisville 73.1
5 Minneapolis 72.5
6 Providence 71.7
7 St. Louis 70.6
8 Nashville 70.3
9 Kansas City 70.0
10 Columbus 69.6
11 Indianapolis 69.5
12 Salt Lake City 69.2
13 Portland 69.1
14 Cleveland 67.7
15 Boston 66.3
16 Milwaukee 64.3
17 Detroit 64.0
18 Hartford 63.0
19 Oklahoma City 61.6
20 Denver 61.3
21 Birmingham 60.2
22 Jacksonville 59.8
23 Philadelphia 59.1
24 Tampa 59.1
25 Raleigh 58.7
26 Seattle 58.3
27 Charlotte 58.3
United States 58.1
28 Richmond 55.4
29 Baltimore 53.8
30 Virginia Beach 53.0
31 Phoenix 52.3
32 Chicago 50.5
33 New Orleans 49.6
34 Austin 49.1
35 Sacramento 48.4
36 Atlanta 44.1
37 New York 43.7
38 Dallas 42.8
39 Orlando 42.8
40 Washington, D.C. 42.7
41 San Diego 42.6
42 Memphis 41.3
43 Las Vegas 38.7
44 San Francisco 36.1
45 Houston 33.2
46 San Antonio 31.8
47 San Jose 28.2
48 Riverside 28.1
49 Miami 27.9
50 Los Angeles 27.8
Black Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of total population, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Memphis 46.6
2 New Orleans 33.2
3 Atlanta 33.0
4 Birmingham 29.8
5 Baltimore 28.5
6 Virginia Beach 28.3
7 Richmond 28.1
8 Washington, D.C. 24.1
9 Charlotte 21.5
10 Detroit 21.4
11 Jacksonville 19.7
12 Miami 19.4
13 Philadelphia 19.4
14 Cleveland 18.8
15 Raleigh 18.4
16 St. Louis 16.9
17 Houston 16.8
18 Milwaukee 16.1
19 Dallas 15.8
20 Columbus 15.7
21 Chicago 15.6
22 New York 14.8
23 Orlando 14.7
24 Indianapolis 14.7
25 Nashville 14.0
26 Louisville 13.4
United States 11.8
27 Kansas City 11.7
28 Tampa 11.4
29 Cincinnati 11.3
30 Las Vegas 11.2
31 Buffalo 11.2
32 Hartford 10.5
33 Oklahoma City 9.5
34 Minneapolis 8.9
35 Pittsburgh 7.5
36 San Francisco 6.9
37 Riverside 6.8
38 Sacramento 6.8
39 Boston 6.7
40 Austin 6.6
41 San Antonio 6.0
42 Seattle 6.0
43 Los Angeles 6.0
44 Phoenix 5.3
45 Denver 5.3
46 San Diego 4.4
47 Providence 4.0
48 Portland 2.8
49 San Jose 2.2
50 Salt Lake City 1.5
Asian Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of total population, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 San Jose 37.9
2 San Francisco 27.6
3 Los Angeles 16.4
4 Seattle 15.3
5 Sacramento 14.3
6 San Diego 11.8
7 New York 11.6
8 Washington, D.C. 10.5
9 Las Vegas 10.0
10 Boston 8.5
11 Houston 8.0
12 Dallas 7.6
13 Riverside 7.1
14 Portland 6.9
15 Chicago 6.9
16 Minneapolis 6.9
17 Austin 6.8
18 Raleigh 6.4
19 Atlanta 6.3
20 Philadelphia 6.3
21 Baltimore 6.0
United States 5.7
22 Hartford 5.4
23 Detroit 4.7
24 Columbus 4.6
25 Denver 4.3
26 Jacksonville 4.2
27 Orlando 4.1
28 Richmond 4.1
29 Milwaukee 4.1
30 Charlotte 4.1
31 Phoenix 4.0
32 Salt Lake City 4.0
33 Virginia Beach 3.8
34 Buffalo 3.7
35 Indianapolis 3.6
36 Tampa 3.6
37 Oklahoma City 3.1
38 Kansas City 2.9
39 Cincinnati 2.8
40 St. Louis 2.8
41 Providence 2.8
42 New Orleans 2.7
43 Nashville 2.6
44 Pittsburgh 2.5
45 Miami 2.5
46 San Antonio 2.4
47 Cleveland 2.4
48 Memphis 2.1
49 Louisville 2.0
50 Birmingham 1.5
Hispanic and Latino Population
Percent of total population, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 San Antonio 56.2
2 Riverside 53.6
3 Miami 46.2
4 Los Angeles 45.4
5 Houston 38.5
6 San Diego 34.8
7 Austin 32.8
8 Orlando 32.6
9 Las Vegas 32.3
10 Phoenix 31.9
11 Dallas 29.6
12 San Jose 26.3
13 New York 25.3
14 Denver 23.6
15 Chicago 23.1
16 Sacramento 22.7
17 San Francisco 22.3
18 Tampa 21.3
19 Salt Lake City 19.0
United States 18.8
20 Washington, D.C. 16.7
21 Hartford 16.2
22 Oklahoma City 14.4
23 Providence 14.4
24 Portland 13.0
25 Boston 12.0
26 Milwaukee 11.6
27 Atlanta 11.2
28 Raleigh 11.1
29 Charlotte 11.1
30 Seattle 10.9
31 Philadelphia 10.4
32 Jacksonville 10.3
33 Kansas City 9.7
34 New Orleans 9.3
35 Nashville 8.0
36 Virginia Beach 7.6
37 Indianapolis 7.4
38 Richmond 7.1
39 Baltimore 6.7
40 Cleveland 6.5
41 Minneapolis 6.2
42 Memphis 6.1
43 Louisville 5.7
44 Buffalo 5.5
45 Detroit 4.9
46 Columbus 4.7
47 Birmingham 4.7
48 Cincinnati 3.7
49 St. Louis 3.3
50 Pittsburgh 2.0
Other Races Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of population identifying as American Indian, Pacific Islander, or Some Other Race, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Oklahoma City 8.0
2 Seattle 7.5
3 Portland 6.4
4 Sacramento 6.2
5 Virginia Beach 6.2
6 Las Vegas 5.9
7 St. Louis 5.8
8 San Francisco 5.5
9 Providence 5.5
10 Louisville 5.3
11 Boston 5.2
12 Jacksonville 5.2
13 Washington, D.C. 5.1
14 San Diego 5.0
15 Columbus 4.9
16 Kansas City 4.8
17 Atlanta 4.7
18 Minneapolis 4.6
19 Orlando 4.6
20 Pittsburgh 4.5
21 Nashville 4.5
22 Denver 4.5
23 Raleigh 4.5
24 Charlotte 4.5
25 Cincinnati 4.4
26 Baltimore 4.4
27 Detroit 4.3
28 Salt Lake City 4.3
29 Richmond 4.3
United States 4.3
30 Hartford 4.3
31 San Jose 4.3
32 Indianapolis 4.2
33 Philadelphia 4.2
34 Phoenix 4.2
35 New Orleans 4.1
36 Cleveland 4.0
37 Austin 4.0
38 Buffalo 3.8
39 Tampa 3.7
40 Los Angeles 3.6
41 Milwaukee 3.5
42 Riverside 3.4
43 Dallas 3.4
44 New York 3.4
45 Miami 3.3
46 Memphis 3.2
47 Chicago 3.2
48 Birmingham 3.2
49 Houston 3.0
50 San Antonio 2.8
Multiracial Population (Not Hispanic or Latino)
Percent of population identifying as two or more races, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Oklahoma City 3.3
2 Phoenix 2.3
3 Salt Lake City 2.1
4 Seattle 2.0
5 Las Vegas 1.8
6 Portland 1.7
7 Providence 1.6
8 San Francisco 1.6
9 Sacramento 1.6
10 Boston 1.3
11 San Diego 1.3
United States 1.3
12 New York 1.2
13 Virginia Beach 1.1
14 San Jose 1.1
15 Orlando 1.1
16 New Orleans 1.1
17 Denver 1.0
18 Richmond 1.0
19 Riverside 1.0
20 Tampa 0.9
21 Los Angeles 0.9
22 Jacksonville 0.8
23 Atlanta 0.8
24 Minneapolis 0.8
25 Raleigh 0.8
26 Washington, D.C. 0.8
27 Kansas City 0.8
28 Buffalo 0.7
29 Miami 0.7
30 Philadelphia 0.7
31 Dallas 0.7
32 Chicago 0.7
33 Austin 0.7
34 San Antonio 0.7
35 Baltimore 0.7
36 Birmingham 0.7
37 Indianapolis 0.7
38 Detroit 0.6
39 Charlotte 0.6
40 Memphis 0.6
41 Cincinnati 0.6
42 Columbus 0.6
43 St. Louis 0.6
44 Houston 0.6
45 Pittsburgh 0.6
46 Cleveland 0.6
47 Hartford 0.5
48 Louisville 0.5
49 Nashville 0.5
50 Milwaukee 0.5
Immigrant Population
Percent of total population, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B05012)
1 Miami 41.5
2 San Jose 39.6
3 Los Angeles 32.6
4 San Francisco 31.2
5 New York 29.4
6 Houston 24.1
7 Washington, D.C. 23.0
8 San Diego 22.4
9 Riverside 21.7
10 Las Vegas 21.3
11 Orlando 20.1
12 Seattle 20.0
13 Boston 19.5
14 Dallas 19.1
15 Sacramento 18.8
16 Chicago 17.8
17 Austin 15.7
18 Tampa 14.8
19 Providence 14.2
20 Atlanta 13.8
United States 13.6
21 Phoenix 13.4
22 Hartford 13.4
23 Raleigh 12.6
24 Portland 12.5
25 Denver 12.3
26 Salt Lake City 12.2
27 San Antonio 12.1
28 Philadelphia 11.3
29 Baltimore 11.0
30 Minneapolis 10.8
31 Charlotte 10.6
32 Jacksonville 10.0
33 Detroit 10.0
34 Columbus 9.6
35 Nashville 8.5
36 Indianapolis 7.8
37 Richmond 7.8
38 New Orleans 7.8
39 Oklahoma City 7.7
40 Milwaukee 7.4
41 Louisville 6.9
42 Kansas City 6.9
43 Virginia Beach 6.4
44 Buffalo 6.3
45 Cleveland 5.9
46 Memphis 5.6
47 Cincinnati 5.2
48 St. Louis 4.7
49 Pittsburgh 4.1
50 Birmingham 3.6
Change in Immigrant Population
Percent change, 2018-2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B05012)
1 Indianapolis 17.3
2 Raleigh 15.2
3 Austin 13.3
4 Louisville 12.3
5 Providence 11.1
6 Columbus 10.1
7 Orlando 10.0
8 Charlotte 9.9
9 Baltimore 7.6
10 Tampa 5.9
11 Seattle 5.7
12 Houston 5.2
13 Denver 4.8
14 Dallas 4.7
15 Nashville 4.2
16 Pittsburgh 4.1
17 Cincinnati 4.0
18 Jacksonville 3.5
19 San Antonio 3.5
20 Memphis 2.9
21 Atlanta 2.8
22 Washington, D.C. 2.4
23 Riverside 2.0
24 Philadelphia 1.5
25 Boston 1.3
United States 1.2
26 Chicago 1.0
27 Minneapolis 1.0
28 Kansas City 0.9
29 Hartford 0.7
30 San Jose 0.6
31 New Orleans 0.6
32 New York 0.2
33 San Francisco 0.0
34 Sacramento -0.1
35 Cleveland -0.9
36 Miami -1.1
37 Las Vegas -1.6
38 Virginia Beach -2.2
39 Detroit -2.5
40 Portland -2.8
41 Salt Lake City -3.3
42 Los Angeles -3.5
43 Oklahoma City -3.5
44 Milwaukee -3.7
45 Richmond -3.8
46 Phoenix -4.4
47 San Diego -6.6
48 St. Louis -8.0
49 Birmingham -8.5
50 Buffalo -9.4

St. Louis has an aging population with one of the oldest median ages among the peer regions. The age of the population has important implications for the workforce and social service programs.

Median Age
2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01002)
1 Pittsburgh 42.8
2 Tampa 42.3
3 Miami 42.0
4 Cleveland 41.3
5 Providence 40.8
6 Buffalo 40.8
7 Hartford 40.6
8 Detroit 40.3
9 San Francisco 40.2
10 St. Louis 40.0
11 Jacksonville 39.5
12 New York 39.5
13 Louisville 39.5
14 Birmingham 39.4
15 New Orleans 39.4
16 Philadelphia 39.3
17 Richmond 39.2
18 Boston 39.2
19 Portland 39.1
20 Baltimore 38.9
United States 38.8
21 Milwaukee 38.5
22 Chicago 38.5
23 Orlando 38.5
24 Sacramento 38.2
25 Los Angeles 38.1
26 San Jose 38.1
27 Cincinnati 38.1
28 Charlotte 38.1
29 Las Vegas 38.1
30 Minneapolis 38.0
31 Washington, D.C. 37.9
32 Kansas City 37.9
33 Raleigh 37.7
34 Phoenix 37.6
35 Seattle 37.5
36 Denver 37.3
37 Atlanta 37.2
38 Nashville 37.2
39 Virginia Beach 37.1
40 Indianapolis 37.0
41 San Diego 36.9
42 Memphis 36.6
43 Columbus 36.6
44 Oklahoma City 36.1
45 Austin 35.9
46 San Antonio 35.7
47 Dallas 35.6
48 Riverside 35.4
49 Houston 35.3
50 Salt Lake City 33.6
Children
Population under age 18 as a percent of total population, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Salt Lake City 26.2
2 Houston 26.2
3 Dallas 25.4
4 Riverside 25.3
5 Memphis 24.6
6 San Antonio 24.6
7 Indianapolis 24.4
8 Oklahoma City 24.2
9 Kansas City 23.8
10 Atlanta 23.7
11 Raleigh 23.4
12 Columbus 23.4
13 Minneapolis 23.3
14 Cincinnati 23.3
15 Charlotte 23.2
16 Phoenix 23.0
17 Milwaukee 22.8
18 Birmingham 22.8
19 Washington, D.C. 22.8
20 Las Vegas 22.7
21 Nashville 22.7
22 Sacramento 22.5
23 Chicago 22.3
24 Jacksonville 22.3
25 Louisville 22.2
26 New Orleans 22.2
27 Austin 22.2
United States 22.1
28 Virginia Beach 22.0
29 St. Louis 22.0
30 Baltimore 21.9
31 Detroit 21.8
32 Orlando 21.5
33 Philadelphia 21.5
34 Denver 21.5
35 Richmond 21.4
36 New York 21.4
37 San Jose 21.3
38 San Diego 21.3
39 Los Angeles 21.2
40 Seattle 21.1
41 Cleveland 20.8
42 Portland 20.6
43 Buffalo 20.1
44 Miami 20.1
45 Hartford 19.7
46 Tampa 19.7
47 Providence 19.5
48 San Francisco 19.5
49 Boston 19.4
50 Pittsburgh 18.9
Change in Children
Percentage point change in population under age 18 as a percent of total population, 2011-2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Oklahoma City -0.7
2 Baltimore -0.8
3 Birmingham -0.8
4 Washington, D.C. -0.8
5 Pittsburgh -1.0
6 New Orleans -1.1
7 Jacksonville -1.1
8 Buffalo -1.1
9 Columbus -1.1
10 Tampa -1.2
11 New York -1.2
12 Miami -1.2
13 Virginia Beach -1.2
14 Minneapolis -1.4
15 Seattle -1.4
16 Kansas City -1.5
17 Nashville -1.5
18 Memphis -1.5
19 Cincinnati -1.5
20 Houston -1.5
21 Philadelphia -1.5
22 St. Louis -1.6
23 San Francisco -1.6
24 Louisville -1.6
25 Milwaukee -1.6
United States -1.6
26 Orlando -1.6
27 Indianapolis -1.6
28 Providence -1.7
29 Richmond -1.7
30 Boston -1.8
31 San Diego -1.9
32 Cleveland -1.9
33 Sacramento -1.9
34 Detroit -2.0
35 San Antonio -2.0
36 Las Vegas -2.1
37 Hartford -2.2
38 Dallas -2.3
39 Atlanta -2.4
40 Raleigh -2.5
41 Chicago -2.5
42 Charlotte -2.6
43 San Jose -2.7
44 Portland -2.7
45 Los Angeles -2.9
46 Austin -3.0
47 Riverside -3.0
48 Phoenix -3.0
49 Salt Lake City -3.2
50 Denver -3.2
Young Adults
Population aged 18 - 34 as a percent of total population, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Austin 26.2
2 San Diego 25.8
3 Salt Lake City 25.7
4 Virginia Beach 25.1
5 Denver 24.8
6 Seattle 24.7
7 Boston 24.6
8 Los Angeles 24.3
9 San Antonio 24.3
10 Columbus 24.3
11 Oklahoma City 24.2
12 Riverside 24.2
13 Nashville 24.1
14 San Jose 23.9
15 Dallas 23.8
16 Orlando 23.7
17 Phoenix 23.5
18 Houston 23.3
19 Atlanta 23.1
20 Providence 23.0
21 Memphis 23.0
22 Portland 23.0
23 Raleigh 22.9
24 Sacramento 22.9
25 Hartford 22.9
26 Chicago 22.8
27 Indianapolis 22.8
28 Richmond 22.8
29 Las Vegas 22.7
30 Philadelphia 22.7
United States 22.7
31 Washington, D.C. 22.6
32 Cincinnati 22.6
33 San Francisco 22.5
34 Baltimore 22.5
35 New York 22.4
36 Milwaukee 22.3
37 Buffalo 22.3
38 Charlotte 22.3
39 Minneapolis 22.2
40 Louisville 22.1
41 Birmingham 21.9
42 Kansas City 21.8
43 Jacksonville 21.7
44 Detroit 21.7
45 St. Louis 21.3
46 Cleveland 21.3
47 New Orleans 21.1
48 Pittsburgh 21.1
49 Tampa 20.6
50 Miami 20.5
Working-Age Adults
Population aged 18 - 64 as a percent of total population, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Austin 66.2
2 Seattle 64.9
3 Denver 64.8
4 San Jose 64.2
5 Boston 64.0
6 Los Angeles 64.0
7 San Diego 63.9
8 San Francisco 63.8
9 Raleigh 63.6
10 Portland 63.5
11 Nashville 63.3
12 Washington, D.C. 63.3
13 Atlanta 63.1
14 Orlando 62.9
15 Dallas 62.8
16 Columbus 62.7
17 Charlotte 62.5
18 Virginia Beach 62.5
19 Providence 62.4
20 Salt Lake City 62.3
21 Hartford 62.2
22 Chicago 62.1
23 Richmond 62.0
24 New York 61.9
25 Las Vegas 61.9
26 San Antonio 61.8
27 Baltimore 61.8
28 Houston 61.8
29 Philadelphia 61.7
30 Minneapolis 61.7
31 Indianapolis 61.3
32 Sacramento 61.3
33 Riverside 61.2
34 Oklahoma City 61.1
United States 61.0
35 Louisville 61.0
36 Miami 60.9
37 Jacksonville 60.9
38 Detroit 60.8
39 Cincinnati 60.8
40 Buffalo 60.8
41 Phoenix 60.8
42 Milwaukee 60.7
43 New Orleans 60.5
44 St. Louis 60.5
45 Kansas City 60.5
46 Birmingham 60.5
47 Memphis 60.4
48 Pittsburgh 60.3
49 Tampa 60.2
50 Cleveland 59.8
Seniors
Population aged 65 and older as a percent of total population, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Pittsburgh 20.8
2 Tampa 20.2
3 Cleveland 19.4
4 Buffalo 19.1
5 Miami 19.0
6 Hartford 18.2
7 Providence 18.0
8 St. Louis 17.6
9 Detroit 17.3
10 New Orleans 17.3
United States 16.8
11 Louisville 16.8
12 Philadelphia 16.8
13 Jacksonville 16.8
14 Birmingham 16.7
15 New York 16.7
16 San Francisco 16.7
17 Richmond 16.6
18 Boston 16.5
19 Milwaukee 16.5
20 Baltimore 16.3
21 Phoenix 16.3
22 Sacramento 16.2
23 Cincinnati 15.9
24 Portland 15.9
25 Kansas City 15.7
26 Chicago 15.6
27 Orlando 15.5
28 Virginia Beach 15.5
29 Las Vegas 15.4
30 Minneapolis 15.0
31 Memphis 14.9
32 Los Angeles 14.9
33 San Diego 14.9
34 Oklahoma City 14.7
35 San Jose 14.4
36 Indianapolis 14.3
37 Charlotte 14.3
38 Nashville 14.1
39 Seattle 14.0
40 Washington, D.C. 14.0
41 Columbus 13.9
42 Denver 13.8
43 Riverside 13.6
44 San Antonio 13.6
45 Atlanta 13.1
46 Raleigh 12.9
47 Houston 12.1
48 Dallas 11.9
49 Austin 11.7
50 Salt Lake City 11.5

St. Louis has a slightly larger proportion of the population that is disabled, relative to the peer regions. The percentages of seniors and children with disabilities in the region are similar to that of the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the working-age population with a disability is slightly higher in the St. Louis region compared to the peer regions.

Disability Rate
Percent of total population, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 Birmingham 15.3
2 San Antonio 15.1
3 Oklahoma City 15.1
4 New Orleans 15.0
5 Cleveland 14.8
6 Louisville 14.3
7 Buffalo 14.2
8 Pittsburgh 14.2
9 Tampa 14.1
10 Providence 13.9
11 Virginia Beach 13.8
12 St. Louis 13.5
13 Richmond 13.4
14 Detroit 13.4
15 Cincinnati 13.1
United States 13.0
16 Portland 13.0
17 Jacksonville 13.0
18 Philadelphia 12.8
19 Indianapolis 12.6
20 Memphis 12.6
21 Las Vegas 12.5
22 Kansas City 12.4
23 Phoenix 12.4
24 Hartford 12.3
25 Baltimore 12.1
26 Columbus 11.9
27 Orlando 11.9
28 Sacramento 11.8
29 Riverside 11.6
30 Milwaukee 11.6
31 Miami 11.1
32 Nashville 11.1
33 Atlanta 11.0
34 Seattle 11.0
35 Charlotte 10.7
36 Chicago 10.6
37 San Francisco 10.6
38 Minneapolis 10.5
39 San Diego 10.5
40 New York 10.5
41 Raleigh 10.5
42 Boston 10.4
43 Houston 10.4
44 Salt Lake City 10.3
45 Los Angeles 10.3
46 Denver 10.2
47 Dallas 10.2
48 Austin 10.1
49 Washington, D.C. 9.3
50 San Jose 9.1
Children with Disabilities
Percent of population aged 18 and younger, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 San Antonio 6.7
2 Pittsburgh 6.3
3 Providence 6.1
4 Virginia Beach 5.9
5 New Orleans 5.6
6 Orlando 5.5
7 Cleveland 5.5
8 Jacksonville 5.4
9 Buffalo 5.4
10 Philadelphia 5.4
11 Columbus 5.4
12 Indianapolis 5.3
13 Richmond 5.3
14 Oklahoma City 5.2
15 Hartford 5.2
16 Tampa 5.1
17 Phoenix 5.1
18 Birmingham 5.0
19 Cincinnati 4.8
20 Portland 4.7
21 St. Louis 4.7
22 Salt Lake City 4.7
23 Kansas City 4.7
United States 4.6
24 Atlanta 4.6
25 Milwaukee 4.5
26 Raleigh 4.5
27 Louisville 4.4
28 Detroit 4.4
29 Austin 4.4
30 Memphis 4.4
31 Baltimore 4.3
32 Minneapolis 4.3
33 Riverside 4.3
34 Dallas 4.3
35 Houston 4.2
36 Las Vegas 4.1
37 Boston 4.0
38 San Diego 4.0
39 Seattle 3.8
40 Denver 3.8
41 Chicago 3.7
42 Nashville 3.6
43 San Francisco 3.6
44 Miami 3.6
45 Washington, D.C. 3.5
46 Charlotte 3.5
47 New York 3.4
48 Los Angeles 3.3
49 Sacramento 3.3
50 San Jose 3.2
Working-Age Adults with Disabilities
Percent of adults aged 18 - 64, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 San Antonio 13.7
2 Oklahoma City 13.5
3 Birmingham 13.5
4 New Orleans 12.5
5 Cleveland 12.3
6 Louisville 12.1
7 Buffalo 11.9
8 Virginia Beach 11.8
9 Providence 11.6
10 Memphis 11.4
11 St. Louis 11.4
12 Richmond 11.3
13 Detroit 11.2
14 Portland 11.1
15 Cincinnati 11.0
16 Pittsburgh 10.9
17 Jacksonville 10.9
18 Indianapolis 10.9
19 Tampa 10.9
United States 10.7
20 Philadelphia 10.6
21 Kansas City 10.4
22 Las Vegas 10.3
23 Phoenix 10.1
24 Milwaukee 10.1
25 Baltimore 10.1
26 Hartford 10.1
27 Columbus 10.0
28 Sacramento 9.9
29 Riverside 9.6
30 Orlando 9.5
31 Salt Lake City 9.4
32 Nashville 9.3
33 Atlanta 9.2
34 Minneapolis 9.0
35 Charlotte 8.9
36 Seattle 8.8
37 Dallas 8.6
38 Houston 8.6
39 Raleigh 8.4
40 Chicago 8.4
41 Denver 8.3
42 Austin 8.2
43 San Diego 8.0
44 New York 7.7
45 San Francisco 7.7
46 Boston 7.6
47 Los Angeles 7.6
48 Miami 7.6
49 Washington, D.C. 7.5
50 San Jose 6.2
Seniors with Disabilities
Percent of adults aged 65 and older, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B18101)
1 Oklahoma City 38.1
2 San Antonio 37.5
3 Birmingham 36.0
4 New Orleans 35.9
5 Louisville 35.8
6 Riverside 34.1
7 Cincinnati 33.7
8 Las Vegas 33.6
9 Cleveland 33.1
10 Virginia Beach 33.0
11 Houston 32.9
12 Indianapolis 32.8
13 Tampa 32.7
14 Detroit 32.7
United States 32.6
15 Kansas City 32.5
16 St. Louis 32.3
17 Los Angeles 32.1
18 Columbus 32.0
19 Austin 31.8
20 Seattle 31.8
21 Richmond 31.6
22 Atlanta 31.6
23 Raleigh 31.6
24 Portland 31.5
25 Sacramento 31.4
26 Memphis 31.4
27 Buffalo 31.2
28 Dallas 31.1
29 Nashville 31.1
30 Phoenix 31.1
31 Pittsburgh 31.0
32 Providence 30.9
33 San Jose 30.8
34 Charlotte 30.8
35 Miami 30.8
36 Philadelphia 30.7
37 Jacksonville 30.6
38 New York 30.5
39 Orlando 30.5
40 San Diego 30.4
41 San Francisco 30.2
42 Baltimore 30.2
43 Chicago 29.9
44 Denver 29.6
45 Boston 29.3
46 Salt Lake City 28.3
47 Hartford 28.0
48 Washington, D.C. 27.2
49 Milwaukee 27.1
50 Minneapolis 26.9

The composition of households in the United States has changed in the past few decades, including smaller household sizes and an increasing proportion of non-family households, which is in part due to more people over the age of 65 living alone.

Average Household Size
2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11002, B11001)
1 Riverside 3.2
2 Los Angeles 2.9
3 San Jose 2.9
4 Salt Lake City 2.8
5 San Diego 2.7
6 Houston 2.7
7 Dallas 2.7
8 San Antonio 2.7
9 Sacramento 2.7
10 Orlando 2.7
11 Atlanta 2.7
12 Las Vegas 2.7
13 San Francisco 2.6
14 New York 2.6
15 Washington, D.C. 2.6
16 Phoenix 2.6
17 Miami 2.6
18 Raleigh 2.6
19 Chicago 2.5
20 Charlotte 2.5
United States 2.5
21 Memphis 2.5
22 Indianapolis 2.5
23 Birmingham 2.5
24 Minneapolis 2.5
25 Oklahoma City 2.5
26 Jacksonville 2.5
27 Nashville 2.5
28 Seattle 2.5
29 Philadelphia 2.5
30 Baltimore 2.5
31 Richmond 2.5
32 Portland 2.5
33 Denver 2.5
34 Boston 2.5
35 Kansas City 2.5
36 Detroit 2.5
37 Columbus 2.5
38 Cincinnati 2.5
39 New Orleans 2.4
40 Tampa 2.4
41 Austin 2.4
42 Virginia Beach 2.4
43 Louisville 2.4
44 St. Louis 2.4
45 Providence 2.4
46 Hartford 2.4
47 Milwaukee 2.4
48 Cleveland 2.3
49 Buffalo 2.3
50 Pittsburgh 2.2
Family Households
Percent of all households, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B01001)
1 Riverside 75.2
2 San Jose 70.4
3 Houston 69.8
4 San Antonio 69.2
5 Dallas 68.6
6 Orlando 68.1
7 Atlanta 67.3
8 Raleigh 67.3
9 Salt Lake City 67.1
10 Los Angeles 66.9
11 Phoenix 66.4
12 Sacramento 66.2
13 Virginia Beach 65.9
14 San Diego 65.6
15 Charlotte 65.6
16 Jacksonville 65.3
17 Miami 64.9
18 New York 64.7
United States 64.7
19 Baltimore 64.6
20 Kansas City 64.6
21 Oklahoma City 64.6
22 Indianapolis 64.3
23 Nashville 64.1
24 Washington, D.C. 64.1
25 Birmingham 64.0
26 San Francisco 63.9
27 Columbus 63.8
28 Chicago 63.7
29 Philadelphia 63.5
30 Memphis 63.4
31 Las Vegas 63.4
32 Detroit 63.2
33 Seattle 63.1
34 Louisville 62.9
35 Richmond 62.8
36 Hartford 62.8
37 St. Louis 62.8
38 Minneapolis 62.6
39 Cincinnati 62.3
40 Providence 62.3
41 Portland 62.2
42 Boston 62.2
43 Denver 61.3
44 Milwaukee 61.3
45 New Orleans 60.7
46 Tampa 60.7
47 Austin 59.9
48 Pittsburgh 59.6
49 Buffalo 58.3
50 Cleveland 58.3
Families with Children
Percent of all households, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11003)
1 Riverside 32.8
2 Houston 32.7
3 Dallas 32.0
4 Salt Lake City 31.8
5 San Antonio 31.2
6 San Jose 30.7
7 Raleigh 30.7
8 Atlanta 29.0
9 Columbus 29.0
10 Washington, D.C. 28.6
11 Oklahoma City 28.5
12 Orlando 28.2
13 Indianapolis 28.1
14 Kansas City 28.0
15 Sacramento 28.0
16 Charlotte 28.0
17 Minneapolis 27.9
18 Austin 27.8
19 Virginia Beach 27.8
20 Phoenix 27.6
21 Nashville 27.3
22 San Diego 27.3
23 Seattle 27.1
24 Memphis 27.0
25 Cincinnati 26.8
26 Chicago 26.8
27 Las Vegas 26.8
28 Milwaukee 26.5
29 Los Angeles 26.5
30 San Francisco 26.4
United States 26.3
31 Baltimore 26.3
32 New York 26.1
33 Jacksonville 26.1
34 Denver 26.0
35 Portland 25.9
36 St. Louis 25.7
37 Philadelphia 25.7
38 Hartford 25.7
39 Boston 25.7
40 Detroit 25.6
41 Louisville 25.5
42 Richmond 25.5
43 Miami 24.8
44 Birmingham 24.7
45 New Orleans 24.4
46 Providence 24.0
47 Buffalo 23.4
48 Cleveland 22.9
49 Pittsburgh 22.6
50 Tampa 21.6
Single Parent Families
Percent of family households with children, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11003)
1 Memphis 43.2
2 New Orleans 40.6
3 Las Vegas 38.5
4 Milwaukee 38.5
5 Cleveland 38.4
6 Virginia Beach 38.1
7 Buffalo 37.9
8 Miami 36.6
9 Jacksonville 36.3
10 Tampa 35.4
11 Providence 35.0
12 Louisville 34.8
13 Detroit 34.6
14 San Antonio 34.5
15 Columbus 34.4
16 Birmingham 33.9
17 St. Louis 33.3
18 Philadelphia 33.0
19 Baltimore 32.5
20 Orlando 32.5
21 Riverside 32.4
22 Oklahoma City 32.3
23 Phoenix 32.3
24 Cincinnati 32.3
United States 32.0
25 Atlanta 31.8
26 Hartford 31.8
27 Charlotte 31.4
28 Los Angeles 31.0
29 Richmond 30.6
30 Pittsburgh 30.5
31 Chicago 30.0
32 Houston 29.9
33 Indianapolis 29.5
34 New York 29.3
35 Kansas City 29.2
36 Dallas 28.5
37 Sacramento 28.2
38 Portland 28.0
39 Nashville 27.4
40 San Diego 27.3
41 Denver 27.2
42 Boston 26.8
43 Minneapolis 26.1
44 Washington, D.C. 25.6
45 Salt Lake City 24.2
46 Raleigh 23.9
47 Seattle 23.6
48 San Francisco 22.9
49 Austin 22.2
50 San Jose 20.5
Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren
Households where a grandparent is responsible for own grandchildren as a percent of households with children, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B10063, B11003)
1 Birmingham 6.9
2 Memphis 5.9
3 New Orleans 5.5
4 Nashville 5.0
5 Virginia Beach 4.8
6 Cincinnati 4.7
7 Jacksonville 4.7
8 Oklahoma City 4.7
9 Cleveland 4.6
10 Tampa 4.6
11 Charlotte 4.3
12 San Antonio 4.3
13 Baltimore 4.2
14 Louisville 4.2
15 Atlanta 4.2
United States 4.1
16 Houston 4.1
17 Los Angeles 4.0
18 Riverside 3.9
19 Richmond 3.9
20 Phoenix 3.9
21 Las Vegas 3.9
22 Philadelphia 3.8
23 Detroit 3.7
24 Indianapolis 3.6
25 Columbus 3.5
26 Sacramento 3.5
27 Providence 3.4
28 St. Louis 3.4
29 Pittsburgh 3.4
30 Dallas 3.4
31 Miami 3.3
32 San Diego 3.3
33 New York 3.3
34 Austin 3.0
35 Orlando 3.0
36 San Francisco 2.9
37 Washington, D.C. 2.9
38 Buffalo 2.9
39 Hartford 2.8
40 Raleigh 2.8
41 Kansas City 2.8
42 Seattle 2.8
43 Denver 2.7
44 Chicago 2.7
45 Boston 2.6
46 Milwaukee 2.3
47 Salt Lake City 2.2
48 San Jose 2.1
49 Minneapolis 1.8
50 Portland 1.7
Persons Aged 65 and Older Living Alone
Percent of all households, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B11010, B11001)
1 Buffalo 15.0
2 Cleveland 14.6
3 Pittsburgh 14.5
4 Tampa 13.0
5 Hartford 12.9
6 Providence 12.8
7 Miami 12.2
8 St. Louis 12.2
9 Detroit 12.2
10 Milwaukee 12.0
11 New Orleans 12.0
12 Birmingham 11.9
13 Philadelphia 11.9
14 New York 11.8
15 Richmond 11.7
16 Baltimore 11.4
United States 11.3
17 Cincinnati 11.2
18 Boston 11.2
19 Louisville 11.1
20 Chicago 11.1
21 Memphis 10.8
22 Minneapolis 10.8
23 San Francisco 10.6
24 Sacramento 10.5
25 Oklahoma City 10.2
26 Las Vegas 10.1
27 Portland 10.1
28 Jacksonville 9.9
29 Virginia Beach 9.9
30 Phoenix 9.9
31 Kansas City 9.7
32 Indianapolis 9.6
33 Washington, D.C. 9.2
34 San Diego 9.2
35 Columbus 9.0
36 Nashville 8.8
37 Los Angeles 8.8
38 Riverside 8.6
39 Denver 8.6
40 Charlotte 8.5
41 Orlando 8.5
42 Seattle 8.4
43 San Antonio 8.4
44 Atlanta 8.4
45 Raleigh 8.0
46 San Jose 7.8
47 Houston 7.4
48 Salt Lake City 7.2
49 Dallas 7.1
50 Austin 7.0

Land Use

Land use is important to community planning and economic development. It is also important to the environmental quality of a region. This section highlights St. Louis’ relatively low-population density, dispersed development patterns, and large amount of farmland. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

The St. Louis region has low-population density relative to the peer regions, particularly in the central city, with a relatively large proportion of the population living in rural parts of the region.

Population Density
Population per square mile, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates; Decennial Census
1 Los Angeles 2,726
2 New York 2,399
3 San Francisco 1,915
4 Boston 1,397
5 Philadelphia 1,326
6 Chicago 1,314
7 Tampa 1,271
8 Miami 1,215
9 Detroit 1,111
10 Milwaukee 1,083
11 Baltimore 1,076
12 Cleveland 1,026
13 Providence 1,024
14 Washington, D.C. 1,004
15 Houston 856
16 Dallas 823
17 Hartford 796
18 San Diego 794
19 Orlando 750
20 San Jose 743
21 Buffalo 721
22 Atlanta 693
23 Seattle 678
24 Raleigh 657
Peer Average 650
25 Virginia Beach 644
26 Austin 528
27 Cincinnati 527
28 Charlotte 516
29 Jacksonville 487
30 Indianapolis 482
31 Minneapolis 477
32 Sacramento 464
33 Columbus 442
34 Pittsburgh 439
35 New Orleans 397
36 Portland 373
37 Louisville 360
38 St. Louis 356
39 Denver 356
40 San Antonio 349
41 Phoenix 340
42 Nashville 307
43 Kansas City 297
44 Las Vegas 287
45 Richmond 281
46 Memphis 270
47 Oklahoma City 256
48 Birmingham 219
49 Riverside 171
50 Salt Lake City 160
Urbanized Area Density
Population per square mile, 2010
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Decennial Census
1 Los Angeles 6,576
2 San Jose 5,328
3 San Francisco 5,109
4 New York 4,986
5 Las Vegas 4,525
6 Miami 4,447
7 San Diego 4,003
8 Sacramento 3,725
9 Salt Lake City 3,686
10 Denver 3,543
11 Portland 3,519
12 Chicago 3,404
13 Washington, D.C. 3,226
14 Riverside 3,162
15 Phoenix 3,079
Peer Average 3,007
16 Seattle 2,942
17 San Antonio 2,942
18 New Orleans 2,882
19 Dallas 2,831
20 Houston 2,808
21 Baltimore 2,744
22 Philadelphia 2,680
23 Virginia Beach 2,652
24 Columbus 2,613
25 Detroit 2,600
26 Minneapolis 2,595
27 Austin 2,577
28 Milwaukee 2,499
29 Buffalo 2,463
30 Tampa 2,382
31 Cleveland 2,352
32 Orlando 2,295
33 St. Louis 2,284
34 Kansas City 2,231
35 Boston 2,153
36 Memphis 2,132
37 Providence 2,128
38 Oklahoma City 2,119
39 Indianapolis 2,046
40 Louisville 2,040
41 Cincinnati 2,018
42 Jacksonville 1,978
43 Richmond 1,937
44 Pittsburgh 1,872
45 Nashville 1,721
46 Raleigh 1,715
47 Atlanta 1,702
48 Hartford 1,665
49 Charlotte 1,508
50 Birmingham 1,414
Largest City Share of MSA Population
Percent of total population, 2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 San Antonio 60.9
2 Jacksonville 58.9
3 San Jose 51.5
4 Memphis 48.2
5 Louisville 47.8
6 Oklahoma City 46.5
7 Austin 44.5
8 San Diego 42.7
9 Columbus 42.4
10 Indianapolis 42.3
11 New York 42.0
12 Milwaukee 37.6
13 Nashville 34.6
14 Raleigh 34.4
15 Phoenix 34.2
16 Charlotte 34.0
17 Houston 33.2
18 New Orleans 30.8
19 Los Angeles 30.0
20 Las Vegas 28.9
21 Chicago 28.5
22 Portland 26.3
Peer Average 26.1
23 Virginia Beach 26.0
24 Philadelphia 26.0
25 Denver 24.4
26 Kansas City 22.9
27 Buffalo 22.7
28 Sacramento 21.7
29 Baltimore 21.5
30 Seattle 18.9
31 San Francisco 18.7
32 Cleveland 18.7
33 Birmingham 18.2
34 Dallas 17.8
35 Richmond 17.5
36 Salt Lake City 16.4
37 Detroit 15.5
38 Boston 14.2
39 Cincinnati 13.8
40 Pittsburgh 12.9
41 Tampa 12.5
42 Minneapolis 11.7
43 Washington, D.C. 11.2
44 Orlando 11.1
45 Providence 11.1
46 St. Louis 10.8
47 Hartford 10.2
48 Atlanta 8.4
49 Miami 7.6
50 Riverside 7.1
Change in Largest City Share of Population
Percentage difference, 2010-2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 New Orleans 1.9
2 Seattle 1.2
3 Columbus 0.9
4 Denver 0.9
5 Charlotte 0.8
6 Boston 0.7
7 Richmond 0.6
8 San Diego 0.6
9 Washington, D.C. 0.6
10 Los Angeles 0.5
11 Tampa 0.4
12 Miami 0.4
13 Philadelphia 0.4
14 Atlanta 0.3
15 Minneapolis 0.3
16 New York 0.3
17 Oklahoma City 0.2
18 Portland 0.1
19 San Francisco 0.1
20 Kansas City 0.1
21 Chicago -0.0
22 Pittsburgh -0.0
23 Sacramento -0.0
24 Providence -0.0
25 Riverside -0.1
26 Virginia Beach -0.1
27 Orlando -0.1
Peer Average -0.1
28 Hartford -0.1
29 Cincinnati -0.2
30 San Jose -0.3
31 Phoenix -0.3
32 Buffalo -0.3
33 Louisville -0.4
34 Cleveland -0.4
35 Birmingham -0.6
36 Milwaukee -0.6
37 St. Louis -0.7
38 Salt Lake City -0.7
39 Dallas -0.8
40 Memphis -1.0
41 Detroit -1.1
42 Las Vegas -1.1
43 San Antonio -1.1
44 Indianapolis -1.1
45 Raleigh -1.3
46 Baltimore -1.4
47 Nashville -1.5
48 Houston -2.1
49 Jacksonville -2.2
50 Austin -2.3
Rural Population
Percent of total population, 2010
Source: Missouri Census Data Center
1 Birmingham 28.8
2 Nashville 24.1
3 Richmond 20.3
United States 19.3
4 Charlotte 18.5
5 Oklahoma City 18.3
6 Pittsburgh 17.8
7 Raleigh 17.2
8 Louisville 17.1
9 Columbus 16.5
10 Memphis 15.3
11 Cincinnati 14.1
12 San Antonio 13.8
13 St. Louis 13.2
14 Austin 12.8
15 Indianapolis 12.4
16 Minneapolis 12.4
17 Kansas City 12.3
18 Hartford 12.2
19 Buffalo 11.9
20 Jacksonville 11.2
21 Atlanta 11.1
22 Portland 9.9
23 Providence 9.5
24 Baltimore 9.0
25 Virginia Beach 8.7
26 Cleveland 8.1
27 Washington, D.C. 7.8
28 Dallas 7.4
29 New Orleans 7.2
30 Sacramento 7.2
31 Detroit 6.8
32 Milwaukee 6.6
33 Houston 6.5
34 Denver 5.7
35 Seattle 5.6
36 Boston 5.5
37 Orlando 5.4
38 Philadelphia 5.1
39 Riverside 4.7
40 Tampa 4.4
41 Phoenix 4.1
42 San Diego 3.3
43 New York 2.7
44 Chicago 2.6
45 Salt Lake City 1.8
46 San Jose 1.8
47 Las Vegas 1.3
48 San Francisco 1.0
49 Los Angeles 0.5
50 Miami 0.4

Development in the St. Louis region is dispersed throughout the region. The large amount of developed land per capita is an indication of low density. This development pattern has led to lower housing costs but can increase transportation costs for families and make access to amenities more challenging. For further discussion, see the Developed Land per Capita performance indicator on OneSTL.

Land Area
In square miles, 2014
Source: Missouri Census Data Center, MABLE/GeoCORR
1 Riverside 27,263
2 Phoenix 14,566
3 Dallas 9,278
4 Atlanta 8,686
5 Denver 8,346
6 New York 8,294
7 Houston 8,258
8 Las Vegas 7,891
9 St. Louis 7,863
10 Salt Lake City 7,684
11 Minneapolis 7,637
12 San Antonio 7,313
13 Kansas City 7,256
14 Chicago 7,197
15 Portland 6,684
16 Nashville 6,302
17 Washington, D.C. 6,244
18 Seattle 5,872
Peer Average 5,574
19 Oklahoma City 5,512
20 Pittsburgh 5,281
21 Birmingham 5,280
22 Sacramento 5,094
23 Miami 5,077
24 Charlotte 5,067
25 Memphis 4,984
26 Los Angeles 4,848
27 Columbus 4,796
28 Philadelphia 4,602
29 Richmond 4,576
30 Indianapolis 4,306
31 Austin 4,220
32 San Diego 4,207
33 Cincinnati 4,169
34 Detroit 3,888
35 Louisville 3,578
36 Boston 3,487
37 Orlando 3,478
38 New Orleans 3,202
39 Jacksonville 3,201
40 Virginia Beach 2,691
41 San Jose 2,679
42 Baltimore 2,601
43 Tampa 2,513
44 San Francisco 2,471
45 Raleigh 2,118
46 Cleveland 1,997
47 Providence 1,587
48 Buffalo 1,565
49 Hartford 1,515
50 Milwaukee 1,455
Developed Land per Capita
Developed acres per capita, 2016
Source: MRLS Consortium, National Land Cover Database; U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Birmingham 0.34
United States 0.33
2 Kansas City 0.32
3 Oklahoma City 0.30
4 Charlotte 0.29
5 Memphis 0.29
6 St. Louis 0.29
7 Pittsburgh 0.28
8 Nashville 0.28
9 Indianapolis 0.27
10 Jacksonville 0.27
11 Richmond 0.27
12 Cincinnati 0.24
13 Minneapolis 0.23
14 Columbus 0.23
15 Cleveland 0.23
16 Louisville 0.23
17 Atlanta 0.23
18 Hartford 0.22
19 Raleigh 0.22
20 Detroit 0.22
21 San Antonio 0.22
22 Virginia Beach 0.22
23 New Orleans 0.22
24 Orlando 0.21
25 Portland 0.21
26 Tampa 0.21
27 Milwaukee 0.21
28 Riverside 0.20
29 Houston 0.20
30 Providence 0.19
31 Austin 0.19
32 Buffalo 0.19
33 Dallas 0.19
34 Denver 0.18
35 Seattle 0.18
36 Salt Lake City 0.18
37 Phoenix 0.17
38 Chicago 0.17
39 Sacramento 0.17
40 Baltimore 0.17
41 Philadelphia 0.17
42 Boston 0.16
43 Washington 0.15
44 San Diego 0.15
45 Las Vegas 0.13
46 Miami 0.13
47 San Jose 0.11
48 San Francisco 0.10
49 New York 0.09
50 Los Angeles 0.09
Change in Developed Land per Capita
Percent change in developed acres per capita, 2011-2016
Source: MRLS Consortium, National Land Cover Database; U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates
1 Pittsburgh 2.1
2 Hartford 1.2
3 Buffalo 1.1
4 Cleveland 0.7
5 Memphis 0.4
6 St. Louis 0.3
7 Chicago 0.3
8 Providence 0.0
9 Philadelphia -0.1
10 Milwaukee -0.2
11 Birmingham -0.2
12 Detroit -0.4
13 Cincinnati -1.0
14 New York -1.0
15 Baltimore -1.1
16 Virginia Beach -1.2
17 Louisville -1.7
United States -2.1
18 Los Angeles -2.2
19 Riverside -2.4
20 New Orleans -2.8
21 Kansas City -2.8
22 Indianapolis -3.1
23 Richmond -3.3
24 Boston -3.3
25 Minneapolis -3.4
26 Las Vegas -3.6
27 Sacramento -4.0
28 Salt Lake City -4.2
29 Washington -4.4
30 Oklahoma City -4.4
31 San Diego -4.7
32 Tampa -4.7
33 Columbus -4.8
34 San Antonio -5.1
35 Jacksonville -5.5
36 Miami -5.5
37 San Jose -5.7
38 San Francisco -5.7
39 Dallas -5.7
40 Phoenix -6.2
41 Portland -6.3
42 Atlanta -6.3
43 Charlotte -6.4
44 Denver -6.6
45 Houston -6.7
46 Nashville -7.0
47 Seattle -7.7
48 Raleigh -7.8
49 Orlando -8.2
50 Austin -8.2
Rural Land Area
Percent of total land area in square miles, 2010
Source: Missouri Census Data Center
United States 97.0
1 Salt Lake City 96.1
2 Riverside 95.1
3 Las Vegas 94.4
4 Denver 91.8
5 Portland 91.1
6 Oklahoma City 91.0
7 Phoenix 91.0
8 San Antonio 91.0
9 Richmond 89.1
10 Memphis 89.0
11 Kansas City 88.9
12 Birmingham 88.7
13 Sacramento 88.3
14 Nashville 87.6
15 New Orleans 87.3
16 San Jose 87.2
17 Columbus 86.9
18 St. Louis 86.0
19 Louisville 85.8
20 Austin 85.6
21 Minneapolis 84.4
22 San Diego 81.9
23 Indianapolis 81.2
24 Seattle 81.0
25 Jacksonville 80.1
26 Pittsburgh 80.1
27 Cincinnati 78.2
28 Virginia Beach 78.2
29 Dallas 76.1
30 Charlotte 75.8
31 Houston 75.5
32 Miami 75.2
33 Orlando 74.4
34 Raleigh 73.1
35 Washington, D.C. 73.1
36 Buffalo 73.0
37 Atlanta 67.4
38 San Francisco 65.8
39 Baltimore 64.8
40 Chicago 61.9
41 Detroit 60.0
42 Los Angeles 59.8
43 Milwaukee 59.2
44 Cleveland 58.7
45 Providence 56.9
46 Hartford 56.8
47 Tampa 55.5
48 Philadelphia 53.7
49 New York 52.4
50 Boston 42.6

The St. Louis region has a relatively large amount of farmland compared to the peer regions. A majority of this land is used for crops while the remainder is woodland, pasture, and other land. Farmland is an important piece of the region’s environmental health as well as the economy.

Farmland
Acres of land in farms in thousands, 2017
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture
1 Dallas 4,082
2 San Antonio 3,657
3 Kansas City 3,126
4 St. Louis 2,780
5 Oklahoma City 2,509
6 Minneapolis 2,492
7 Denver 2,489
8 Houston 2,218
9 Chicago 2,147
10 Nashville 1,831
11 Austin 1,669
12 Columbus 1,666
13 Memphis 1,623
14 Indianapolis 1,603
15 Phoenix 1,595
16 Cincinnati 1,198
17 Washington, D.C. 1,147
Peer Average 1,136
18 Louisville 1,127
19 Sacramento 929
20 Charlotte 885
21 Atlanta 872
22 Orlando 853
23 San Jose 808
24 Pittsburgh 790
25 Richmond 669
26 Philadelphia 656
27 Portland 597
28 Miami 573
29 Detroit 550
30 San Francisco 525
31 Baltimore 520
32 Birmingham 510
33 Tampa 425
34 Salt Lake City 411
35 Raleigh 368
36 Virginia Beach 363
37 Riverside 332
38 Cleveland 310
39 Buffalo 283
40 New Orleans 263
41 San Diego 222
42 Boston 171
43 Seattle 151
44 Hartford 100
45 Los Angeles 90
46 Providence 89
Change in Farmland
Percent change in acres, 2012-2017
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture
1 Providence 20.6
2 New Orleans 14.5
3 Baltimore 5.8
4 Louisville 5.5
5 Virginia Beach 4.2
Peer Average 3.9
6 Memphis 3.1
7 Richmond 3.1
8 Cleveland 2.0
9 Atlanta 1.9
10 Oklahoma City 1.7
11 San Antonio 0.4
12 Philadelphia 0.4
13 San Diego 0.3
14 Sacramento 0.2
15 Dallas 0.2
16 San Francisco 0.1
17 Kansas City 0.1
18 Orlando -0.0
19 Denver -0.1
20 Birmingham -0.7
21 Buffalo -0.8
22 Detroit -1.4
23 Cincinnati -1.5
24 Nashville -2.0
25 San Jose -3.1
26 Pittsburgh -3.3
27 Salt Lake City -3.4
28 Phoenix -3.4
29 Washington, D.C. -3.8
30 Chicago -3.8
31 Minneapolis -4.1
32 St. Louis -4.6
33 Columbus -4.6
34 Austin -4.8
35 Indianapolis -5.1
36 Tampa -5.6
37 Charlotte -5.7
38 Miami -6.0
39 Raleigh -7.0
40 Portland -7.3
41 Seattle -9.4
42 Boston -10.3
43 Houston -17.2
44 Hartford -20.6
45 Riverside -21.2
46 Los Angeles -40.7
Organic Farms
Number of farms using organic practices, 2017
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture
1 San Diego 358
2 Riverside 228
3 Minneapolis 164
4 Sacramento 156
5 Portland 137
6 New York 123
7 San Francisco 99
8 Boston 93
9 San Jose 92
10 Columbus 86
11 Philadelphia 85
12 Seattle 81
13 Washington, D.C. 68
Peer Average 51
14 Cleveland 49
15 Chicago 49
16 Miami 45
17 Los Angeles 40
18 Pittsburgh 39
19 Providence 38
20 Buffalo 38
21 Detroit 35
22 Kansas City 30
23 Baltimore 29
24 Tampa 28
25 Cincinnati 26
26 Atlanta 25
27 Milwaukee 24
28 Denver 24
29 Nashville 23
30 Orlando 23
31 Phoenix 22
32 St. Louis 22
33 Indianapolis 22
34 Raleigh 21
35 Hartford 21
36 Austin 20
37 Houston 20
38 Dallas 15
39 Salt Lake City 11
40 Richmond 10
41 Charlotte 10
42 Virginia Beach 9
43 San Antonio 8
44 Louisville 8
45 Jacksonville 6
46 Memphis 4
47 Birmingham 3
48 Oklahoma City 2
49 Las Vegas 1
50 New Orleans 1

Housing

When it comes to housing, St. Louis is one of the most affordable large metropolitan regions in the country. However, black families are less likely than white families to own a home, more likely to be housing cost-burdened, and much more likely to live in areas of concentrated poverty. The region is also one of the most racially segregated among the peers. Where one lives is an important factor in many aspects of life including access to jobs and amenities, quality of schools, and exposure to crime. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

The St. Louis region continues to have some of the lowest priced housing among the peer regions, even with an increase in prices that was similar to the national average over the past five years. The rate of homeownership in the region is one of the highest among the peers. However, black households are nearly twice as likely to rent as white households. Relative to the peers, the region has a high vacancy rate and a low rate of new housing starts.

Homeownership
Owner-occupied units as a percent of all occupied housing units, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25003)
1 Minneapolis 71.7
2 Pittsburgh 71.5
3 Detroit 71.4
4 St. Louis 71.2
5 Birmingham 70.4
6 Cincinnati 68.9
7 Louisville 68.6
8 Hartford 67.9
9 Tampa 67.8
10 Raleigh 67.8
11 Buffalo 67.7
12 Indianapolis 67.6
13 Baltimore 67.4
14 Philadelphia 67.3
15 Phoenix 67.1
16 Richmond 67.0
17 Salt Lake City 67.0
18 Atlanta 66.9
19 Nashville 66.9
20 Charlotte 66.7
21 Jacksonville 66.4
22 Kansas City 66.0
23 Chicago 65.9
24 Cleveland 65.6
United States 65.4
25 Denver 65.3
26 Riverside 65.2
27 New Orleans 65.2
28 Washington, D.C. 64.4
29 Oklahoma City 63.9
30 San Antonio 63.5
31 Orlando 63.3
32 Virginia Beach 62.9
33 Providence 62.7
34 Sacramento 62.3
35 Boston 62.3
36 Portland 62.0
37 Columbus 61.7
38 Houston 61.5
39 Memphis 61.4
40 Seattle 61.0
41 Milwaukee 60.9
42 Miami 60.6
43 Dallas 59.8
44 Austin 58.8
45 Las Vegas 56.7
46 San Jose 56.3
47 San Francisco 55.8
48 San Diego 54.3
49 New York 52.5
50 Los Angeles 48.9
Racial Disparity in Homeownership
Ratio of non-Hispanic black to non-Hispanic white, owner-occupied units as a percent of all occupied units, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 Milwaukee 2.43
2 Minneapolis 2.40
3 Columbus 2.19
4 San Diego 2.18
5 Cincinnati 2.09
6 Cleveland 2.02
7 Buffalo 2.01
8 Providence 1.99
9 Pittsburgh 1.99
10 Las Vegas 1.99
11 Sacramento 1.99
12 Seattle 1.98
13 Indianapolis 1.95
14 New York 1.92
15 Louisville 1.92
16 Boston 1.92
17 Oklahoma City 1.87
18 San Francisco 1.83
19 St. Louis 1.83
20 Dallas 1.83
21 Phoenix 1.83
22 Chicago 1.79
23 Los Angeles 1.77
24 Kansas City 1.75
25 Houston 1.75
26 Hartford 1.73
27 Detroit 1.73
28 Memphis 1.72
29 Virginia Beach 1.71
30 Denver 1.71
31 Baltimore 1.69
32 Charlotte 1.66
United States 1.66
33 Nashville 1.65
34 Portland 1.62
35 Raleigh 1.61
36 Tampa 1.61
37 Austin 1.58
38 Riverside 1.55
39 New Orleans 1.54
40 Orlando 1.54
41 Philadelphia 1.52
42 Richmond 1.52
43 Jacksonville 1.49
44 San Antonio 1.49
45 Miami 1.48
46 Atlanta 1.47
47 Birmingham 1.47
48 Washington, D.C. 1.41
Median Sales Price of Existing Single-Family Homes
In thousands of dollars, 2018
Source: National Association of Realtors
1 San Jose 1,340.0
2 San Francisco 987.5
3 San Diego 634.0
4 Seattle 501.4
5 Boston 477.4
6 Denver 449.9
7 Washington, D.C. 424.0
8 New York 410.0
9 Portland 395.7
10 Sacramento 365.0
11 Riverside 360.0
12 Miami 350.0
13 Salt Lake City 331.7
14 Austin 315.9
15 Providence 292.5
16 Las Vegas 288.8
17 Baltimore 285.6
18 Raleigh 283.6
19 Minneapolis 273.4
20 Phoenix 269.8
21 Orlando 265.0
United States 261.6
22 Nashville 260.5
23 Dallas 260.0
24 Chicago 259.4
25 Richmond 258.8
26 Milwaukee 250.3
27 Jacksonville 247.0
28 Charlotte 241.5
29 Houston 238.8
30 Tampa 235.0
31 Hartford 235.0
32 Philadelphia 229.0
33 San Antonio 228.1
34 Atlanta 219.9
35 Virginia Beach 219.0
36 New Orleans 210.1
37 Birmingham 207.3
38 Kansas City 206.5
39 Columbus 201.8
40 Indianapolis 187.1
41 Louisville 180.1
42 Memphis 177.9
43 St. Louis 177.5
44 Cincinnati 174.3
45 Oklahoma City 159.5
46 Cleveland 153.3
47 Buffalo 152.8
Change in Median Sales Price of Existing Single-Family Homes
Percent change, 2013-2018, adjusted to 2018 dollars
Source: National Association of Realtors; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 San Jose 59.4
2 Las Vegas 54.2
3 Orlando 53.3
4 Tampa 52.7
5 Denver 48.7
6 Atlanta 46.2
7 Jacksonville 42.5
8 Sacramento 41.4
9 Riverside 38.3
10 Seattle 38.3
11 Portland 38.3
12 Dallas 37.4
13 Nashville 37.0
14 San Francisco 36.8
15 Phoenix 36.3
16 Raleigh 33.6
17 Salt Lake City 33.4
18 Miami 32.0
19 Austin 31.5
20 Columbus 31.1
21 Minneapolis 29.3
22 Charlotte 28.6
23 Memphis 27.5
24 Indianapolis 27.0
25 San Diego 26.7
26 Chicago 25.8
27 Kansas City 23.8
28 San Antonio 23.8
United States 22.9
29 St. Louis 22.6
30 Houston 22.2
31 Cleveland 20.8
32 Louisville 19.8
33 Cincinnati 19.3
34 New Orleans 18.3
35 Boston 17.8
36 Providence 17.6
37 Birmingham 16.5
38 Richmond 15.7
39 Milwaukee 15.7
40 Buffalo 8.2
41 Virginia Beach 5.3
42 Baltimore 5.2
43 Washington, D.C. 3.0
44 New York -2.9
45 Oklahoma City -3.3
46 Philadelphia -3.6
47 Hartford -4.0
Housing Units
Housing units per 1,000 population, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25002,B03002)
1 Pittsburgh 479.9
2 Cleveland 467.4
3 Buffalo 464.9
4 Tampa 462.6
5 New Orleans 457.0
6 St. Louis 451.1
7 Milwaukee 444.2
8 Birmingham 442.8
9 Louisville 440.0
10 Miami 437.1
11 Detroit 437.0
12 Providence 435.1
13 Jacksonville 433.3
14 Hartford 432.3
15 Kansas City 431.7
United States 428.3
16 Memphis 427.2
17 Oklahoma City 427.1
18 Nashville 426.8
19 Cincinnati 426.7
20 Denver 425.6
21 Columbus 425.4
22 Indianapolis 425.3
23 Virginia Beach 425.2
24 Richmond 424.6
25 Austin 423.7
26 Charlotte 421.7
27 Baltimore 421.4
28 Portland 418.6
29 Seattle 418.5
30 Boston 418.1
31 Philadelphia 417.9
32 Chicago 416.0
33 Orlando 415.0
34 Minneapolis 414.4
35 Raleigh 411.3
36 Phoenix 410.1
37 Las Vegas 407.8
38 New York 406.0
39 San Francisco 403.4
40 Atlanta 398.9
41 San Antonio 398.2
42 Washington, D.C. 397.2
43 Houston 391.8
44 Sacramento 391.3
45 Dallas 389.2
46 San Diego 376.6
47 Salt Lake City 367.9
48 Los Angeles 366.2
49 San Jose 365.9
50 Riverside 342.7
Change in Housing Units
Percent change in housing units per 1,000 population, 2011-2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25002,B03002)
1 San Jose 4.9
2 Austin 4.5
3 Chicago 4.1
4 Virginia Beach 3.6
5 Milwaukee 3.3
6 San Antonio 3.2
7 Hartford 3.0
8 Pittsburgh 2.8
9 Memphis 2.7
10 Philadelphia 2.6
11 New York 2.4
12 St. Louis 2.4
13 Nashville 2.3
14 Denver 2.1
15 Charlotte 2.0
16 Portland 1.8
17 Houston 1.8
18 Buffalo 1.6
19 Washington, D.C. 1.6
20 Louisville 1.5
21 Boston 1.5
22 San Francisco 1.4
23 Raleigh 1.4
24 Salt Lake City 1.2
25 San Diego 1.2
26 Minneapolis 1.2
27 Baltimore 1.1
28 Cleveland 1.0
United States 0.9
29 Miami 0.4
30 Richmond 0.3
31 Oklahoma City 0.3
32 Dallas 0.3
33 Providence 0.1
34 Birmingham 0.0
35 New Orleans 0.0
36 Kansas City -0.0
37 Seattle -0.4
38 Detroit -0.5
39 Columbus -0.8
40 Indianapolis -0.8
41 Cincinnati -0.8
42 Atlanta -1.4
43 Jacksonville -2.2
44 Riverside -2.3
45 Sacramento -2.7
46 Phoenix -3.6
47 Tampa -3.9
48 Orlando -5.1
49 Las Vegas -5.3
Vacancy Rate
Vacant units as a percent of all housing units, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25002)
1 Miami 13.4
2 Tampa 12.1
3 New Orleans 11.9
4 Birmingham 11.5
5 Orlando 11.3
United States 10.3
6 St. Louis 9.6
7 Riverside 9.6
8 Pittsburgh 9.2
9 Jacksonville 9.1
10 Memphis 8.9
11 Las Vegas 8.6
12 New York 8.5
13 San Antonio 8.5
14 Cleveland 8.3
15 Oklahoma City 8.2
16 Phoenix 8.1
17 Charlotte 8.0
18 Raleigh 7.9
19 Houston 7.9
20 Indianapolis 7.8
21 San Francisco 7.8
22 Detroit 7.8
23 Providence 7.6
24 Nashville 7.6
25 Louisville 7.5
26 Chicago 7.2
27 Atlanta 7.1
28 Kansas City 6.9
29 Richmond 6.9
30 Hartford 6.8
31 Sacramento 6.8
32 Buffalo 6.8
33 Milwaukee 6.7
34 Baltimore 6.6
35 Los Angeles 6.4
36 Columbus 6.4
37 Cincinnati 6.4
38 Boston 6.3
39 Philadelphia 6.2
40 Virginia Beach 6.1
41 Dallas 6.1
42 San Jose 6.1
43 San Diego 6.0
44 Denver 5.8
45 Seattle 5.6
46 Washington, D.C. 5.6
47 Minneapolis 5.0
48 Portland 4.7
49 Salt Lake City 4.5
50 Austin 4.2
Change in Vacancy Rate
Percentage point change in vacant units as a percent of all housing units, 2011-2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25002)
1 San Jose 1.7
2 San Francisco 0.7
3 Boston -0.6
4 Minneapolis -0.8
5 St. Louis -1.2
6 Denver -1.4
7 New York -1.5
8 San Antonio -1.5
9 Portland -1.6
10 Washington, D.C. -1.6
11 Charlotte -1.7
12 Seattle -1.7
13 Nashville -1.7
14 Milwaukee -1.8
15 Pittsburgh -1.8
16 Hartford -1.8
17 Raleigh -2.0
18 Birmingham -2.1
United States -2.8
19 Philadelphia -2.8
20 Oklahoma City -3.0
21 Providence -3.1
22 Buffalo -3.1
23 Dallas -3.1
24 Chicago -3.2
25 San Diego -3.2
26 Kansas City -3.3
27 Cleveland -3.4
28 Baltimore -3.6
29 Indianapolis -3.6
30 Louisville -3.7
31 Columbus -3.7
32 Sacramento -3.9
33 Memphis -3.9
34 Houston -3.9
35 Austin -4.1
36 New Orleans -4.1
37 Riverside -4.6
38 Richmond -4.9
39 Virginia Beach -5.0
40 Salt Lake City -5.2
41 Detroit -5.3
42 Miami -5.3
43 Atlanta -5.5
44 Cincinnati -6.0
45 Jacksonville -6.3
46 Tampa -6.3
47 Phoenix -7.5
48 Orlando -8.1
49 Las Vegas -9.2
Housing Starts
New permitted units per 1,000 units, 2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Building Permits Survey and American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25001)
1 Austin 36.2
2 Raleigh 29.8
3 Orlando 28.0
4 Charlotte 25.5
5 Nashville 24.6
6 Jacksonville 24.0
7 Dallas 22.9
8 Houston 22.0
9 Salt Lake City 20.9
10 Denver 18.5
11 Seattle 17.7
12 Atlanta 17.2
13 Phoenix 16.4
14 Portland 14.3
15 Las Vegas 13.4
16 San Antonio 12.9
17 San Jose 12.7
18 Minneapolis 12.6
19 Tampa 12.3
20 Richmond 11.5
21 Kansas City 11.3
22 Columbus 11.0
23 Washington, D.C. 10.9
24 Indianapolis 10.3
25 Oklahoma City 10.0
26 Louisville 9.9
United States 9.7
27 San Francisco 9.6
28 Riverside 9.5
29 Sacramento 8.7
30 San Diego 8.1
31 Baltimore 8.0
32 Memphis 7.9
33 Virginia Beach 7.8
34 Miami 7.7
35 Boston 7.3
36 New Orleans 6.9
37 Cincinnati 6.5
38 Los Angeles 6.4
39 New York 6.2
40 Birmingham 5.9
41 St. Louis 5.8
42 Milwaukee 5.6
43 Philadelphia 5.3
44 Chicago 4.6
45 Detroit 3.8
46 Pittsburgh 3.6
47 Cleveland 3.1
48 Hartford 3.1
49 Providence 2.8
50 Buffalo 2.7
Change in Housing Starts
Percent change in new permitted units, 2013-2018
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Building Permits Survey
1 Jacksonville 110.0
2 Milwaukee 89.6
3 Sacramento 87.9
4 San Antonio 87.6
5 Orlando 85.6
6 Dallas 67.9
7 Phoenix 67.3
8 Nashville 65.5
9 Salt Lake City 65.0
10 Atlanta 62.1
11 San Francisco 59.5
12 Riverside 58.4
13 Charlotte 55.6
14 Chicago 52.1
15 Minneapolis 50.1
16 New Orleans 44.8
17 Louisville 44.4
18 Seattle 44.4
19 Austin 44.0
20 Tampa 43.6
21 Cincinnati 41.3
22 Las Vegas 40.5
23 Denver 40.4
24 Raleigh 39.5
25 Kansas City 36.8
United States 34.1
26 St. Louis 32.3
27 Richmond 25.7
28 Memphis 23.0
29 New York 21.3
30 Portland 20.9
31 San Diego 19.0
32 Boston 18.0
33 Philadelphia 17.3
34 Los Angeles 17.2
35 Baltimore 15.1
36 Detroit 12.8
37 San Jose 12.6
38 Columbus 12.4
39 Houston 11.6
40 Birmingham 9.0
41 Cleveland 8.8
42 Indianapolis 7.9
43 Hartford 7.3
44 Washington, D.C. 6.2
45 Providence -0.6
46 Miami -1.8
47 Pittsburgh -11.5
48 Oklahoma City -23.7
49 Virginia Beach -24.1
50 Buffalo -24.9

Despite relatively affordable housing, St. Louis has a substantial number of homeowners as well as renters paying more than 30 percent of their income on housing. A larger proportion of black owners and renters are cost-burdened compared to their white counterparts.

Housing Cost-Burdened Owners
Owners paying at least 30% of income on housing as a percent of all homeowners, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25091)
1 Miami 34.2
2 Los Angeles 34.1
3 San Diego 33.0
4 New York 32.9
5 Riverside 31.8
6 San Francisco 29.2
7 Providence 27.8
8 San Jose 27.2
9 Sacramento 26.6
10 Boston 26.3
11 Las Vegas 25.2
12 Orlando 25.0
13 Seattle 24.9
14 Hartford 24.9
15 Portland 24.9
16 Chicago 24.7
17 Tampa 24.1
18 Austin 24.0
19 New Orleans 23.9
20 Denver 23.6
21 Virginia Beach 23.4
22 Dallas 23.2
23 Philadelphia 22.9
24 Houston 22.6
25 Memphis 22.4
United States 22.3
26 Washington, D.C. 22.0
27 Baltimore 21.9
28 San Antonio 21.7
29 Phoenix 21.4
30 Detroit 21.0
31 Jacksonville 20.8
32 Atlanta 20.7
33 Richmond 20.6
34 Salt Lake City 20.4
35 Milwaukee 20.2
36 Nashville 19.9
37 Minneapolis 19.0
38 Cleveland 18.5
39 Buffalo 18.3
40 Raleigh 18.3
41 Charlotte 18.1
42 Louisville 18.1
43 Columbus 18.0
44 St. Louis 17.8
45 Oklahoma City 17.6
46 Kansas City 17.5
47 Birmingham 17.5
48 Pittsburgh 16.9
49 Cincinnati 16.8
50 Indianapolis 15.9
Racial Disparity in Housing Cost-Burdened Owners
Ratio of non-Hispanic black to non-Hispanic white, owners paying at least 30% of income on housing as a percent of all homeowners, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 Denver 1.92
2 Milwaukee 1.81
3 Portland 1.71
4 Orlando 1.69
5 Columbus 1.67
6 Indianapolis 1.66
7 Richmond 1.63
8 St. Louis 1.61
9 Pittsburgh 1.61
10 Kansas City 1.56
11 Houston 1.56
12 Phoenix 1.56
13 Cleveland 1.55
14 Charlotte 1.53
15 Dallas 1.52
16 Memphis 1.52
17 Boston 1.51
18 Birmingham 1.51
19 Washington, D.C. 1.51
20 Philadelphia 1.50
21 San Diego 1.49
22 Buffalo 1.49
23 Minneapolis 1.49
24 San Francisco 1.47
25 Cincinnati 1.46
United States 1.44
26 Detroit 1.44
27 Jacksonville 1.44
28 Chicago 1.43
29 Oklahoma City 1.43
30 New York 1.42
31 Louisville 1.39
32 Baltimore 1.39
33 Atlanta 1.38
34 Providence 1.38
35 Hartford 1.36
36 New Orleans 1.35
37 Las Vegas 1.35
38 Raleigh 1.34
39 Tampa 1.33
40 Seattle 1.30
41 Virginia Beach 1.28
42 Sacramento 1.27
43 Miami 1.25
44 Los Angeles 1.23
45 Riverside 1.19
46 Nashville 1.16
47 Austin 1.14
48 San Antonio 1.04
Housing Cost-Burdened Renters
Renters paying at least 30% of income on housing as a percent of all renters, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25070)
1 Miami 63.3
2 Orlando 60.4
3 Las Vegas 58.5
4 Riverside 58.4
5 Los Angeles 58.3
6 San Diego 57.6
7 New Orleans 57.3
8 Tampa 57.1
9 Sacramento 55.3
10 Jacksonville 54.6
11 Virginia Beach 54.1
12 Birmingham 53.6
13 Richmond 53.6
14 New York 53.5
15 Baltimore 53.3
16 Denver 53.1
17 Atlanta 53.1
18 Hartford 52.9
19 Memphis 52.6
20 Houston 52.3
21 Buffalo 52.1
22 Phoenix 51.9
23 Dallas 51.8
24 Portland 51.6
25 Boston 51.1
United States 51.1
26 San Antonio 51.0
27 Philadelphia 51.0
28 Nashville 50.4
29 San Francisco 50.2
30 Salt Lake City 50.0
31 Raleigh 50.0
32 Oklahoma City 49.9
33 Detroit 49.8
34 Chicago 49.4
35 Providence 49.2
36 Minneapolis 48.9
37 Seattle 48.9
38 Charlotte 48.7
39 Washington, D.C. 48.2
40 Austin 48.2
41 Louisville 48.1
42 Pittsburgh 46.3
43 Cleveland 46.3
44 Milwaukee 46.0
45 Indianapolis 45.9
46 Cincinnati 45.9
47 San Jose 45.0
48 St. Louis 44.9
49 Kansas City 43.9
50 Columbus 43.2
Racial Disparity in Housing Cost-Burdened Renters
Ratio of non-Hispanic black to non-Hispanic white, renters paying at least 30% of income on housing as a percent of all renters, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 Milwaukee 1.47
2 Austin 1.45
3 Jacksonville 1.41
4 St. Louis 1.39
5 Birmingham 1.38
6 Charlotte 1.36
7 Kansas City 1.36
8 Houston 1.35
9 San Francisco 1.35
10 Chicago 1.35
11 New Orleans 1.32
12 Raleigh 1.32
13 Memphis 1.31
14 Indianapolis 1.29
15 Cleveland 1.29
16 Seattle 1.28
17 Atlanta 1.28
18 Las Vegas 1.28
19 Portland 1.27
20 Virginia Beach 1.27
21 Dallas 1.27
22 Minneapolis 1.27
23 Cincinnati 1.26
24 Denver 1.25
25 Washington, D.C. 1.25
26 Baltimore 1.23
27 Orlando 1.23
28 San Diego 1.23
29 Buffalo 1.23
United States 1.22
30 Louisville 1.21
31 Richmond 1.20
32 Tampa 1.20
33 Pittsburgh 1.19
34 Boston 1.19
35 Oklahoma City 1.19
36 Columbus 1.19
37 San Antonio 1.19
38 Philadelphia 1.18
39 Los Angeles 1.17
40 Detroit 1.16
41 Miami 1.16
42 New York 1.14
43 Nashville 1.12
44 Riverside 1.10
45 Phoenix 1.08
46 Sacramento 1.08
47 Hartford 1.05
48 Providence 0.95
Median Monthly Housing Costs
In dollars, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25105)
1 San Jose 2,591
2 San Francisco 2,321
3 San Diego 2,004
4 Washington, D.C. 1,890
5 Boston 1,889
6 Los Angeles 1,889
7 Seattle 1,858
8 New York 1,764
9 Denver 1,673
10 Sacramento 1,636
11 Riverside 1,620
12 Portland 1,556
13 Austin 1,530
14 Baltimore 1,477
15 Miami 1,463
16 Hartford 1,407
17 Dallas 1,393
18 Salt Lake City 1,392
19 Minneapolis 1,389
20 Chicago 1,372
21 Providence 1,358
22 Atlanta 1,352
23 Philadelphia 1,351
24 Orlando 1,350
25 Virginia Beach 1,335
26 Raleigh 1,329
27 Phoenix 1,329
28 Las Vegas 1,310
29 Houston 1,261
30 Richmond 1,258
31 Nashville 1,242
32 Jacksonville 1,197
33 Tampa 1,193
United States 1,182
34 Charlotte 1,172
35 San Antonio 1,168
36 Columbus 1,152
37 Kansas City 1,143
38 Milwaukee 1,107
39 Detroit 1,060
40 New Orleans 1,051
41 Memphis 1,047
42 Cincinnati 1,037
43 Indianapolis 1,036
44 St. Louis 1,032
45 Louisville 1,009
46 Oklahoma City 959
47 Cleveland 954
48 Birmingham 940
49 Buffalo 930
50 Pittsburgh 924
Median Monthly Rent
In dollars, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25064)
1 San Jose 2,454
2 San Francisco 2,156
3 San Diego 1,908
4 Los Angeles 1,786
5 Washington, D.C. 1,762
6 Seattle 1,730
7 Boston 1,718
8 Denver 1,605
9 New York 1,600
10 Sacramento 1,556
11 Riverside 1,552
12 Miami 1,519
13 Portland 1,443
14 Austin 1,427
15 Orlando 1,420
16 Baltimore 1,390
17 Phoenix 1,384
18 Atlanta 1,370
19 Las Vegas 1,325
20 Salt Lake City 1,310
21 Dallas 1,304
22 Tampa 1,286
23 Raleigh 1,266
24 Nashville 1,260
25 Philadelphia 1,258
26 Minneapolis 1,246
27 Jacksonville 1,238
28 Virginia Beach 1,232
29 Hartford 1,230
30 Chicago 1,225
31 Charlotte 1,202
32 Richmond 1,202
United States 1,191
33 Houston 1,190
34 San Antonio 1,147
35 Providence 1,099
36 Columbus 1,078
37 Kansas City 1,075
38 New Orleans 1,069
39 Detroit 1,051
40 Memphis 1,028
41 Indianapolis 989
42 Milwaukee 977
43 Birmingham 972
44 Louisville 954
45 St. Louis 940
46 Oklahoma City 929
47 Cincinnati 923
48 Pittsburgh 895
49 Buffalo 888
50 Cleveland 887
Housing Affordability
Median housing costs as a percent of median household income, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25105, B19013)
1 Miami 27.5
2 Los Angeles 27.5
3 San Diego 26.4
4 Riverside 25.2
5 New York 25.1
6 Orlando 24.9
7 Las Vegas 24.7
8 San Francisco 24.0
9 Sacramento 23.3
10 Tampa 22.7
11 Memphis 22.5
12 Boston 22.5
13 Portland 22.2
14 San Jose 22.2
15 New Orleans 22.2
16 Denver 22.1
17 Providence 22.1
18 Virginia Beach 22.0
19 Dallas 22.0
20 Seattle 21.9
21 Houston 21.3
22 Austin 21.2
23 Chicago 21.1
24 Phoenix 21.1
25 Jacksonville 21.0
26 San Antonio 21.0
27 Atlanta 20.9
28 Washington, D.C. 20.6
29 Salt Lake City 20.5
30 Baltimore 20.5
31 Hartford 20.5
32 Nashville 20.5
33 Richmond 20.4
United States 20.3
34 Philadelphia 20.3
35 Charlotte 19.8
36 Milwaukee 19.4
37 Columbus 19.2
38 Minneapolis 19.1
39 Detroit 18.9
40 Louisville 18.9
41 Raleigh 18.7
42 Oklahoma City 18.6
43 Birmingham 18.6
44 Kansas City 18.6
45 Cleveland 18.4
46 Buffalo 17.8
47 Indianapolis 17.7
48 St. Louis 17.6
49 Cincinnati 17.6
50 Pittsburgh 16.6
Housing Plus Transportation Affordability
Transportation and housing costs as a percent of median household income, 2011-2015
Source: Center for Neighborhood Technology
1 Miami 63
2 Riverside 61
3 Los Angeles 59
4 Orlando 58
5 Tampa 57
6 San Diego 57
7 New Orleans 57
8 Memphis 56
9 Sacramento 55
10 Las Vegas 54
11 Birmingham 54
12 Jacksonville 54
13 Providence 53
14 Phoenix 53
15 Cleveland 53
16 Oklahoma City 52
17 Portland 52
18 San Antonio 52
19 Atlanta 52
20 Nashville 52
21 Detroit 52
22 Charlotte 52
Peer Average 52
23 Louisville 51
24 Milwaukee 51
25 Virginia Beach 51
26 Philadelphia 51
27 Chicago 51
28 Indianapolis 50
29 Austin 50
30 St. Louis 50
31 New York 50
32 Buffalo 50
33 Cincinnati 49
34 Seattle 49
35 Salt Lake City 49
36 Columbus 49
37 Richmond 49
38 Kansas City 49
39 Dallas 49
40 Pittsburgh 49
41 Houston 49
42 San Francisco 48
43 Hartford 48
44 Raleigh 47
45 Denver 47
46 Boston 47
47 Baltimore 47
48 San Jose 46
49 Minneapolis 45
50 Washington, D.C. 41

St. Louis is one of the most racially segregated regions among the peers. The dissimilarity index is a standard measure of segregation. A score of 0 would mean a region is completely integrated and a score of 100 would mean a community is completely segregated. Black residents are much more likely to live in areas of concentrated poverty—where 40 percent or more of the residents live in poverty. See Where We Stand 7th Edition, Update 3 and Update 4 for further discussion.

Racial Segregation
Black-White segregation scores based on the dissimilarity index, 2016-2020
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (B03002)
1 Milwaukee 79.3
2 New York 76.0
3 Chicago 74.8
4 Detroit 73.3
5 Cleveland 73.1
6 St. Louis 71.7
7 Buffalo 68.8
8 Cincinnati 67.5
9 Philadelphia 67.0
10 Los Angeles 66.1
United States 65.9
11 Pittsburgh 65.3
12 Miami 65.1
13 Hartford 65.0
14 Boston 64.9
15 Birmingham 64.1
16 Indianapolis 64.0
17 Baltimore 63.7
18 New Orleans 63.5
19 Columbus 63.2
20 Denver 62.6
21 Memphis 61.3
22 Washington, D.C. 61.1
23 Houston 60.9
24 San Francisco 60.5
25 Atlanta 60.4
26 Kansas City 58.6
27 Louisville 57.7
28 Sacramento 57.7
29 Providence 57.2
30 Minneapolis 56.9
31 Dallas 56.4
32 Salt Lake City 55.5
33 Jacksonville 55.2
34 Tampa 54.9
35 San Diego 54.4
36 Charlotte 53.7
37 Richmond 53.6
38 Nashville 53.4
39 Seattle 53.0
40 Oklahoma City 52.5
41 Orlando 52.4
42 Portland 52.4
43 Austin 51.8
44 San Antonio 51.4
45 Phoenix 51.0
46 Riverside 48.5
47 San Jose 48.4
48 Virginia Beach 47.6
49 Raleigh 44.6
50 Las Vegas 42.7
Concentrated Poverty
Percent of poor residents living in census tracts with a poverty rate of 40% or more, 2015-2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (B17001)
1 Buffalo 28.2
2 Detroit 25.0
3 Memphis 24.6
4 Cleveland 22.2
5 Cincinnati 19.5
6 Milwaukee 19.1
7 Philadelphia 18.7
8 Columbus 16.4
9 Birmingham 15.6
10 New York 13.3
11 Louisville 13.0
12 Richmond 11.2
13 New Orleans 10.6
14 Phoenix 10.6
15 Pittsburgh 10.3
16 Oklahoma City 10.3
United States 9.7
17 Minneapolis 9.5
18 Baltimore 9.5
19 St. Louis 9.4
20 Hartford 9.3
21 Indianapolis 8.8
22 Chicago 8.7
23 Kansas City 8.7
24 Austin 8.7
25 Houston 8.0
26 Virginia Beach 7.7
27 San Antonio 6.9
28 Miami 6.7
29 Nashville 6.0
30 Jacksonville 5.7
31 Los Angeles 5.7
32 Atlanta 5.6
33 Las Vegas 5.1
34 Boston 5.1
35 Riverside 4.6
36 Sacramento 4.3
37 Dallas 4.3
38 Tampa 4.2
39 Providence 3.9
40 San Diego 3.8
41 Charlotte 3.8
42 San Francisco 2.9
43 Washington, D.C. 2.7
44 Orlando 2.2
45 Seattle 1.8
46 Raleigh 1.2
47 Portland 1.2
48 Denver 1.0
49 Salt Lake City 0.6
50 San Jose 0.5
Racial Disparity in Concentrated Poverty
Ratio of black to non-Hispanic white residents, 2015-2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (B17001, B17001B, B17001H)
1 Nashville 15.59
2 Denver 11.96
3 Miami 11.27
4 Chicago 9.35
5 St. Louis 9.05
6 Jacksonville 8.91
7 Baltimore 8.68
8 New Orleans 8.56
9 Houston 8.24
10 Birmingham 7.77
11 Portland 7.25
12 Tampa 6.00
13 Virginia Beach 5.93
14 Hartford 5.73
15 Dallas 5.72
16 Kansas City 5.56
17 Memphis 5.55
18 Providence 5.51
19 Charlotte 5.31
20 Atlanta 4.92
21 Washington, D.C. 4.75
22 Louisville 4.70
23 San Antonio 4.44
24 Cleveland 4.28
25 San Jose 4.21
26 Pittsburgh 4.04
27 Buffalo 3.74
28 Philadelphia 3.41
29 Boston 3.39
30 Cincinnati 3.18
31 Las Vegas 3.17
32 Indianapolis 3.15
United States 3.05
33 Orlando 2.98
34 Detroit 2.84
35 Milwaukee 2.81
36 Oklahoma City 2.78
37 Richmond 2.70
38 Los Angeles 2.70
39 Riverside 2.37
40 Phoenix 2.27
41 Minneapolis 2.02
42 Columbus 1.85
43 New York 1.79
44 Sacramento 1.75
45 San Diego 0.73
46 Seattle 0.65
47 Austin 0.65
48 San Francisco 0.40
49 Raleigh 0.20
50 Salt Lake City 0.00

Transportation

The region’s transportation network provides assets important to the growth of St. Louis, including an extensive road network—serving residents, businesses, and freight—and low congestion relative to the peer regions. The region’s challenges in this section include relatively high crash fatalities and lack of access for non-auto commuters. For further discussion, see the performance indicators in the Connected Theme on OneSTL. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

St. Louis has an extensive road network with a larger number of lane miles per square mile than the average for the peer regions. Residents in St. Louis drive more miles, on average, than their counterparts in most of the peer regions. The average vehicle miles traveled in St. Louis has increased more over the last two decades than in many of the peer regions. The fourth table indicates St. Louis has a relatively large percentage of bridge deck area that is in poor or worse condition.

Road Network
Freeway lane miles per urbanized area square mile, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Salt Lake City 3.8
2 Los Angeles 2.6
3 San Jose 2.5
4 San Antonio 2.4
5 Dallas 2.2
6 Baltimore 2.2
7 San Diego 2.1
8 Austin 2.0
9 Houston 2.0
10 Sacramento 1.9
11 Washington, D.C. 1.9
12 San Francisco 1.9
13 St. Louis 1.8
14 Cleveland 1.8
15 Kansas City 1.8
16 Miami 1.7
17 Louisville 1.7
18 Riverside 1.6
19 Denver 1.6
20 Richmond 1.6
21 Las Vegas 1.5
22 Milwaukee 1.5
23 New York 1.5
24 Seattle 1.4
25 Columbus 1.4
Peer Average 1.4
26 Cincinnati 1.3
27 Minneapolis 1.3
28 New Orleans 1.3
29 Oklahoma City 1.3
30 Hartford 1.3
31 Portland 1.2
32 Detroit 1.2
33 Phoenix 1.2
34 Nashville 1.1
35 Providence 1.1
36 Philadelphia 1.1
37 Jacksonville 1.1
38 Buffalo 1.1
39 Boston 1.1
40 Pittsburgh 1.0
41 Orlando 1.0
42 Indianapolis 1.0
43 Charlotte 1.0
44 Memphis 0.9
45 Birmingham 0.9
46 Raleigh 0.8
47 Chicago 0.8
48 Atlanta 0.8
49 Tampa 0.7
50 Virginia Beach 0.6
Vehicle Miles Traveled
Average daily VMT per capita on freeways and arterials, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Nashville 29.4
2 Birmingham 26.8
3 Kansas City 23.8
4 St. Louis 23.4
5 Richmond 23.2
6 Charlotte 23.2
7 Oklahoma City 22.5
8 Atlanta 22.4
9 Raleigh 22.4
10 Memphis 22.3
11 Dallas 21.2
12 Detroit 21.1
13 Hartford 21.0
14 Orlando 20.9
15 San Antonio 20.8
16 Houston 20.8
17 Minneapolis 20.7
18 Milwaukee 20.3
19 Columbus 20.3
20 Jacksonville 20.1
21 Cincinnati 20.1
22 Indianapolis 20.1
23 Los Angeles 19.7
24 San Diego 19.5
Peer Average 19.4
25 Baltimore 19.2
26 Riverside 19.2
27 Boston 19.1
28 Providence 19.1
29 Virginia Beach 18.9
30 Denver 18.8
31 Tampa 18.4
32 Cleveland 18.3
33 Phoenix 18.3
34 Austin 18.3
35 Washington, D.C. 17.9
36 Buffalo 17.8
37 Salt Lake City 17.3
38 Seattle 17.1
39 San Francisco 17.1
40 New Orleans 16.6
41 Sacramento 16.6
42 Miami 16.6
43 San Jose 16.5
44 Louisville 16.4
45 Philadelphia 15.5
46 Chicago 15.5
47 Pittsburgh 14.8
48 Portland 14.4
49 Las Vegas 14.2
50 New York 12.0
Change in Vehicle Miles Traveled
Percent change in average daily VMT per capita, 2000-2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Raleigh 64.6
2 Buffalo 38.8
3 Charlotte 31.5
4 New Orleans 31.2
5 Nashville 22.9
6 Milwaukee 19.4
7 Tampa 16.8
8 Cleveland 16.5
9 Memphis 15.1
10 Providence 13.7
11 Philadelphia 13.6
12 San Francisco 13.3
13 Boston 12.9
14 Cincinnati 12.9
15 San Antonio 12.6
16 Birmingham 12.5
17 New York 11.2
18 St. Louis 10.3
19 Las Vegas 10.0
20 Hartford 10.0
21 Detroit 9.1
22 Riverside 8.6
23 Baltimore 8.0
24 Salt Lake City 6.9
25 Phoenix 6.5
26 Miami 6.4
27 Columbus 5.7
28 Kansas City 5.7
Peer Average 5.5
29 Richmond 4.0
30 Chicago 2.8
31 Austin 2.4
32 Virginia Beach 2.2
33 Minneapolis 1.0
34 Sacramento -0.0
35 Washington, D.C. -0.2
36 San Diego -0.6
37 Atlanta -1.1
38 Orlando -2.0
39 Denver -3.0
40 Houston -3.6
41 Los Angeles -3.7
42 Jacksonville -5.3
43 Pittsburgh -7.5
44 Portland -7.8
45 Oklahoma City -8.3
46 Dallas -8.4
47 Seattle -12.8
48 Indianapolis -13.2
49 San Jose -17.1
50 Louisville -25.2
Deficient Bridges
Percent of total bridge deck area, 2019
Source: FHWA, National Bridge Inventory
1 Providence 19.0
2 San Francisco 14.7
3 New York 12.6
4 Boston 12.4
5 Chicago 12.2
6 San Jose 11.4
7 New Orleans 10.9
8 Hartford 10.6
9 Birmingham 9.0
10 Detroit 8.9
11 St. Louis 8.8
12 Louisville 8.5
13 Philadelphia 7.5
14 Buffalo 7.5
15 Charlotte 6.4
16 Cleveland 6.4
17 Oklahoma City 6.3
18 Pittsburgh 6.0
19 Kansas City 6.0
20 Virginia Beach 6.0
United States 5.9
21 Seattle 5.6
22 Denver 5.5
23 Riverside 5.3
24 Nashville 5.0
25 Richmond 4.8
26 Raleigh 4.7
27 Milwaukee 4.6
28 Baltimore 4.6
29 Memphis 4.5
30 Los Angeles 4.3
31 Indianapolis 3.7
32 Minneapolis 3.7
33 Portland 3.6
34 San Diego 3.4
35 Cincinnati 3.4
36 Washington, D.C. 3.2
37 Columbus 3.0
38 Sacramento 3.0
39 Dallas 2.0
40 Miami 1.5
41 Atlanta 1.4
42 Jacksonville 0.9
43 Houston 0.9
44 Orlando 0.7
45 Salt Lake City 0.7
46 Las Vegas 0.5
47 Tampa 0.5
48 Phoenix 0.4
49 San Antonio 0.4
50 Austin 0.1

The metrics in this section reflect traffic congestion, the efficiency of the system and freight movement, and protecting the environment. All of the measures indicate St. Louis has relatively little congestion compared to the peer regions. The last four tables in this section are measures the state departments of transportation, metropolitan planning organizations, and transit agencies are required to track, according to the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act. The truck travel time reliability is a metric that lacks an intuitive interpretation, but it indicates the region’s highway system is more reliable for moving freight than many of the peers. See Where We Stand 8th Edition, Update 7 for further discussion.

Annual Delay per Auto Traveler
Average hours lost due to congestion per auto traveler, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 119
2 San Francisco 103
3 Washington, D.C. 102
4 New York 92
5 San Jose 81
6 Boston 80
7 Seattle 78
8 Atlanta 77
9 Houston 75
10 Chicago 73
11 Riverside 70
12 Miami 69
13 Dallas 67
14 Austin 66
15 Portland 66
16 San Diego 64
17 Philadelphia 62
18 Phoenix 62
19 Denver 61
20 Detroit 61
Peer Average 60
21 Sacramento 59
22 Baltimore 59
23 New Orleans 58
24 Nashville 58
25 Charlotte 57
26 Orlando 57
27 Minneapolis 56
28 Cincinnati 52
29 San Antonio 51
30 Las Vegas 51
31 Oklahoma City 50
32 Columbus 50
33 Hartford 50
34 Tampa 50
35 Memphis 48
36 Buffalo 48
37 Providence 48
38 Indianapolis 48
39 Kansas City 47
40 Jacksonville 46
41 Pittsburgh 46
42 St. Louis 46
43 Louisville 46
44 Milwaukee 46
45 Virginia Beach 46
46 Cleveland 46
47 Salt Lake City 45
48 Raleigh 42
49 Birmingham 40
50 Richmond 35
Change in Annual Delay per Auto Traveler
Change in average hours lost due to congestion per auto traveler, 2010-2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 22.0
2 Houston 20.0
3 San Jose 18.0
4 Atlanta 17.0
5 Austin 17.0
6 Dallas 17.0
7 Portland 15.0
8 Boston 15.0
9 New York 14.0
10 Miami 14.0
11 Seattle 14.0
12 Chicago 14.0
13 Sacramento 13.0
14 San Francisco 13.0
15 New Orleans 13.0
16 Phoenix 12.0
17 Philadelphia 12.0
18 Riverside 12.0
19 Nashville 12.0
20 Washington, D.C. 12.0
21 Charlotte 12.0
22 Baltimore 12.0
23 Denver 11.0
24 Cincinnati 11.0
Peer Average 10.7
25 Detroit 10.0
26 San Diego 10.0
27 Orlando 9.0
28 Minneapolis 9.0
29 San Antonio 9.0
30 Columbus 9.0
31 Louisville 9.0
32 Salt Lake City 9.0
33 Tampa 8.0
34 Virginia Beach 8.0
35 Memphis 8.0
36 Raleigh 8.0
37 Buffalo 7.0
38 Las Vegas 7.0
39 Cleveland 7.0
40 Richmond 7.0
41 Pittsburgh 7.0
42 Oklahoma City 7.0
43 Kansas City 7.0
44 Providence 7.0
45 Indianapolis 6.0
46 Milwaukee 6.0
47 Birmingham 5.0
48 Jacksonville 5.0
49 Hartford 4.0
50 St. Louis 3.0
Rush Hours
Average daily hours when system is congested, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 San Francisco 6.5
2 San Diego 6.5
3 Riverside 6.5
4 Los Angeles 6.1
5 San Jose 5.9
6 Sacramento 5.2
7 New York 5.1
8 Houston 5.1
9 Washington, D.C. 5.0
10 Seattle 5.0
11 Austin 4.9
12 Portland 4.8
13 New Orleans 4.8
14 Baltimore 4.7
15 Denver 4.7
16 Atlanta 4.6
17 Miami 4.5
18 Dallas 4.5
19 Boston 4.4
20 Buffalo 4.2
21 San Antonio 4.1
22 Phoenix 4.1
23 Detroit 3.8
24 Minneapolis 3.7
Peer Average 3.6
25 Chicago 3.6
26 Nashville 3.5
27 Columbus 3.4
28 Philadelphia 3.4
29 Jacksonville 3.3
30 Salt Lake City 3.2
31 Las Vegas 3.0
32 Charlotte 3.0
33 Cincinnati 2.8
34 Orlando 2.8
35 Milwaukee 2.8
36 Raleigh 2.7
37 Oklahoma City 2.7
38 Hartford 2.7
39 St. Louis 2.5
40 Tampa 2.4
41 Kansas City 2.3
42 Providence 2.1
43 Louisville 1.9
44 Virginia Beach 1.9
45 Cleveland 1.5
46 Indianapolis 1.3
47 Memphis 1.2
48 Birmingham 1.2
49 Pittsburgh 1.2
50 Richmond 0.8
Congested System
Percent of lane miles congested during peak travel time, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 San Francisco 35.8
2 Los Angeles 34.6
3 San Diego 28.4
4 Washington, D.C. 26.4
5 Riverside 24.8
6 Houston 24.6
7 Austin 24.0
8 Seattle 23.3
9 New York 23.3
10 Sacramento 22.7
11 Portland 22.1
12 Baltimore 21.4
13 Atlanta 19.6
14 Denver 19.3
15 Boston 18.9
16 New Orleans 18.9
17 San Antonio 18.3
18 Charlotte 18.0
19 Dallas 18.0
20 Orlando 17.3
21 Nashville 16.6
22 Jacksonville 16.4
23 Columbus 16.0
Peer Average 15.6
24 Philadelphia 15.3
25 Tampa 14.9
26 Salt Lake City 14.8
27 Phoenix 14.8
28 Chicago 13.4
29 Louisville 13.2
30 Minneapolis 12.9
31 Detroit 12.8
32 Cincinnati 12.6
33 Hartford 12.5
34 St. Louis 12.3
35 Las Vegas 12.1
36 Providence 12.1
37 Raleigh 11.5
38 Kansas City 11.1
39 Birmingham 9.9
40 Cleveland 9.7
41 Oklahoma City 9.5
42 Virginia Beach 9.3
43 Indianapolis 8.2
44 Milwaukee 7.8
45 Richmond 7.3
46 Memphis 6.6
47 San Jose 3.2
48 Buffalo 2.4
49 Pittsburgh 1.7
50 Miami 1.3
Congested Travel
Percent of peak vehicle miles traveled, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 56.7
2 San Francisco 52.3
3 San Jose 45.6
4 Riverside 43.2
5 San Diego 41.3
6 Washington, D.C. 38.4
7 Houston 38.4
8 Sacramento 37.6
9 Seattle 37.1
10 Portland 36.7
11 New York 36.3
12 New Orleans 36.1
13 Austin 34.2
14 Denver 33.7
15 Baltimore 32.3
16 Dallas 31.8
17 Boston 29.5
18 San Antonio 29.0
19 Phoenix 27.9
Peer Average 26.1
20 Buffalo 25.9
21 Detroit 25.4
22 Nashville 24.8
23 Minneapolis 24.6
24 Columbus 24.6
25 Charlotte 24.2
26 Salt Lake City 24.2
27 Philadelphia 24.1
28 Jacksonville 24.1
29 Chicago 24.0
30 Orlando 23.8
31 Las Vegas 22.7
32 Tampa 22.3
33 Cincinnati 21.2
34 Hartford 19.7
35 Oklahoma City 19.3
36 Raleigh 19.2
37 St. Louis 18.8
38 Providence 18.5
39 Louisville 18.4
40 Milwaukee 18.0
41 Kansas City 17.6
42 Virginia Beach 15.9
43 Birmingham 15.8
44 Pittsburgh 15.7
45 Cleveland 15.7
46 Indianapolis 12.8
47 Memphis 12.3
48 Richmond 11.0
49 Atlanta 3.0
50 Miami 1.6
Travel Time Index
Ratio of peak period travel time to free-flow travel time, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 1.51
2 San Francisco 1.50
3 San Jose 1.45
4 Seattle 1.37
5 New Orleans 1.36
6 Washington, D.C. 1.35
7 San Diego 1.35
8 Portland 1.35
9 New York 1.35
10 Riverside 1.34
11 Austin 1.34
12 Houston 1.34
13 Chicago 1.32
14 Denver 1.31
15 Miami 1.31
16 Atlanta 1.30
17 Boston 1.30
18 Sacramento 1.28
19 Phoenix 1.27
20 Las Vegas 1.26
21 Dallas 1.26
Peer Average 1.25
22 Philadelphia 1.25
23 Baltimore 1.25
24 Minneapolis 1.25
25 Detroit 1.24
26 Orlando 1.24
27 San Antonio 1.23
28 Nashville 1.22
29 Tampa 1.22
30 Charlotte 1.22
31 Jacksonville 1.19
32 Oklahoma City 1.19
33 Columbus 1.19
34 Pittsburgh 1.19
35 Salt Lake City 1.18
36 Memphis 1.18
37 Louisville 1.18
38 Indianapolis 1.18
39 Providence 1.17
40 Raleigh 1.17
41 Cincinnati 1.17
42 Hartford 1.17
43 Virginia Beach 1.17
44 Milwaukee 1.17
45 Buffalo 1.16
46 Cleveland 1.15
47 Kansas City 1.15
48 St. Louis 1.15
49 Birmingham 1.13
50 Richmond 1.12
Planning Time Index
Ratio of worst travel time to free-flow travel time, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 2.87
2 San Francisco 2.69
3 San Jose 2.60
4 Portland 2.37
5 Seattle 2.28
6 San Diego 2.28
7 Washington, D.C. 2.27
8 New Orleans 2.18
9 Austin 2.15
10 Riverside 2.10
11 Atlanta 2.10
12 New York 2.05
13 Miami 2.02
14 Sacramento 1.97
15 Phoenix 1.97
16 Houston 1.92
17 Boston 1.89
18 Chicago 1.85
19 Denver 1.83
20 Tampa 1.83
21 Dallas 1.79
Peer Average 1.78
22 San Antonio 1.74
23 Baltimore 1.73
24 Detroit 1.72
25 Nashville 1.70
26 Jacksonville 1.68
27 Charlotte 1.66
28 Philadelphia 1.65
29 Las Vegas 1.63
30 Orlando 1.61
31 Minneapolis 1.61
32 Columbus 1.59
33 Raleigh 1.58
34 Salt Lake City 1.57
35 Cincinnati 1.53
36 Milwaukee 1.52
37 Hartford 1.48
38 Virginia Beach 1.46
39 Oklahoma City 1.45
40 Pittsburgh 1.44
41 Buffalo 1.44
42 St. Louis 1.40
43 Birmingham 1.38
44 Providence 1.37
45 Kansas City 1.37
46 Louisville 1.36
47 Cleveland 1.35
48 Indianapolis 1.30
49 Memphis 1.27
50 Richmond 1.20
Commuter Stress Index
Congestion experienced by travelers in peak direction at peak times, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 1.73
2 San Francisco 1.62
3 San Jose 1.57
4 San Diego 1.48
5 Austin 1.45
6 Seattle 1.44
7 Riverside 1.44
8 Portland 1.43
9 Washington, D.C. 1.41
10 Houston 1.39
11 Miami 1.39
12 New York 1.38
13 New Orleans 1.37
14 Atlanta 1.36
15 Sacramento 1.34
16 Chicago 1.33
17 Denver 1.32
18 Boston 1.31
19 Dallas 1.31
20 Nashville 1.30
21 San Antonio 1.30
22 Phoenix 1.30
Peer Average 1.29
23 Las Vegas 1.27
24 Tampa 1.27
25 Philadelphia 1.26
26 Minneapolis 1.26
27 Baltimore 1.25
28 Detroit 1.25
29 Orlando 1.24
30 Jacksonville 1.24
31 Charlotte 1.24
32 Columbus 1.21
33 Salt Lake City 1.21
34 Oklahoma City 1.20
35 Pittsburgh 1.20
36 Louisville 1.19
37 Indianapolis 1.19
38 Memphis 1.19
39 Virginia Beach 1.18
40 Hartford 1.18
41 Providence 1.18
42 Milwaukee 1.18
43 Cincinnati 1.18
44 Buffalo 1.17
45 Raleigh 1.17
46 Kansas City 1.16
47 Birmingham 1.15
48 St. Louis 1.15
49 Cleveland 1.15
50 Richmond 1.13
Congestion Costs
Average annual costs per auto traveler, in dollars, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 2,676
2 San Francisco 2,619
3 Washington, D.C. 2,015
4 New York 1,947
5 Atlanta 1,653
6 San Jose 1,643
7 San Diego 1,584
8 Boston 1,580
9 Seattle 1,541
10 Houston 1,508
11 Chicago 1,431
12 Miami 1,412
13 Austin 1,391
14 Portland 1,305
15 Riverside 1,288
16 Dallas 1,272
17 Charlotte 1,269
18 Nashville 1,217
19 New Orleans 1,208
20 Philadelphia 1,203
Peer Average 1,187
21 Denver 1,163
22 Detroit 1,129
23 Sacramento 1,118
24 Cincinnati 1,110
25 Orlando 1,103
26 Phoenix 1,089
27 Columbus 1,054
28 Baltimore 1,046
29 Tampa 987
30 Minneapolis 980
31 Cleveland 970
32 Buffalo 965
33 San Antonio 964
34 Las Vegas 932
35 Pittsburgh 908
36 St. Louis 898
37 Jacksonville 893
38 Hartford 881
39 Milwaukee 864
40 Oklahoma City 842
41 Kansas City 837
42 Salt Lake City 833
43 Providence 828
44 Birmingham 819
45 Indianapolis 813
46 Raleigh 794
47 Virginia Beach 758
48 Louisville 726
49 Memphis 651
50 Richmond 641
Truck Congestion Costs
Average annual costs per 1,000 vehicle miles traveled, in dollars, 2017
Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Urban Mobility Report Data is for urbanized areas.
1 San Francisco 9.0
2 San Jose 8.4
3 Los Angeles 8.1
4 New York 7.6
5 New Orleans 7.3
6 Portland 6.5
7 Seattle 6.2
8 Washington, D.C. 5.9
9 Miami 5.6
10 Riverside 5.6
11 Chicago 5.6
12 Sacramento 5.3
13 Las Vegas 4.9
14 San Diego 4.9
15 Philadelphia 4.9
16 Houston 4.8
17 Austin 4.8
18 Phoenix 4.8
19 Boston 4.7
20 Denver 4.5
21 Atlanta 4.5
Peer Average 4.4
22 Detroit 4.4
23 Pittsburgh 4.3
24 Buffalo 4.1
25 Cincinnati 4.1
26 Oklahoma City 4.0
27 Baltimore 4.0
28 Dallas 3.9
29 Orlando 3.8
30 Cleveland 3.8
31 Tampa 3.7
32 Minneapolis 3.7
33 Columbus 3.6
34 San Antonio 3.5
35 Louisville 3.4
36 Salt Lake City 3.4
37 Providence 3.4
38 Charlotte 3.4
39 Milwaukee 3.2
40 Jacksonville 3.2
41 Nashville 3.1
42 Hartford 3.1
43 Virginia Beach 3.1
44 St. Louis 2.9
45 Indianapolis 2.9
46 Kansas City 2.7
47 Raleigh 2.5
48 Memphis 2.5
49 Birmingham 2.3
50 Richmond 2.2
Peak Hour Excessive Delay
Hours per capita spent on roads with more than normal delay during evening rush hour (3-7 p.m.), 2019
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Los Angeles 41.5
2 San Francisco 28.1
3 San Jose 25.2
4 Seattle 22.5
5 Washington, D.C. 22.1
6 Austin 22.0
7 New York 20.8
8 Baltimore 19.4
9 Atlanta 18.6
10 Denver 16.7
11 Chicago 15.6
12 San Diego 15.4
13 Philadelphia 14.8
14 Riverside 14.5
15 Sacramento 14.5
16 Charlotte 14.4
Peer Average 13.6
17 Houston 13.5
18 Dallas 12.2
19 Detroit 11.4
20 Miami 10.7
21 San Antonio 10.5
22 Orlando 10.3
23 Pittsburgh 9.9
24 Tampa 8.9
25 St. Louis 8.8
26 Cincinnati 8.6
27 Minneapolis 8.1
28 Las Vegas 7.4
29 Columbus 7.0
30 Phoenix 7.0
31 Memphis 6.7
32 Jacksonville 6.5
33 Cleveland 6.2
34 Virginia Beach 5.5
35 Kansas City 3.6
Interstate Travel Time Reliability
Percent of person-miles traveled on interstates that are reliable, 2019
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Richmond 93.9
2 Memphis 92.6
3 Virginia Beach 88.4
4 Cleveland 88.1
5 Louisville 88.0
6 Pittsburgh 86.3
7 Kansas City 85.2
8 Indianapolis 83.9
9 Providence 83.0
10 St. Louis 82.1
11 Milwaukee 81.6
12 Jacksonville 78.3
13 Salt Lake City 77.2
14 Columbus 76.9
15 Tampa 75.7
16 Detroit 74.0
17 Dallas 74.0
18 Charlotte 74.0
19 Cincinnati 72.6
20 Philadelphia 71.6
21 San Antonio 71.0
22 Las Vegas 70.7
Peer Average 70.2
23 Miami 69.4
24 Minneapolis 68.3
25 New York 67.1
26 Houston 65.7
27 Riverside 65.4
28 Chicago 65.2
29 Atlanta 65.0
30 Nashville 64.8
31 Baltimore 64.5
32 Sacramento 63.7
33 San Diego 61.7
34 Austin 58.3
35 San Jose 57.4
36 Washington, D.C. 56.2
37 Portland 55.9
38 Phoenix 55.5
39 Boston 54.6
40 San Francisco 54.3
41 Denver 54.3
42 Seattle 53.7
43 Orlando 53.0
44 Los Angeles 46.9
Non-Interstate Travel Time Reliability
Percent of person-miles traveled on non-interstates that are reliable, 2019
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Richmond 92.6
2 Virginia Beach 89.7
3 Milwaukee 89.6
4 Cincinnati 89.2
5 Indianapolis 88.9
6 Memphis 88.2
7 Providence 88.1
8 Kansas City 88.1
9 Cleveland 86.7
10 Chicago 86.4
11 Orlando 85.5
12 Pittsburgh 85.5
13 Philadelphia 85.1
14 St. Louis 84.9
15 Tampa 83.9
16 Jacksonville 83.5
17 Las Vegas 82.6
18 Detroit 81.8
19 Denver 81.0
Peer Average 78.9
20 Portland 78.8
21 Nashville 78.4
22 Columbus 78.1
23 Boston 77.8
24 Miami 77.4
25 Houston 77.3
26 Salt Lake City 77.2
27 Minneapolis 76.5
28 Baltimore 76.3
29 New York 76.2
30 Phoenix 75.0
31 Atlanta 74.5
32 Washington, D.C. 74.1
33 San Diego 73.0
34 Charlotte 72.6
35 Riverside 71.9
36 Louisville 71.6
37 San Antonio 70.8
38 Sacramento 70.4
39 Austin 69.6
40 Seattle 69.6
41 Los Angeles 69.6
42 Dallas 68.4
43 San Francisco 65.8
44 San Jose 60.9
Truck Travel Time Reliability Index
2019
Source: Federal Highway Administration, National Performance Management Research Data Set Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Seattle 2.80
2 Washington, D.C. 2.78
3 Orlando 2.70
4 San Francisco 2.65
5 Portland 2.61
6 Los Angeles 2.55
Peer Average 2.44
7 San Jose 2.43
8 Houston 2.41
9 San Diego 2.40
10 Minneapolis 2.37
11 Sacramento 2.35
12 Phoenix 2.35
13 New York 2.34
14 Miami 2.30
15 Austin 2.27
16 Boston 2.23
17 Denver 2.21
18 Baltimore 2.20
19 Nashville 2.13
20 Riverside 2.12
21 Virginia Beach 2.10
22 Dallas 2.09
23 Chicago 2.09
24 Atlanta 2.09
25 Detroit 2.07
26 Cincinnati 2.04
27 Charlotte 2.00
28 Columbus 1.94
29 Philadelphia 1.92
30 Salt Lake City 1.91
31 Tampa 1.90
32 Jacksonville 1.90
33 San Antonio 1.88
34 Indianapolis 1.84
35 Louisville 1.84
36 Providence 1.81
37 St. Louis 1.77
38 Milwaukee 1.76
39 Las Vegas 1.75
40 Pittsburgh 1.68
41 Kansas City 1.64
42 Cleveland 1.61
43 Memphis 1.48
44 Richmond 1.40

Each year, thousands of people die in motor vehicle crashes in the United States. Based on data for urbanized areas, St. Louis has one of the higher overall crash fatality rates among the peers. The region’s fatality rate due to speed is particularly high relative to the peers. The region is below the national average on crash fatalities associated with distracted driving as well as those that involve drugs and alcohol. See Where We Stand 7th Edition Update, 9 for further discussion.

Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Las Vegas 1.88
2 Memphis 1.43
3 Tampa 1.38
4 Miami 1.34
5 Louisville 1.20
6 Riverside 1.10
7 Phoenix 1.06
8 Orlando 1.06
9 Jacksonville 1.04
10 New Orleans 1.02
11 Philadelphia 0.96
12 San Antonio 0.87
13 Dallas 0.86
14 Atlanta 0.82
15 St. Louis 0.81
16 Charlotte 0.80
17 Sacramento 0.80
18 Houston 0.79
19 Birmingham 0.79
20 Virginia Beach 0.79
United States 0.79
21 Oklahoma City 0.78
22 Hartford 0.76
23 Portland 0.76
24 Indianapolis 0.76
25 Kansas City 0.74
26 Baltimore 0.74
27 Denver 0.74
28 Pittsburgh 0.74
29 San Diego 0.72
30 Los Angeles 0.72
31 Milwaukee 0.70
32 Chicago 0.69
33 Columbus 0.68
34 San Jose 0.68
35 Detroit 0.68
36 Cincinnati 0.67
37 Austin 0.64
38 New York 0.63
39 Richmond 0.62
40 Seattle 0.61
41 Washington, D.C. 0.60
42 Providence 0.59
43 Salt Lake City 0.58
44 Cleveland 0.52
45 San Francisco 0.48
46 Nashville 0.45
47 Raleigh 0.42
48 Minneapolis 0.40
49 Buffalo 0.35
50 Boston 0.35
Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Associated with Speed
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Las Vegas 0.39
2 Milwaukee 0.28
3 St. Louis 0.26
4 Riverside 0.24
5 Oklahoma City 0.23
6 Providence 0.23
7 Kansas City 0.23
8 Virginia Beach 0.22
9 Phoenix 0.21
10 Charlotte 0.21
11 Memphis 0.21
12 Seattle 0.20
13 Philadelphia 0.20
14 Denver 0.20
15 Dallas 0.20
16 Chicago 0.18
17 Pittsburgh 0.18
18 Cleveland 0.17
19 Portland 0.17
20 Hartford 0.16
21 Birmingham 0.16
22 Los Angeles 0.15
United States 0.15
23 Baltimore 0.15
24 San Diego 0.15
25 San Antonio 0.15
26 Atlanta 0.15
27 Salt Lake City 0.15
28 Cincinnati 0.14
29 Austin 0.14
30 Columbus 0.14
31 Washington, D.C. 0.13
32 Detroit 0.13
33 Sacramento 0.12
34 Indianapolis 0.12
35 Minneapolis 0.12
36 San Jose 0.11
37 Miami 0.11
38 Raleigh 0.11
39 Houston 0.10
40 Richmond 0.10
41 San Francisco 0.10
42 New York 0.10
43 Buffalo 0.09
44 Tampa 0.08
45 New Orleans 0.08
46 Boston 0.08
47 Louisville 0.07
48 Jacksonville 0.06
49 Orlando 0.06
50 Nashville 0.03
Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Associated with Distracted Drivers
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Louisville 0.22
2 San Antonio 0.18
3 Orlando 0.14
4 New Orleans 0.12
5 Oklahoma City 0.12
6 Seattle 0.12
7 Austin 0.12
8 Tampa 0.12
9 Charlotte 0.10
10 Dallas 0.10
11 Phoenix 0.09
12 New York 0.08
13 Philadelphia 0.08
14 San Jose 0.07
United States 0.07
15 Cincinnati 0.07
16 Miami 0.07
17 Washington, D.C. 0.07
18 Virginia Beach 0.07
19 Kansas City 0.06
20 Riverside 0.06
21 Las Vegas 0.06
22 St. Louis 0.06
23 Houston 0.06
24 Baltimore 0.06
25 Salt Lake City 0.05
26 Columbus 0.05
27 Atlanta 0.05
28 Richmond 0.05
29 Boston 0.05
30 San Diego 0.04
31 Sacramento 0.04
32 Portland 0.04
33 Birmingham 0.04
34 Milwaukee 0.04
35 Detroit 0.04
36 Buffalo 0.04
37 Pittsburgh 0.04
38 Jacksonville 0.04
39 Providence 0.04
40 Memphis 0.03
41 Minneapolis 0.03
42 Los Angeles 0.03
43 Chicago 0.03
44 Raleigh 0.02
45 Hartford 0.02
46 San Francisco 0.02
47 Denver 0.02
48 Nashville 0.02
49 Indianapolis 0.01
50 Cleveland 0.01
Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Associated with Drugs or Alcohol
Deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled, 2018
Source: Federal Highway Administration, FARS database Data is for urbanized areas.
1 Las Vegas 0.60
2 Jacksonville 0.54
3 Riverside 0.44
4 New Orleans 0.40
5 San Antonio 0.35
6 Denver 0.34
7 Houston 0.34
8 Tampa 0.34
9 Philadelphia 0.33
10 Charlotte 0.32
11 Dallas 0.29
12 Orlando 0.29
13 Cincinnati 0.27
14 Oklahoma City 0.26
15 Phoenix 0.25
United States 0.25
16 Sacramento 0.25
17 Miami 0.25
18 Baltimore 0.24
19 Detroit 0.23
20 Milwaukee 0.23
21 San Diego 0.22
22 Nashville 0.21
23 Los Angeles 0.20
24 Pittsburgh 0.19
25 St. Louis 0.19
26 San Jose 0.19
27 Richmond 0.18
28 Virginia Beach 0.17
29 Kansas City 0.17
30 New York 0.17
31 Washington, D.C. 0.16
32 Indianapolis 0.16
33 Columbus 0.16
34 Cleveland 0.16
35 San Francisco 0.16
36 Austin 0.16
37 Birmingham 0.15
38 Salt Lake City 0.15
39 Portland 0.14
40 Seattle 0.13
41 Memphis 0.13
42 Hartford 0.13
43 Chicago 0.13
44 Louisville 0.12
45 Providence 0.12
46 Raleigh 0.10
47 Minneapolis 0.09
48 Atlanta 0.09
49 Boston 0.07
50 Buffalo 0.04

The St. Louis transit system ranks about in the middle among the peers for total ridership, the utility of the system, and the amount of funding spent on the system. Regions with more extensive transit systems tend to be more densely populated. The range among the peer regions is considerable on these metrics. For further discussion, see the Transit Ridership performance indicator on OneSTL.

Transit Ridership
Annual transit boardings per capita, 2020
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 New York 108.7
2 San Francisco 103.8
3 Washington, D.C. 68.7
4 Boston 67.8
5 Portland 47.2
6 Philadelphia 46.5
Peer Average 37.0
7 Baltimore 36.4
8 Los Angeles 35.6
9 Seattle 35.3
10 Pittsburgh 30.8
11 Las Vegas 30.2
12 San Diego 27.4
13 Chicago 27.0
14 Buffalo 25.5
15 Salt Lake City 23.1
16 Denver 22.1
17 Atlanta 21.2
18 San Antonio 18.3
19 San Jose 17.2
20 Hartford 17.2
21 Austin 16.7
22 Charlotte 16.5
23 Minneapolis 16.2
24 Miami 16.2
25 Phoenix 15.6
26 St. Louis 14.9
27 Milwaukee 13.9
28 Houston 13.2
29 Orlando 12.5
30 Sacramento 12.0
31 Providence 12.0
32 Dallas 10.9
33 New Orleans 10.1
34 Richmond 9.7
35 Cleveland 9.7
36 Raleigh 9.6
37 Louisville 9.1
38 Tampa 8.6
39 Nashville 8.6
40 Riverside 8.5
41 Kansas City 8.1
42 Columbus 7.7
43 Jacksonville 7.5
44 Detroit 7.5
45 Virginia Beach 7.3
46 Cincinnati 6.3
47 Memphis 4.8
48 Indianapolis 4.1
49 Oklahoma City 3.7
50 Birmingham 2.8
Change in Transit Ridership
Percent change in annual transit boardings, 2010-2020
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 Oklahoma City 14.4
2 Raleigh 4.3
3 Las Vegas -0.9
4 Hartford -3.9
5 Buffalo -11.0
6 Nashville -11.7
7 Charlotte -14.8
8 San Diego -15.7
9 Phoenix -17.1
10 Dallas -17.6
11 Houston -19.6
12 San Francisco -19.9
13 Birmingham -20.0
14 Kansas City -21.3
15 Pittsburgh -21.4
16 Portland -21.5
17 Boston -22.0
18 Tampa -23.0
19 San Antonio -24.2
20 Baltimore -24.9
21 St. Louis -25.3
22 Orlando -26.3
23 Riverside -28.5
24 Jacksonville -31.0
25 Philadelphia -31.2
26 Indianapolis -32.4
27 Providence -32.5
28 San Jose -33.1
29 Washington, D.C. -33.7
30 Virginia Beach -34.1
31 Los Angeles -35.5
32 Austin -36.5
33 Richmond -37.1
34 Salt Lake City -38.6
35 Columbus -38.8
36 Atlanta -39.3
37 Miami -41.7
Peer Average -42.2
38 Seattle -43.0
39 Sacramento -44.2
40 Louisville -45.5
41 Detroit -45.9
42 Denver -46.3
43 New York -51.1
44 Minneapolis -53.3
45 New Orleans -54.6
46 Cincinnati -54.9
47 Memphis -55.8
48 Milwaukee -57.3
49 Cleveland -59.8
50 Chicago -62.9
Change in Transit Ridership
Percent change in annual transit boardings, 2019-2020
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 Buffalo -0.5
2 Oklahoma City -3.7
3 Richmond -4.1
4 Raleigh -11.8
5 Hartford -13.4
6 Las Vegas -13.6
7 Sacramento -13.6
8 San Diego -16.9
9 St. Louis -17.2
10 Charlotte -17.3
11 Baltimore -17.6
12 Riverside -17.8
13 Providence -18.5
14 Pittsburgh -19.2
15 Los Angeles -20.2
16 Nashville -20.5
17 Portland -20.7
18 Kansas City -20.9
19 Detroit -21.0
20 San Jose -21.2
21 Memphis -21.5
22 Phoenix -21.8
23 Virginia Beach -22.9
24 Philadelphia -23.2
25 Washington, D.C. -23.2
26 Atlanta -23.3
27 Louisville -24.0
28 San Francisco -24.1
29 San Antonio -24.4
30 Boston -24.6
31 Tampa -24.9
32 Austin -27.0
33 Dallas -27.2
34 Houston -27.7
35 Orlando -28.5
36 Miami -28.6
37 Jacksonville -30.9
38 Birmingham -36.1
39 Indianapolis -38.1
40 Milwaukee -39.0
Peer Average -41.3
41 Cincinnati -41.8
42 Columbus -46.0
43 Salt Lake City -47.2
44 Cleveland -47.4
45 Denver -50.3
46 Seattle -52.1
47 New Orleans -52.3
48 Minneapolis -53.1
49 New York -53.5
50 Chicago -58.0
Transit Utility
Ratio of annual passenger miles traveled per square mile of urbanized land area, 2020
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 San Francisco 4,297,106
2 New York 3,170,917
3 Los Angeles 1,359,658
4 Washington, D.C. 1,237,134
5 Baltimore 737,689
6 Boston 696,878
7 Portland 680,955
8 San Diego 680,793
9 Seattle 662,367
10 Salt Lake City 639,630
Peer Average 634,626
11 Philadelphia 614,770
12 Las Vegas 541,314
13 Chicago 529,219
14 San Jose 524,537
15 Miami 446,152
16 Denver 439,660
17 Pittsburgh 262,682
18 San Antonio 260,274
19 Phoenix 250,064
20 Austin 238,248
21 Houston 236,467
22 Sacramento 232,715
23 Atlanta 231,697
24 Hartford 230,412
25 St. Louis 214,595
26 Riverside 211,070
27 Buffalo 203,595
28 Orlando 202,510
29 Dallas 195,684
30 Minneapolis 190,098
31 Charlotte 140,632
32 Providence 140,222
33 Detroit 138,510
34 Tampa 131,865
35 New Orleans 120,217
36 Richmond 119,758
37 Milwaukee 115,151
38 Cleveland 107,507
39 Virginia Beach 99,863
40 Nashville 91,573
41 Louisville 91,036
42 Jacksonville 89,001
43 Columbus 86,181
44 Cincinnati 77,756
45 Kansas City 64,114
46 Memphis 56,500
47 Raleigh 53,371
48 Indianapolis 41,534
49 Oklahoma City 32,840
50 Birmingham 31,325
Transit Expenditures
Annual operating expenses per capita, in dollars, 2020
Source: Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database
1 New York 833
2 San Francisco 787
3 Washington, D.C. 548
4 Seattle 542
5 Boston 388
6 Baltimore 379
7 Portland 330
8 Salt Lake City 313
Peer Average 301
9 Chicago 300
10 Philadelphia 279
11 Pittsburgh 266
12 Denver 263
13 Los Angeles 254
14 San Jose 242
15 Minneapolis 211
16 Hartford 184
17 Austin 170
18 Miami 167
19 New Orleans 158
20 Cleveland 157
21 Buffalo 151
22 St. Louis 143
23 Sacramento 142
24 Charlotte 139
25 San Diego 135
26 Columbus 135
27 Dallas 132
28 San Antonio 129
29 Atlanta 126
30 Orlando 125
31 Houston 121
32 Las Vegas 121
33 Providence 117
34 Milwaukee 114
35 Phoenix 111
36 Jacksonville 110
37 Nashville 100
38 Riverside 96
39 Louisville 91
40 Cincinnati 81
41 Kansas City 76
42 Indianapolis 74
43 Virginia Beach 69
44 Tampa 66
45 Richmond 63
46 Detroit 61
47 Raleigh 60
48 Memphis 54
49 Birmingham 43
50 Oklahoma City 40

The measures in this section indicate that St. Louis is about average with respect to how efficiently people can reach destinations when considering time, distance, and cost. The region has shorter than average commute times, a higher Walk Score for the city of St. Louis than is average among the largest cities of the peer regions, and below average number of flight departures. Residents in St. Louis who do not have access to a vehicle are limited in the destinations they can reach. Black households are far more likely to have this barrier. For further discussion see the Employment Transit Access and the Residential Transit Access performance indicators on OneSTL.

No-Vehicle Households
Households without access to a vehicle as a percent of all households, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B25045)
1 New York 29.8
2 Philadelphia 12.4
3 Boston 12.3
4 Chicago 11.5
5 San Francisco 11.3
6 Buffalo 11.1
7 Washington, D.C. 10.3
8 New Orleans 9.4
9 Baltimore 9.2
10 Cleveland 9.2
11 Providence 9.0
12 Pittsburgh 8.8
13 Milwaukee 8.7
14 Hartford 8.6
United States 8.0
15 Seattle 7.8
16 Miami 7.8
17 Los Angeles 7.6
18 Las Vegas 7.5
19 Portland 7.4
20 Louisville 7.3
21 Detroit 7.2
22 Minneapolis 6.7
23 St. Louis 6.5
24 Virginia Beach 6.5
25 Cincinnati 6.5
26 Memphis 6.4
27 Richmond 6.3
28 Tampa 6.0
29 Houston 5.8
30 Denver 5.8
31 Sacramento 5.6
32 Columbus 5.5
33 San Diego 5.5
34 Oklahoma City 5.2
35 San Jose 5.2
36 San Antonio 5.2
37 Kansas City 5.1
38 Jacksonville 5.0
39 Raleigh 5.0
40 Atlanta 4.8
41 Indianapolis 4.7
42 Orlando 4.7
43 Salt Lake City 4.7
44 Birmingham 4.7
45 Charlotte 4.7
46 Phoenix 4.7
47 Dallas 4.5
48 Riverside 4.4
49 Austin 4.1
50 Nashville 4.0
Racial Disparity in No-Vehicle Households
Ratio of non-Hispanic black to non-Hispanic white, percent of households without access to a vehicle, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (S0201)
1 Raleigh 4.92
2 Pittsburgh 4.82
3 Baltimore 4.43
4 Cincinnati 4.27
5 Milwaukee 4.05
6 Minneapolis 3.90
7 Kansas City 3.75
8 Philadelphia 3.67
9 Louisville 3.63
10 Nashville 3.59
11 Virginia Beach 3.57
12 St. Louis 3.57
13 Las Vegas 3.45
14 Cleveland 3.41
15 Birmingham 3.33
16 Oklahoma City 3.21
17 Detroit 3.21
18 Jacksonville 3.09
19 New Orleans 3.04
20 Hartford 3.02
21 Buffalo 3.01
22 Providence 2.99
23 San Diego 2.95
24 Indianapolis 2.94
25 Houston 2.89
26 Richmond 2.83
27 Dallas 2.82
United States 2.76
28 Chicago 2.75
29 Denver 2.73
30 Atlanta 2.70
31 Los Angeles 2.68
32 Boston 2.66
33 San Antonio 2.61
34 Charlotte 2.61
35 Memphis 2.49
36 Phoenix 2.43
37 Columbus 2.37
38 Washington, D.C. 2.36
39 Orlando 2.19
40 Seattle 2.09
41 New York 2.09
42 Austin 2.05
43 San Francisco 2.02
44 Sacramento 1.91
45 Miami 1.85
46 Tampa 1.77
47 Portland 1.76
48 Riverside 1.55
Average Commute Time
In minutes, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08013, B08302)
1 New York 34.2
2 Riverside 32.2
3 Washington, D.C. 31.0
4 Atlanta 29.6
5 Chicago 29.0
6 Houston 28.9
7 San Francisco 28.8
8 Seattle 28.5
9 Los Angeles 28.4
10 Boston 28.4
11 Orlando 28.3
12 Miami 28.3
13 Baltimore 27.7
14 Philadelphia 27.6
15 Dallas 27.3
16 Denver 26.7
17 Tampa 26.7
18 Sacramento 26.5
19 Raleigh 26.5
20 Birmingham 26.2
21 Nashville 26.2
22 Austin 26.1
23 Pittsburgh 25.8
24 San Antonio 25.8
25 Charlotte 25.7
United States 25.6
26 Phoenix 25.6
27 Providence 25.6
28 Detroit 25.4
29 Jacksonville 25.2
30 New Orleans 25.0
31 Indianapolis 24.9
32 Richmond 24.9
33 Portland 24.6
34 San Diego 24.5
35 Las Vegas 24.4
36 St. Louis 24.4
37 San Jose 24.3
38 Virginia Beach 24.2
39 Cincinnati 24.1
40 Cleveland 23.9
41 Memphis 23.8
42 Columbus 23.7
43 Hartford 23.5
44 Minneapolis 23.3
45 Oklahoma City 23.3
46 Kansas City 23.0
47 Louisville 22.8
48 Milwaukee 22.0
49 Salt Lake City 21.7
50 Buffalo 20.7
Transportation Expenses
As a percent of median household income, 2011-2015
Source: Center for Neighborhood Technology
1 Memphis 27
2 Riverside 27
3 Birmingham 26
4 Oklahoma City 26
5 Orlando 26
6 Louisville 25
7 New Orleans 25
8 Indianapolis 25
9 Nashville 25
10 Charlotte 25
11 San Antonio 25
12 Tampa 25
13 Miami 24
14 Cleveland 24
15 Phoenix 24
16 Jacksonville 24
17 Las Vegas 24
18 Buffalo 24
19 Sacramento 24
20 Salt Lake City 23
21 Pittsburgh 23
22 St. Louis 23
23 Atlanta 23
24 Cincinnati 23
25 Kansas City 23
26 Columbus 23
27 Detroit 23
28 Milwaukee 22
29 Raleigh 22
30 Los Angeles 22
31 San Diego 22
32 Houston 22
33 Portland 22
34 Dallas 22
Peer Average 21
35 Virginia Beach 21
36 Richmond 21
37 Austin 21
38 Providence 21
39 Minneapolis 20
40 Denver 20
41 Philadelphia 20
42 Chicago 20
43 Hartford 19
44 Seattle 19
45 Baltimore 18
46 Boston 17
47 San Francisco 16
48 San Jose 16
49 New York 15
50 Washington, D.C. 14
Walk Score of Largest City
2018
Source: Walk Score
1 New York 89.2
2 San Francisco 86.0
3 Boston 80.9
4 Miami 79.2
5 Philadelphia 79.0
6 Providence 79.0
7 Chicago 77.8
8 Washington, D.C. 77.3
9 Seattle 73.1
10 Hartford 71.0
11 Baltimore 69.4
12 Minneapolis 69.2
13 Buffalo 67.8
14 Los Angeles 67.4
15 Portland 64.7
16 St. Louis 64.5
17 Milwaukee 62.1
18 Pittsburgh 61.9
Peer Average 61.6
19 Denver 60.5
20 Cleveland 59.5
21 New Orleans 57.6
22 Salt Lake City 57.0
23 Detroit 55.4
24 Richmond 51.4
25 San Diego 50.9
26 San Jose 50.5
27 Cincinnati 50.4
28 Tampa 50.0
29 Atlanta 49.2
30 Houston 48.7
31 Sacramento 47.1
32 Dallas 46.2
33 Orlando 42.1
34 Riverside 41.3
35 Las Vegas 41.1
36 Phoenix 40.8
37 Columbus 40.7
38 Austin 40.3
39 San Antonio 37.6
40 Memphis 36.8
41 Birmingham 35.4
42 Kansas City 34.2
43 Louisville 33.3
44 Oklahoma City 33.1
45 Virginia Beach 32.9
46 Raleigh 30.1
47 Indianapolis 29.8
48 Nashville 28.3
49 Jacksonville 26.8
50 Charlotte 25.9
Daily Flight Departures
Average number of scheduled passenger departures from area airports, 2018
Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Air Carrier Statistics
1 New York 1,572
2 Chicago 1,403
3 Atlanta 1,175
4 Dallas 1,081
5 Los Angeles 1,034
6 Miami 836
7 Denver 777
8 Houston 751
9 San Francisco 721
10 Charlotte 713
11 Washington, D.C. 684
12 Seattle 599
13 Phoenix 537
14 Boston 532
15 Detroit 515
16 Minneapolis 512
17 Philadelphia 481
18 Las Vegas 469
19 Orlando 440
Peer Average 401
20 Salt Lake City 350
21 Baltimore 324
22 San Diego 274
23 Portland 268
24 Memphis 264
25 St. Louis 252
26 Tampa 248
27 Nashville 216
28 Raleigh 190
29 Indianapolis 190
30 Louisville 185
31 Austin 185
32 San Jose 181
33 Pittsburgh 170
34 Kansas City 162
35 Cincinnati 156
36 New Orleans 156
37 Sacramento 153
38 Cleveland 147
39 Columbus 141
40 Riverside 124
41 San Antonio 122
42 Milwaukee 110
43 Jacksonville 96
44 Hartford 92
45 Providence 92
46 Buffalo 88
47 Virginia Beach 84
48 Richmond 84
49 Oklahoma City 71
50 Birmingham 58
Change in Daily Flight Departures
Percent change, 2013-2018
Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Air Carrier Statistics
1 San Jose 49.4
2 Seattle 44.1
3 Boston 27.4
4 Austin 26.1
5 Orlando 22.5
6 Sacramento 21.3
7 Miami 19.2
8 Tampa 17.2
9 San Diego 17.1
10 Nashville 16.6
11 Portland 14.4
12 New Orleans 14.3
13 Los Angeles 12.7
14 Pittsburgh 12.1
15 Raleigh 11.8
16 Louisville 10.7
17 San Francisco 10.6
18 Jacksonville 9.2
19 Las Vegas 9.1
20 St. Louis 9.0
21 Indianapolis 8.4
22 Richmond 7.6
23 Providence 7.1
24 Riverside 7.1
25 Baltimore 5.7
26 Columbus 5.6
27 Salt Lake City 5.3
Peer Average 4.3
28 New York 4.0
29 Birmingham 3.5
30 Dallas 3.4
31 Chicago 0.1
32 Denver -0.4
33 Charlotte -1.1
34 Phoenix -1.5
35 San Antonio -1.8
36 Cincinnati -2.0
37 Hartford -2.0
38 Atlanta -3.0
39 Kansas City -3.5
40 Oklahoma City -3.9
41 Washington, D.C. -5.8
42 Houston -6.4
43 Memphis -6.6
44 Minneapolis -6.9
45 Detroit -8.5
46 Milwaukee -11.3
47 Virginia Beach -11.7
48 Buffalo -13.0
49 Philadelphia -14.6
50 Cleveland -34.2

The most popular mode of commuting to work in all of the peer regions is by car. Providing more transportation choices can have environmental benefits, increase physical activity, and reduce traffic congestion. The St. Louis region’s long-range transportation plan includes a goal to increase non-single occupancy travel (SOV); St. Louis has a lower rate on this metric than many of the peer regions. See the Transportation Choice performance indicator on OneSTL for further discussion.

Workers Who Commute by Driving Alone
Percent of workers, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 Memphis 78.1
2 Birmingham 76.3
3 Oklahoma City 75.7
4 Louisville 73.7
5 New Orleans 73.6
6 Riverside 73.3
7 Buffalo 73.3
8 Virginia Beach 73.0
9 Cincinnati 72.4
10 Indianapolis 72.1
11 St. Louis 71.8
12 Cleveland 71.3
13 Providence 70.8
14 Milwaukee 70.8
15 Jacksonville 70.7
16 Kansas City 70.7
17 Houston 70.6
18 Las Vegas 70.6
19 Detroit 70.0
20 Nashville 69.4
21 Miami 69.1
22 Orlando 68.9
23 San Antonio 68.9
24 Richmond 68.4
United States 67.8
25 Hartford 67.8
26 Tampa 67.8
27 Dallas 67.6
28 Columbus 67.1
29 Pittsburgh 66.5
30 Baltimore 65.3
31 Charlotte 65.2
32 Atlanta 64.3
33 Sacramento 64.2
34 San Diego 63.6
35 Phoenix 63.5
36 Los Angeles 63.2
37 Salt Lake City 63.0
38 Minneapolis 62.1
39 Chicago 61.4
40 Denver 60.7
41 Philadelphia 60.7
42 Raleigh 60.2
43 Portland 58.9
44 Austin 57.1
45 Seattle 55.2
46 Boston 55.1
47 San Jose 52.7
48 Washington, D.C. 51.4
49 San Francisco 47.1
50 New York 44.0
Workers Who Commute by Carpool
Percent of workers, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 San Antonio 11.0
2 Las Vegas 10.3
3 Riverside 9.8
4 Miami 8.9
5 Houston 8.9
6 Phoenix 8.7
7 Dallas 8.6
8 Salt Lake City 8.5
9 New Orleans 8.5
10 Los Angeles 8.5
11 Orlando 8.3
12 Providence 8.2
13 Oklahoma City 8.2
14 Atlanta 7.9
15 Louisville 7.8
United States 7.8
16 Memphis 7.8
17 Virginia Beach 7.8
18 Birmingham 7.7
19 Sacramento 7.6
20 Jacksonville 7.6
21 Indianapolis 7.4
22 Chicago 7.4
23 Tampa 7.3
24 San Diego 7.3
25 Cleveland 7.2
26 Nashville 7.2
27 San Jose 7.0
28 Washington, D.C. 7.0
29 San Francisco 6.9
30 Detroit 6.8
31 Austin 6.8
32 Hartford 6.7
33 Minneapolis 6.7
34 Denver 6.6
35 Charlotte 6.5
36 Cincinnati 6.5
37 Portland 6.5
38 Kansas City 6.4
39 Seattle 6.4
40 Buffalo 6.3
41 Philadelphia 6.2
42 Pittsburgh 6.2
43 Milwaukee 6.1
44 Baltimore 6.0
45 St. Louis 6.0
46 Columbus 6.0
47 New York 6.0
48 Raleigh 6.0
49 Boston 5.6
50 Richmond 5.4
Workers Who Commute by Public Transportation
Percent of workers, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 New York 19.0
2 Boston 5.6
3 San Francisco 4.9
4 Chicago 4.8
5 Philadelphia 4.7
6 Washington, D.C. 4.1
7 Seattle 3.0
8 Los Angeles 2.8
9 Baltimore 2.6
10 Buffalo 2.5
United States 2.5
11 Pittsburgh 2.4
12 Portland 2.3
13 Miami 2.0
14 Salt Lake City 2.0
15 Hartford 1.9
16 Las Vegas 1.8
17 Milwaukee 1.7
18 San Diego 1.7
19 Denver 1.7
20 Minneapolis 1.7
21 New Orleans 1.4
22 Cleveland 1.4
23 Houston 1.3
24 St. Louis 1.2
25 Providence 1.2
26 San Antonio 1.1
27 San Jose 1.1
28 Virginia Beach 1.0
29 Atlanta 1.0
30 Phoenix 0.9
31 Cincinnati 0.9
32 Columbus 0.9
33 Detroit 0.9
34 Richmond 0.9
35 Sacramento 0.9
36 Orlando 0.8
37 Louisville 0.7
38 Austin 0.7
39 Jacksonville 0.7
40 Riverside 0.7
41 Tampa 0.7
42 Charlotte 0.7
43 Indianapolis 0.6
44 Dallas 0.6
45 Nashville 0.6
46 Kansas City 0.5
47 Raleigh 0.4
48 Birmingham 0.2
49 Oklahoma City 0.2
50 Memphis 0.2
Workers Who Work at Home
Percent of workers, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 San Francisco 35.1
2 San Jose 34.8
3 Washington, D.C. 33.1
4 Austin 32.2
5 Raleigh 31.0
6 Seattle 30.6
7 Denver 27.5
8 Portland 27.5
9 Boston 26.9
10 Minneapolis 26.0
11 Charlotte 25.3
12 Atlanta 24.2
13 Philadelphia 23.6
14 Phoenix 23.4
15 Sacramento 23.3
16 Richmond 23.0
17 Columbus 23.0
18 Salt Lake City 22.9
19 New York 22.8
20 Baltimore 22.2
21 San Diego 22.1
22 Chicago 21.5
23 Tampa 21.2
24 Los Angeles 21.2
25 Pittsburgh 21.1
26 Dallas 20.7
27 Nashville 20.6
28 Hartford 20.3
29 Kansas City 20.0
30 Detroit 19.8
31 Orlando 19.0
32 St. Louis 18.7
33 Jacksonville 17.9
34 Milwaukee 17.9
United States 17.9
35 Indianapolis 17.7
36 Cincinnati 17.1
37 Cleveland 16.5
38 Miami 16.1
39 San Antonio 15.8
40 Providence 15.8
41 Houston 15.5
42 Louisville 15.4
43 Buffalo 14.3
44 Virginia Beach 13.8
45 Birmingham 13.7
46 Riverside 13.6
47 Las Vegas 13.3
48 Oklahoma City 12.3
49 New Orleans 12.2
50 Memphis 11.7
Workers Who Commute by Walking or Biking
Percent of workers, 2021
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (B08006)
1 New York 5.8
2 Boston 5.0
3 San Francisco 4.2
4 Portland 3.6
5 San Diego 3.6
6 Seattle 3.5
7 Chicago 3.2
8 Philadelphia 3.2
9 San Jose 3.0
10 Virginia Beach 3.0
11 Washington, D.C. 2.6
12 Providence 2.6
United States 2.6
13 Los Angeles 2.5
14 Milwaukee 2.5
15 Pittsburgh 2.5
16 Salt Lake City 2.5
17 Sacramento 2.4
18 Buffalo 2.4
19 New Orleans 2.4
20 Cleveland 2.3
21 Baltimore 2.3
22 Minneapolis 2.3
23 Denver 2.2
24 Hartford 2.0
25 Cincinnati 1.9
26 Columbus 1.9
27 Austin 1.8
28 Oklahoma City 1.8
29 Miami 1.8
30 Phoenix 1.7
31 Indianapolis 1.6
32 San Antonio 1.6
33 Houston 1.5
34 Tampa 1.5
35 St. Louis 1.5
36 Jacksonville 1.4
37 Richmond 1.4
38 Orlando 1.4
39 Detroit 1.4
40 Las Vegas 1.4
41 Riverside 1.3
42 Louisville 1.3
43 Kansas City 1.2
44 Nashville 1.2
45 Dallas 1.2
46 Birmingham 1.2
47 Raleigh 1.1
48 Charlotte 1.1
49 Atlanta 1.1
50 Memphis 0.9
Non-Single Occupancy Vehicle Travel
Percent of workers commuting by all modes except driving alone by car, van, or truck, 2019
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (DP03)
1 New York 49.0
2 San Francisco 41.2
3 Washington, D.C. 32.7
4 Boston 32.6
5 Seattle 32.2
6 Chicago 29.1
7 Portland 28.9
8 Philadelphia 27.4
9 Denver 24.9
10 Austin 24.2
11 Pittsburgh 24.0
12 San Jose 24.0
13 Los Angeles 23.5
United States 22.7
14 Phoenix 22.7
15 San Diego 22.6
16 Sacramento 22.4
17 Salt Lake City 22.1
18 Baltimore 22.0
19 Atlanta 22.0
20 Minneapolis 21.8
21 New Orleans 21.6
22 Orlando 21.0
23 Miami 20.4
24 Tampa 20.4
25 San Antonio 20.1
26 Charlotte 19.7
27 Nashville 19.7
28 Raleigh 19.5
29 Riverside 19.0
30 Las Vegas 18.7
31 Dallas 18.5
32 Milwaukee 18.5
33 Providence 18.4
34 Richmond 18.2
35 Cleveland 18.1
36 Houston 17.9
37 Jacksonville 17.7
38 Indianapolis 17.6
39 Columbus 17.5
40 Cincinnati 17.4
41 Virginia Beach 17.2
42 Hartford 17.2
43 Louisville 17.0
44 Buffalo 16.8
45 Detroit 16.5
46 St. Louis 15.8
47 Kansas City 15.7
48 Oklahoma City 14.9
49 Memphis 14.3
50 Birmingham 14.1

Education

A quality workforce begins with an excellent education system. This section documents that the region is about average on measures related to the competitiveness of the region’s primary and secondary school system. Regarding the adult population, the region is relatively well educated. See page 60 of Where We Stand – 8th Edition for further discussion. Click on a tab to view the Where We Stand tables for a section, click on the tab again to collapse it.

The St. Louis region is about average among the peer regions regarding the amount of education spending per pupil in primary schools. Nationwide, less than 10 percent of funding for schools is from federal sources. There is a wide range in the amount of funding from state and local sources among the peer regions. St. Louis is just below the national average on state funding per pupil and just above average on local funding per pupil. See Where We Stand 8th Edition White Paper 2 for further discussion.

Education Spending
Total spending per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 New York 26,857
2 Philadelphia 23,498
3 Buffalo 22,387
4 Hartford 22,071
5 Pittsburgh 20,346
6 Boston 19,888
7 Providence 18,315
8 Chicago 18,041
9 Cleveland 17,791
10 Washington, D.C. 17,183
11 Minneapolis 16,772
12 Baltimore 16,350
13 San Jose 16,182
14 San Francisco 15,659
15 New Orleans 15,514
16 Seattle 15,143
17 Columbus 14,958
18 Detroit 14,758
19 Los Angeles 14,586
United States 14,551
20 Portland 14,466
21 Austin 14,396
22 Cincinnati 14,331
23 San Diego 14,254
24 Milwaukee 14,230
25 Riverside 13,970
26 St. Louis 13,906
27 Sacramento 13,802
28 Houston 12,902
29 Louisville 12,555
30 Kansas City 12,299
31 Dallas 12,297
32 Virginia Beach 12,126
33 Indianapolis 12,052
34 Denver 11,975
35 San Antonio 11,897
36 Atlanta 11,715
37 Nashville 11,329
38 Richmond 11,305
39 Birmingham 11,221
40 Memphis 10,877
41 Raleigh 10,840
42 Charlotte 10,680
43 Orlando 10,664
44 Las Vegas 10,528
45 Miami 10,461
46 Tampa 10,132
47 Jacksonville 9,731
48 Phoenix 8,851
49 Salt Lake City 8,753
50 Oklahoma City 8,649
Change in Education Spending
Percent change in dollars per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Chicago 28.1
2 Portland 23.9
3 Hartford 22.1
4 Pittsburgh 20.9
5 Philadelphia 18.4
6 Seattle 16.9
7 Cleveland 16.7
8 Buffalo 16.2
9 New York 15.4
10 Nashville 14.3
11 San Jose 11.2
12 Minneapolis 10.7
13 Salt Lake City 10.7
14 Houston 10.6
15 Boston 10.4
16 St. Louis 8.8
17 Riverside 8.6
18 Providence 8.5
19 Memphis 7.7
20 Los Angeles 5.7
United States 4.3
21 San Francisco 4.3
22 Austin 2.9
23 Milwaukee 2.6
24 Baltimore 2.4
25 Louisville 2.4
26 Dallas 1.9
27 Cincinnati 1.9
28 Sacramento 1.5
29 Columbus 1.3
30 San Diego 0.6
31 Denver 0.5
32 Washington, D.C. -0.6
33 Detroit -2.7
34 Kansas City -3.3
35 San Antonio -3.8
36 Charlotte -4.8
37 Raleigh -5.6
38 Virginia Beach -6.2
39 New Orleans -8.3
40 Atlanta -9.5
41 Richmond -10.7
42 Birmingham -11.5
43 Oklahoma City -12.0
44 Indianapolis -12.3
45 Orlando -15.0
46 Jacksonville -15.1
47 Las Vegas -15.1
48 Tampa -16.2
49 Phoenix -17.4
50 Miami -28.2
Education Curriculum Spending
Dollars per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 New York 23,648
2 Hartford 19,274
3 Buffalo 19,184
4 Philadelphia 18,537
5 Boston 17,302
6 Pittsburgh 16,376
7 Providence 15,871
8 Chicago 15,582
9 Cleveland 14,751
10 Washington, D.C. 14,264
11 Baltimore 14,234
12 Columbus 12,814
13 Minneapolis 12,140
14 San Jose 12,135
15 Milwaukee 11,947
16 St. Louis 11,916
United States 11,910
17 San Francisco 11,883
18 Los Angeles 11,850
19 Seattle 11,657
20 New Orleans 11,589
21 Riverside 11,555
22 Cincinnati 11,441
23 Detroit 11,416
24 Portland 11,392
25 San Diego 11,122
26 Sacramento 10,910
27 Virginia Beach 10,611
28 Louisville 10,470
29 Richmond 10,004
30 Kansas City 9,974
31 Atlanta 9,881
32 Indianapolis 9,688
33 Denver 9,567
34 Birmingham 9,217
35 Nashville 8,976
36 Memphis 8,956
37 Miami 8,864
38 Austin 8,844
39 Houston 8,780
40 San Antonio 8,745
41 Dallas 8,652
42 Las Vegas 8,585
43 Charlotte 8,493
44 Tampa 8,420
45 Orlando 8,376
46 Jacksonville 8,303
47 Raleigh 8,280
48 Phoenix 7,447
49 Oklahoma City 6,933
50 Salt Lake City 6,812
Change in Education Curriculum Spending
Percent change in dollars per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Chicago 36.0
2 Hartford 27.6
3 Philadelphia 24.1
4 Pittsburgh 23.4
5 Seattle 23.3
6 Riverside 22.7
7 Buffalo 20.3
8 New York 18.9
9 Portland 16.0
10 Cleveland 15.3
11 St. Louis 13.9
12 San Jose 12.3
13 San Francisco 11.7
14 Minneapolis 11.7
15 Salt Lake City 11.1
16 Boston 11.0
17 Los Angeles 10.8
18 Nashville 9.6
19 Baltimore 9.2
20 Columbus 9.0
21 Sacramento 8.7
22 Providence 8.2
United States 7.5
23 Memphis 6.8
24 Houston 4.4
25 San Diego 3.7
26 Cincinnati 3.4
27 Louisville 3.2
28 Washington, D.C. 2.1
29 Denver 1.9
30 Dallas 1.7
31 Austin 0.1
32 San Antonio -0.2
33 Charlotte -1.2
34 Kansas City -1.4
35 Milwaukee -2.0
36 Richmond -3.0
37 Detroit -3.3
38 Las Vegas -3.4
39 Virginia Beach -4.0
40 Birmingham -4.7
41 Indianapolis -4.9
42 Atlanta -5.0
43 Raleigh -5.2
44 Phoenix -5.6
45 Tampa -6.6
46 Orlando -6.8
47 Oklahoma City -9.4
48 Jacksonville -9.6
49 New Orleans -11.3
50 Miami -13.5
State Funding per Pupil
Dollars per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 Buffalo 13,019
2 Hartford 9,779
3 Minneapolis 9,756
4 New York 9,524
5 Riverside 9,522
6 Los Angeles 8,840
7 Detroit 8,555
8 Seattle 8,546
9 Philadelphia 8,415
10 Sacramento 8,257
11 Providence 8,018
12 Pittsburgh 7,968
13 Indianapolis 7,950
14 Baltimore 7,363
15 Chicago 7,117
16 Portland 7,055
17 Milwaukee 6,823
18 Boston 6,737
United States 6,726
19 San Diego 6,445
20 Las Vegas 6,391
21 Kansas City 6,374
22 San Francisco 6,011
23 Louisville 6,007
24 St. Louis 5,833
25 Birmingham 5,712
26 Cincinnati 5,645
27 Charlotte 5,621
28 Cleveland 5,595
29 Virginia Beach 5,592
30 Raleigh 5,578
31 Richmond 5,347
32 Washington, D.C. 5,166
33 Atlanta 5,087
34 Denver 4,933
35 Memphis 4,864
36 New Orleans 4,850
37 Jacksonville 4,750
38 Tampa 4,702
39 Columbus 4,658
40 Orlando 4,367
41 Nashville 4,357
42 San Jose 4,253
43 Salt Lake City 4,234
44 San Antonio 3,992
45 Oklahoma City 3,888
46 Dallas 3,688
47 Phoenix 3,658
48 Houston 3,323
49 Miami 3,271
50 Austin 2,446
Change in State Funding per Pupil
Percent change in state funding per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Chicago 67.9
2 Indianapolis 36.1
3 Pittsburgh 33.1
4 Hartford 31.6
5 Buffalo 23.2
6 Seattle 21.9
7 Philadelphia 20.5
8 St. Louis 17.8
9 Nashville 17.2
10 Portland 15.5
11 Dallas 15.3
12 Kansas City 14.2
13 Memphis 11.1
14 Sacramento 10.8
15 Riverside 10.6
16 Washington, D.C. 10.2
17 Baltimore 9.8
18 Minneapolis 7.7
19 Las Vegas 7.1
20 Louisville 6.4
21 Cincinnati 5.4
22 Providence 4.3
23 New York 4.3
24 Detroit 4.0
United States 3.9
25 Milwaukee 3.7
26 Denver 1.6
27 Los Angeles 1.5
28 New Orleans 1.0
29 Charlotte -1.6
30 Atlanta -2.5
31 Salt Lake City -2.7
32 Raleigh -4.3
33 Cleveland -4.6
34 Houston -5.6
35 Boston -5.7
36 San Diego -6.6
37 Richmond -8.3
38 Birmingham -8.5
39 San Francisco -10.3
40 Virginia Beach -12.0
41 Austin -12.4
42 San Jose -12.5
43 San Antonio -14.2
44 Columbus -15.7
45 Oklahoma City -15.8
46 Jacksonville -20.7
47 Orlando -21.8
48 Tampa -23.0
49 Miami -24.2
50 Phoenix -27.5
Local Funding per Pupil
Dollars per pupil, 2016-2017
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances
1 New York 15,884
2 Philadelphia 13,357
3 Hartford 12,723
4 Boston 12,605
5 Pittsburgh 11,293
6 Washington, D.C. 10,880
7 San Jose 10,720
8 Cleveland 10,420
9 Chicago 10,328
10 Austin 10,083
11 Columbus 9,489
12 Providence 9,136
13 San Francisco 8,678
14 New Orleans 8,666
15 Buffalo 8,397
16 Baltimore 7,970
17 St. Louis 7,704
18 Cincinnati 7,510
19 Dallas 7,066
20 Houston 6,836
United States 6,656
21 San Diego 6,517
22 Milwaukee 6,515
23 Denver 6,216
24 San Antonio 6,024
25 Miami 6,016
26 Atlanta 6,002
27 Portland 5,751
28 Kansas City 5,750
29 Seattle 5,489
30 Louisville 5,439
31 Richmond 5,380
32 Orlando 5,368
33 Detroit 5,338
34 Virginia Beach 5,287
35 Nashville 5,215
36 Minneapolis 5,103
37 Los Angeles 4,874
38 Birmingham 4,593
39 Sacramento 4,541
40 Phoenix 4,509
41 Indianapolis 4,330
42 Oklahoma City 4,136
43 Memphis 4,107
44 Tampa 4,015
45 Jacksonville 3,938
46 Salt Lake City 3,704
47 Charlotte 3,535
48 Riverside 3,448
49 Las Vegas 2,936
50 Raleigh 2,666
Change in Local Funding per Pupil
Percent change in local funding per pupil, 2006-2007 to 2016-2017, adjusted to 2017 dollars
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of School System Finances; Bureau of Labor Statistics
1 Los Angeles 42.4
2 San Jose 31.7
3 San Francisco 31.2
4 New York 27.4
5 Portland 24.6
6 Boston 22.2
7 Hartford 21.9
8 Buffalo 21.7
9 Philadelphia 20.4
10 Seattle 18.4
11 Providence 15.2
12 San Diego 15.2
13 Cleveland 14.3
14 Chicago 14.0
15 St. Louis 12.3
16 Columbus 10.5
17 Pittsburgh 10.5
18 Salt Lake City 10.4
19 San Antonio 8.7
20 Austin 8.1
21 Minneapolis 7.5
22 Nashville 7.4
United States 6.8
23 Riverside 5.5
24 Denver 5.0
25 Houston 4.5
26 Louisville 3.7
27 Cincinnati 0.8
28 Milwaukee -0.9
29 Sacramento -1.1
30 New Orleans -1.4
31 Virginia Beach -1.7
32 Baltimore -2.5
33 Memphis -3.7
34 Washington, D.C. -3.8
35 Phoenix -4.1
36 Oklahoma City -4.9
37 Dallas -5.8
38 Detroit -6.1
39 Richmond -7.9
40 Kansas City -9.1
41 Birmingham -9.3
42 Orlando -11.3
43 Atlanta -16.1
44 Indianapolis -17.9
45 Miami -18.3
46 Jacksonville -21.6
47 Charlotte -23.9
48 Tampa -26.0
49 Las Vegas -32.1
50 Raleigh -57.8

Assessing and comparing the quality of schools is challenging due to the many factors that can affect student success, as well as the multitude of ways states assess the quality of their schools. This section provides rankings for metrics that are associated with the quality of school instruction. St. Louis ranks competitively on these measures collectively, but the learning experiences of schools vary considerably within the region. See Where We Stand 8th Edition White Paper 3 for further discussion.

Pupil-Teacher Ratio
2018-2019
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
1 San Diego 24.4
2 Phoenix 24.0
3 Los Angeles 23.8
4 Riverside 23.7
5 San Jose 22.9
6 Sacramento 22.9
7 Salt Lake City 22.8
8 Las Vegas 22.5
9 San Francisco 22.5
10 Portland 19.4
11 Seattle 18.8
12 Columbus 18.7
13 New Orleans 18.6
14 Miami 18.4
15 Indianapolis 18.2
16 Detroit 18.1
17 Denver 17.8
18 Oklahoma City 17.8
19 Jacksonville 17.7
20 Cincinnati 17.7
21 Cleveland 17.4
22 Birmingham 17.3
23 Orlando 17.0
24 Louisville 16.7
25 Tampa 16.7
26 Memphis 16.7
27 Minneapolis 16.4
28 Milwaukee 16.3
29 Charlotte 16.3
30 Houston 16.0
United States 16.0
31 Raleigh 16.0
32 San Antonio 15.9
33 Richmond 15.8
34 Nashville 15.7
35 Atlanta 15.5
36 Chicago 15.4
37 Dallas 15.2
38 Baltimore 15.2
39 Virginia Beach 15.1
40 Austin 15.0
41 St. Louis 14.7
42 Kansas City 14.6
43 Washington, D.C. 14.6
44 Pittsburgh 14.1
45 Philadelphia 14.0
46 Providence 13.5
47 Buffalo 13.1
48 New York 12.9
49 Boston 12.8
50 Hartford 12.8
New Teachers
Teachers in their first or second year of teaching as a percent of all teachers, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Memphis 51.7
2 Indianapolis 21.4
3 Orlando 20.9
4 San Antonio 20.1
5 Denver 19.0
6 Phoenix 18.8
7 Jacksonville 18.6
8 Dallas 16.2
9 Oklahoma City 15.6
10 Washington, D.C. 15.6
11 New Orleans 15.5
12 Houston 15.4
13 Salt Lake City 15.3
14 Baltimore 15.0
15 Nashville 14.5
16 Columbus 14.3
17 San Francisco 14.0
18 Milwaukee 13.7
19 Minneapolis 13.6
20 Tampa 13.5
21 Kansas City 13.1
Peer Average 13.1
22 Chicago 13.0
23 Austin 12.8
24 San Jose 12.4
25 Boston 12.3
26 Virginia Beach 12.2
27 Richmond 12.2
28 Cincinnati 12.2
29 Cleveland 12.0
30 Philadelphia 11.8
31 Las Vegas 11.3
32 New York 11.3
33 Riverside 11.3
34 St. Louis 11.0
35 San Diego 10.9
36 Atlanta 10.9
37 Louisville 10.8
38 Seattle 10.7
39 Hartford 10.7
40 Buffalo 10.0
41 Birmingham 9.9
42 Sacramento 9.6
43 Portland 9.4
44 Los Angeles 9.1
45 Detroit 9.0
46 Providence 9.0
47 Pittsburgh 7.4
48 Charlotte 7.1
49 Miami 6.3
50 Raleigh 6.2
Relative Wages for Elementary, Middle, and High School Teachers
Ratio of average teacher wage to the average wage of all occupations, 2019
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics
1 Riverside 1.74
2 Virginia Beach 1.44
3 Los Angeles 1.43
4 Buffalo 1.41
5 Pittsburgh 1.37
6 Cleveland 1.35
7 Providence 1.35
8 Detroit 1.32
9 Sacramento 1.32
10 Portland 1.30
11 New York 1.29
12 Jacksonville 1.29
13 San Diego 1.27
14 Columbus 1.26
15 Tampa 1.25
16 Philadelphia 1.25
17 Chicago 1.24
18 Las Vegas 1.24
19 Cincinnati 1.24
20 Memphis 1.23
21 Hartford 1.22
22 NA 1.21
Peer Average 1.21
23 San Antonio 1.20
24 Baltimore 1.20
25 Orlando 1.19
26 Boston 1.18
27 Salt Lake City 1.16
28 Louisville 1.16
29 Milwaukee 1.16
30 San Francisco 1.14
31 Minneapolis 1.13
32 Washington, D.C. 1.12
33 Atlanta 1.11
34 St. Louis 1.11
35 Richmond 1.11
36 Indianapolis 1.10
37 New Orleans 1.10
38 Houston 1.09
39 Dallas 1.09
40 Birmingham 1.09
41 Miami 1.09
42 Kansas City 1.09
43 Nashville 1.08
44 Austin 1.06
45 Seattle 1.04
46 San Jose 1.03
47 Oklahoma City 0.98
48 Charlotte 0.97
49 Raleigh 0.96
50 Denver 0.96
51 Phoenix 0.93
Absent Teachers
Teachers who were absent more than 10 school days during the school year as a percent of all teachers, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Las Vegas 58.6
2 Baltimore 38.5
3 Providence 38.0
4 Virginia Beach 37.3
5 Columbus 36.8
6 Cleveland 35.5
7 Buffalo 35.2
8 Louisville 35.1
9 Hartford 34.1
10 Pittsburgh 34.1
11 Richmond 33.8
12 Raleigh 33.7
13 Birmingham 33.6
14 Seattle 33.2
15 Charlotte 31.6
16 Minneapolis 31.6
17 Oklahoma City 31.3
18 Riverside 30.5
19 Philadelphia 29.4
20 Cincinnati 29.3
21 Portland 29.3
22 Memphis 29.2
23 Atlanta 29.1
24 Kansas City 29.0
25 Houston 28.5
26 Nashville 28.5
27 Miami 27.8
28 Washington, D.C. 27.7
Peer Average 27.4
29 Chicago 27.1
30 New Orleans 26.8
31 Denver 25.7
32 San Diego 25.2
33 New York 25.2
34 San Jose 25.0
35 St. Louis 25.0
36 Boston 24.5
37 Dallas 24.2
38 San Francisco 24.1
39 Indianapolis 24.0
40 Detroit 23.6
41 Tampa 23.5
42 Phoenix 23.5
43 Jacksonville 23.1
44 San Antonio 21.9
45 Milwaukee 21.1
46 Austin 20.4
47 Los Angeles 19.7
48 Salt Lake City 19.5
49 Sacramento 17.5
50 Orlando 11.1

School districts in the St. Louis region are highly segregated, and as a result learning experiences vary considerably by race. The region has a high rate of out of school suspension, and low rate of students enrolled in Advanced Placement courses. The region has fewer students who are chronically absent than most of the peer regions, but there is a wide disparity between races on this metric as well. For a further discussion of learning environments in the St. Louis region, see Where We Stand 8th Edition White Paper 3.

Segregation of School Districts
Black-white student segregation, based on the dissimilarity index, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Cleveland 78.8
2 Milwaukee 77.9
3 Chicago 73.2
4 Buffalo 72.4
5 Detroit 71.2
6 St. Louis 70.6
7 Cincinnati 70.4
8 Indianapolis 69.8
9 Pittsburgh 69.4
10 Boston 68.0
11 New York 67.3
12 Philadelphia 65.1
13 Memphis 61.5
14 Hartford 61.3
15 Columbus 61.2
16 San Francisco 60.9
17 Denver 60.5
18 Birmingham 59.7
Peer Average 59.5
19 Kansas City 58.5
20 Los Angeles 58.3
21 Providence 55.9
22 Oklahoma City 55.6
23 Minneapolis 55.3
24 Nashville 54.4
25 Washington, D.C. 54.3
26 Dallas 52.8
27 Sacramento 51.6
28 New Orleans 50.7
29 Louisville 50.7
30 Houston 49.8
31 Seattle 46.7
32 Baltimore 44.7
33 Jacksonville 43.4
34 Portland 43.0
35 Atlanta 42.9
36 Phoenix 42.6
37 San Diego 42.1
38 Riverside 40.5
39 Virginia Beach 40.0
40 Charlotte 39.4
41 San Antonio 38.0
42 Austin 37.7
43 Richmond 37.2
44 San Jose 35.3
45 Salt Lake City 30.5
46 Orlando 27.7
47 Tampa 25.4
48 Miami 19.8
49 Raleigh 12.1
50 Las Vegas 0.0
Days of School Missed due to Out-of-School Suspension
Days missed per student, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Memphis 0.80
2 Virginia Beach 0.61
3 Buffalo 0.59
4 Richmond 0.57
5 St. Louis 0.50
6 Cleveland 0.50
7 Oklahoma City 0.43
8 Columbus 0.39
9 Charlotte 0.39
10 Raleigh 0.39
11 Detroit 0.38
12 New Orleans 0.38
13 Kansas City 0.36
14 Atlanta 0.35
15 Louisville 0.35
16 Las Vegas 0.32
17 Orlando 0.30
18 Birmingham 0.28
19 Milwaukee 0.28
20 Indianapolis 0.25
21 Philadelphia 0.25
22 Phoenix 0.25
23 Cincinnati 0.25
24 Nashville 0.23
25 Seattle 0.23
26 Jacksonville 0.22
Peer Average 0.22
27 Tampa 0.21
28 Pittsburgh 0.21
29 Baltimore 0.20
30 Washington, D.C. 0.20
31 Hartford 0.18
32 Sacramento 0.18
33 Houston 0.17
34 New York 0.17
35 Dallas 0.17
36 Providence 0.16
37 Riverside 0.16
38 San Antonio 0.16
39 Denver 0.14
40 Chicago 0.14
41 Minneapolis 0.14
42 Portland 0.13
43 San Diego 0.13
44 Austin 0.12
45 Boston 0.11
46 San Francisco 0.10
47 Miami 0.07
48 San Jose 0.07
49 Salt Lake City 0.07
50 Los Angeles 0.06
Chronic Absenteeism
Students who have missed 15 days of school or more as a percent of all students, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Washington, D.C. 25.6
2 Seattle 24.9
3 Portland 24.0
4 Buffalo 22.7
5 Milwaukee 21.5
6 Las Vegas 21.1
7 Louisville 20.9
8 Baltimore 20.9
9 Denver 20.6
10 Cleveland 20.6
11 Detroit 20.4
12 Jacksonville 19.8
13 Tampa 19.8
14 Orlando 19.8
15 Columbus 19.2
16 New York 18.9
17 Providence 18.7
18 Philadelphia 17.8
19 Pittsburgh 17.1
20 Phoenix 16.8
21 Chicago 16.4
22 New Orleans 16.4
23 Cincinnati 15.9
Peer Average 15.8
24 Miami 15.2
25 Salt Lake City 15.0
26 Virginia Beach 14.9
27 Birmingham 14.1
28 Sacramento 14.1
29 Nashville 14.1
30 St. Louis 13.7
31 Minneapolis 13.4
32 Riverside 13.1
33 Boston 13.0
34 Austin 12.9
35 Atlanta 12.7
36 Hartford 12.6
37 San Antonio 12.6
38 Kansas City 12.3
39 Oklahoma City 12.1
40 Indianapolis 11.9
41 Raleigh 11.8
42 Charlotte 11.8
43 San Francisco 11.7
44 Los Angeles 11.5
45 Dallas 11.4
46 San Diego 11.3
47 Houston 10.9
48 San Jose 10.2
49 Memphis 9.6
50 Richmond 9.6
Advanced Placement Enrollment
Percent of high-school students enrolled in advanced placement courses, 2015-2016
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
1 Orlando 31.4
2 San Jose 29.6
3 Washington, D.C. 28.3
4 San Diego